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Of States and Statesmanship: Sid Harth

Princely state

An 1895 group photograph of the eleven year old Krishnaraja Wadiyar
IV, ruler of the princely state of Mysore in South India, with his
brothers and sisters. In 1799, his grandfather, then aged five, had
been granted dominion of Mysore by the British and forced into a
subsidiary alliance. The British later directly governed the state
between 1831 and 1881.

Colonial India

Portuguese India 1510–1961
Dutch India 1605–1825
Danish India 1696–1869
French India 1759–1954
British India 1612–1948

East India Company 1612–1757
Company rule in India 1757–1857
British Raj 1858–1947
British rule in Burma 1826–1948
Princely states 1765–1947
Partition of India 1947

For other uses, see Principality, Other princely states.

A Princely State (also called Native State or Indian State) was a
nominally sovereign[1] entity of British rule in India that was not
directly administered by the British, but rather by an Indian ruler
under a form of indirect rule[2] such as suzerainty or paramountcy.
There were as many as 568 states in India before independence.
[citation needed]

The British Raj and the Native States

The Govindgarh Palace of the Maharaja of Rewa. The palace which was
built as a hunting lodge later became famous for the first white
tigers that were found in the adjacent jungle and raised in the palace
zoo.India under the British Raj or the British Indian Empire consisted
of two divisions: British India and the Native States or Princely
states. In its Interpretation Act of 1889, the British Parliament
adopted the following definitions:[3]

The expression British India shall mean all territories and places
within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed
by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India, or through any
Governor or other officer subordinate to the Governor-General of
India. The expression India shall mean British India together with any
territories of a Native Prince or Chief under the suzerainty of Her
Majesty, exercised through the Governor-General of India, or through
any Governor or other officer subordinate to the Governor-General of
India. (52 & 53 Vict. cap. 63, sec. 18)

(In general the term "British India" had been used (and is still used)
to also refer to the regions under the rule of the British East India
Company in India from 1600 to 1858.[4] The term has also been used to
refer to the "British in India."[5])

Suzerainty over 175 Princely States, some of the largest and most
important, was exercised (in the name of the British Crown) by central
government of British India under the Viceroy; the remaining,
approximately 500, states were dependents of the provincial
governments of British India under a Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, or
Chief Commissioner (as the case might have been).[6] A clear
distinction between "dominion" and "suzerainty" was supplied by the
jurisdiction of the courts of law: the law of British India rested
upon the laws passed by the British Parliament and the legislative
powers those laws vested in the various governments of British India,
both central and local; in contrast, the courts of the Princely States
existed under the authority of the respective rulers of those states.
[6]

Princely status and titles

The Nawab of Junagadh Bhadur Khan III (seated center in an ornate
chair) shown in a 1885 photograph with state officials and family.The
Indian rulers bore various titles — including Maharaja ("great king"),
Badshah ("emperor"), Raja ("king"), Nawab ("governor"), Nizam, Wāli,
and many others. Whatever the literal meaning and traditional prestige
of the ruler's actual title, the British government translated them
all as "prince," in order to avoid the implication that the native
rulers could be "kings" with status equal to that of the British
monarch.

Some Hindu rulers used the title Thakur or its variant Thakore.

More prestigious Hindu rulers (mostly existing before the Mughal
Empire, or having split from such old states) often used the title
"Raja," or a variant such as "Rana," "Rao," "Rawat" or "Rawal." Also
in this 'class' were several Thakur sahibs and a few particular
titles, such as Sar Desai.

The most prestigious Hindu rulers usually had the prefix
"maha" ("great", compare for example Grand duke) in their titles, as
in Maharaja, Maharana, Maharao, etc. The states of Travancore and
Cochin had queens regnant styled Maharani, generally the female forms
applied only to sisters, spouses and widows, who could however act as
regents.

There were also compound titles, such as (Maha)rajadhiraj, Raj-i-
rajgan, often relics from an elaborate system of hierarchical titles
under the Mughal emperors. For example, the addition of the adjective
Bahadur raised the status of the titleholder one level.

Furthermore most dynasties used a variety of additional titles, such
as Varma in South India. This should not be confused with various
titles and suffixes not specific to princes but used by entire (sub)
castes.

The Sikh princes concentrated at Punjab, usually adopted Hindu type
titles when attaining princely rank; at a lower level Sardar was used.

Muslim rulers almost all used the title "Nawab" (the Arabic honorific
of naib, "deputy," used of the Mughal governors, who became de facto
autonomous with the decline of the Mughal Empire), with the prominent
exceptions of the Nizam of Hyderabad & Berar, the Wāli/Khan of Kalat
and the Wāli of Swat. Other less usual titles included Darbar Sahib,
Dewan, Jam, Mehtar (unique to Chitral) and Mir (from Emir).

Precedence and prestige

Photograph (1900) of the Maharani of Sikkim. Sikkim was under the
suzerainty of the Provincial government of Bengal; its ruler received
a 15-gun salute.However, the actual importance of a princely state
cannot be read from the title of its ruler, which was usually granted
(or at least recognised) as a favour, often in recognition for loyalty
and services rendered historically by the Mughal emperor, and later by
the British rulers succeeding it as paramount power (first the HEIC,
de facto; later the British crown, and ultimately assuming the style
Emperor of India as successor to the emperor of the abolished Mughal
realm). Although some titles were raised once or even repeatedly,
there was no automatic updating when a state gained or lost real
power. In fact, princely titles were even awarded to holders of
domains (mainly jagirs) and even zamindars (tax collectors), which
were not states at all. Various sources give significantly different
numbers of states and domains of the various types. Even in general,
the definition of titles and domains are clearly not well-established.
There is also no strict relation between the levels of the titles and
the classes of gun salutes, the real measure of precedence, but merely
a growing percentage of higher titles in classes with more guns.

The gun salute system was used to set unambiguously the precedence of
the major rulers in the area in which the British East India Company
was active, or generally of the states and their dynasties. Princely
rulers were entitled to be saluted by the firing of an odd number of
guns between three and 21, with a greater number of guns indicating
greater prestige. (There were many minor rulers who were not entitled
to any gun salutes, and as a rule the majority of gun-salute princes
had at least nine, with numbers below that usually the prerogative of
Arab coastal Sheikhs also under British protection.) Generally, the
number of guns remained the same for all successive rulers of a
particular state, but individual princes were sometimes granted
additional guns on a personal basis. Furthermore, rulers were
sometimes granted additional gun salutes within their own territories
only, constituting a semi-promotion.

While the states of all these rulers (about 120) were known as salute
states, there were far more so-called non-salute states of lower
prestige, and even more princes (in the broadest sense of the term)
not even acknowledged as such. On the other hand, the dynasties of
certain defunct states were allowed to keep their princely status —
they were known as Political Pensioners. Though none of these princes
were awarded gun salutes, princely titles in this category were
recognised as among certain vassals of salute states, and were not
even in direct relation with the paramount power.

After independence, the (Hindu) Maharana of Udaipur displaced the
Nizam of Hyderabad as the most senior prince in India, and the style
Highness was extended to all rulers entitled to 9-gun salutes. When
these dynasties had been integrated into the Indian Union they were
promised continued privileges and an income, known as the Privy Purse,
for their upkeep. Subsequently, when the Indian government abolished
the Privy Purse in 1971, the whole princely order ceased to exist
under Indian law, although many families continue to retain their
social prestige informally; some descendants are still prominent in
regional or national politics, diplomacy, business and high society.

At the time of Indian independence, only five rulers — the Nizam of
Hyderabad, the Maharaja of Mysore, the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir
state, the Maharaja Gaekwad of Baroda and the Maharaja Scindia of
Gwalior — were entitled to a 21-gun salute. Five more rulers — the
Nawab of Bhopal, the Maharaja Holkar of Indore, the Maharana of
Udaipur, the Maharaja of Kolhapur and the Maharaja of Travancore —
were entitled to 19-gun salutes. The most senior princely ruler was
the (Muslim) Nizam of Hyderabad, who was entitled to the unique style
Exalted Highness. Other princely rulers entitled to salutes of 11 guns
(soon 9 guns too) or more were entitled to the style Highness. No
special style was used by rulers entitled to lesser gun salutes.

As paramount ruler, and successor to the Mughals, the British King-
Emperor of India, for whom the style of Majesty was reserved, was
entitled to an 'imperial' 101-gun salute — in the European tradition
also the number of guns fired to announce the birth of a (male) heir
to the throne.

All princely rulers were eligible to be appointed to certain British
orders of chivalry associated with India, The Most Exalted Order of
the Star of India and The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire.
Even women could be appointed as "Knights" (instead of Dames) of these
orders. Rulers entitled to 21-gun and 19-gun salutes were normally
appointed to the highest rank possible (Knight Grand Commander of the
Order of the Star of India).

Many Indian princes served in the British army (as others in local
guard or police forces), often rising to the high official ranks; some
even served while on the throne. Many of these were appointed as ADC
etc., either to the ruling prince of their own house (in the case of
relatives of such rulers) or indeed to the British King-Emperor. Many
also saw action, both on the subcontinent and on other fronts, during
both World Wars.

It was also not unusual for members of princely houses to be appointed
to various colonial offices, often far from their native state, or to
enter the diplomatic corps.

The doctrine of lapse

A controversial aspect of Company rule was the doctrine of lapse, a
policy under which lands whose feudal ruler had died (or otherwise
become unfit to rule) without an heir would become directly controlled
by the company. This policy went counter to Indian tradition where
unlike Europe it was far more the accepted norm for a ruler to appoint
his own heir.

The doctrine of lapse was pursued most vigorously by the Governor-
General Sir James Ramsay, 10th Earl (later 1st Marquess) of Dalhousie.
Dalhousie annexed seven states, including the Maratha states of
Nagpur, Jhansi, Satara and Awadh (Oudh), whose Nawabs he had accused
of misrule. Resentment over the annexation of these states turned to
indignation when the heirlooms of the Maharajas of Nagpur were
auctioned off in Calcutta. Dalhousie's actions contributed to the
rising discontent amongst the upper castes which played a large part
in the outbreak of the Indian rebellion of 1857. The last Mughal
Badshah (emperor), whom many of the mutineers saw as a figurehead to
rally around, was deposed following its suppression.

In response to the unpopularity of the doctrine, it was discontinued
with the end of company rule and the formation of the Indian Empire,
and no further states were absorbed in such a way.

Colonial governance

Photograph (1894) of the 19-year old Maharajah of Kohlapur visiting
the British resident and his staff at the Residency.By the beginning
of the 20th century, the four largest states — Hyderabad State,
Mysore, Jammu and Kashmir, and Baroda — were directly under the
authority of the Governor-General of India, in the person of a British
Resident. Two agencies, Rajputana Agency and Central India Agency,
oversaw 20 and 148 princely states, respectively. The remaining
princely states had political officers, or Agents, who answered to the
administrators of India's provinces. Five princely states were then
under the authority of Madras, 354 under Bombay, 26 of Bengal, 2 under
Assam, 34 under Punjab, 15 under Central Provinces and Berar and 2
under United Provinces.

By the early 1930s, the British took over the state whose king had
died (Doctrine of Lapse). Most of the princely states under the
authority of India's provinces were organised into new agencies,
answerable to the Governor-general, on the model of the Central India
- and Rajputana agencies: the Eastern States Agency, Punjab States
Agency, Baluchistan Agency, Deccan States Agency, Madras States Agency
and the Northwest Frontier States Agency. The Baroda residency was
combined with the princely states of northern Bombay Presidency into
the Baroda, Western States and Gujarat Agency. Gwalior was separated
from the Central India Agency and placed under its own Resident, and
the states of Rampur and Benares, formerly under the authority of the
United Provinces, were placed under the Gwalior Residency in 1936. The
princely states of Sandur and Banganapalle in Mysore Presidency were
transferred to the authority of the Mysore Resident in 1939.

A short list of Native States in 1909

The native states in 1909 included five large states that were in
"direct political relations" with the Government of India. Of these,
Nepal, differed from others, in that it was independent in its
internal administration, but was represented internationally by the
Government of India.[7] For the complete list of princely states in
1947, see List of Indian Princely States.

Under suzerainty of the Central Government

Five large Princely States in direct political relations with the
Central Government in India[7]

Name of Princely State Area in Square Miles Population in 1901
Approximate Revenue of the State (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title,
ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for Ruler Designation of
local political officer

Hyderabad 82,698 approx. 11.14 million (Hindus and Muslims) 359 Nizam,
Turk, Sunni Muslim 21 Resident in Hyderabad

Mysore 29,444 5.53 million (mostly Hindu) 190 Maharaja, Rajput, Hindu
21 Resident in Mysore

Baroda 8,099 1.95 million (chiefly Hindu) 123 Maharaja, Maratha, Hindu
21 Resident at Baroda

Kashmir and Jammu 80,900 2.91 million including Gilgit, Baltistan
(Skardu), Ladakh,

Chitral and Punch (Muslims, Hindus and Buddhists) 87 Maharaja, Dogra
Rajput, Hindu 19 (21 within Kashmir) Resident in Kashmir
Total 445,891 25.54 million 909


Central India Agency, Rajputana Agency and the Baluchistan Agency

Please expand to view the tables for the three Agencies under the
Central government

148 Princely States forming the Central India Agency[8]

Name of Princely State Area in Square Miles Population in 1901
Approximate Revenue of the State (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title,
ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for Ruler Designation of
local political officer

Gwalior 25,041 2.93 million (Chiefly Hindus) 163 Maharaja, Maratha,
Hindu 19 (21 within Gwalior) Resident at Gwalior

Indore 9,500 0.85 million (Chiefly Hindu) 72 Maharaja, Maratha, Hindu
19 (21 within Indore) Resident at Indore

Bhopal 6,859 0.66 million (mostly Hindu) 29 Nawab(m)/Begum(f), Afghan,
Muslim 19 (21 within Bhopal) Political Agent in Bhopal

Rewah 13,000 1.33 million (chiefly Hindu) 29 Maharaja, Baghel Rajput,
Hindu 17 Political agent in Baghelkhand

144 smaller and minor states 22,995 2.74 million (Chiefly Hindu)
129
Total 77,395 8.51 million 421

20 Princely States forming the Rajputana Agency[9]

Name of Princely State Area in Square Miles Population in 1901
Approximate Revenue of the State (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title,
ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for Ruler Designation of
local political officer

Udaipur (Mewar) 12,691 1.02 million (Chiefly Hindus and Bhils) 24
Maharana, Sisodia Rajput, Hindu 21 (including two guns personal to the
then ruler) Resident in Mewar

Jaipur 15,579 2.66 million (Chiefly Hindu) 62 Maharaja, Kachwaha
Rajput, Hindu 21 (including two guns personal to the then ruler)
Resident at Jaipur

Jodhpur (Marwar) 34,963 1.94 million (mostly Hindu) 56 Maharaja,
Rathor Rajput, Hindu 17 Resident in the Western States of Rajputana

Bikaner 23,311 0.58 million (chiefly Hindu) 23 Maharaja, Rathor
Rajput, Hindu 17 Political agent in Bikaner

16 other states 42,374 3.64 million (Chiefly Hindu) 155
Total 128,918 9.84 million 320

2 Princely States forming the Baluchistan Agency[10]

Name of Princely State Area in Square Miles Population in 1901
Approximate Revenue of the State (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title,
ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for Ruler Designation of
local political officer

Kalat 71,593 0.37 million (Chiefly Sunni Muslims) 8 Khan or Wali,
Brahui, Sunni Muslim 19 Political Agent in Kalat

Las Bela 6,441 56 thousand (Chiefly Sunni Muslim) 2 Jam, Kureshi Arab,
Sunni Muslim Political Agent in Kalat
Total 78,034 0.43 million 10

Under a Provincial Government

Burma (52 States)

52 States in Burma: all except the Karen States were included in
British India[11]

Name of Princely State Area in Square Miles Population in 1901
Approximate Revenue of the State (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title,
ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for Ruler Designation of
local political officer

Hsipaw (Thibaw) 5,086 105,000 (Buddhist) 3 Sawbwa, Shan, Buddhist 9
Superintendent, Northern Shan States

Kengtung 12,000 190,000 (Buddhist) 1 Sawbwa, Shan, Buddhist 9
Superintendent Southern Shan States

Mongnai 2,717 44,000 (Buddhist) 0.5 Sawbwa, Shan, Buddhist 9
Superintendent Southern Shan States

5 Karen States 4,830 45,795 (Buddhist and Animists) 0.5
Superintendent Southern Shan States

44 Other States 42,198 792,152 (Buddhist and Animist) 8.5
Total 67,011 1,177,987 13.5

Other states under provincial governments

Please expand to view the tables for other states under Provincial
Governments

30 States under the suzerainty of the Provincial Government of Bengal
[12]

Name of Princely State Area in Square Miles Population in 1901
Approximate Revenue of the State (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title,
ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for Ruler Designation of
local political officer

Sikkim 2,818 59,014 (chiefly Buddhist and Hindu) 1 Maharaja, Tibetan,
Buddhist 15 Political Officer, Sikkim

Cooch Behar 1,307 566,974 (chiefly Hindu and Muslim) 24 Maharaja,
Kshattriya, Brahmo 13 Commissioner of Rajshahi (ex officio Political
Agent)

Hill Tippera 4,086 173,325 (chiefly Hindu) 7 Raja, Kshattriya, Hindu
13 Commissioner of Chittagong (ex officio Political Agent)

Bhutan 20,000 250,000 (Buddhist) 2 Deb Raja, Bhotia, Buddhist
Commissioner of Rajshahi (ex officio Political Agent)

26 Other States 30,441 2,949,231 44
Total 58,652 3,998,544 78

Madras (5 States)

5 States under the suzerainty of the Provincial Government of Madras
[10]

Name of Princely State Area in Square Miles Population in 1901
Approximate Revenue of the State (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title,
ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for Ruler Designation of
local political officer

Travancore 7,091 2,952,157 (chiefly Hindu and Christian) 100 Maharaja,
Kshatriya-Samanthan, Hindu 21 (including two guns personal to the then
ruler) Resident in Travancore and Cochin

Cochin 1,362 812,025 (chiefly Hindu and Christian) 27 Raja, Samanta-
Kshatriya, Hindu 17 Resident in Travancore and Cochin

Padukkottai 1,100 380,440 (Hindu) 11 Raja, Kallar, Hindu 11 Collector
of Trichinopoly (ex officio Political Agent)

2 minor states (Banganapalle and Sandur) 416 43,464 3
Total 9,969 4,188,086 141

(354 States)

354 states under the suzerainty of the Provincial Government of Bombay
[13]

Name of Princely State Area in Square Miles Population in 1901
Approximate Revenue of the State (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title,
ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for Ruler Designation of
local political officer

Kolhapur 2,855 910,011 (chiefly Hindus) 48 Maharaja, Kshatriya, Hindu
19 Political Agent for Kolhapur

Cutch 7,616 488,022 (chiefly Hindus) 20 Maharao, Jadeja Rajput, Hindu
17 Political Agent in Cutch

Khairpur 6,050 199,313 (chiefly Muslims) 13 Mir, Talpur Baloch, Muslim
15 Political Agent for Khairpur

Junagarh 3,284 395,428 (chiefly Hindus) 27 Nawab, Pathan, Muslim 11
Agent to the Governor in Kathiawar

Navanagar 3,791 336,779 (chiefly Hindus) 31 Jam Sahib, Jadeja Rajput,
Hindu 11 Agent to the Governor in Kathiawar

349 other states 42,165 4,579,095 281
Total 65,761 6,908,648 420

United Provinces (2 States)

Two states under the suzerainty of the Provincial Government of the
United Provinces[14]

Name of Princely State Area in Square Miles Population in 1901
Approximate Revenue of the State (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title,
ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for Ruler Designation of
local political officer

Rampur 899 533,212 (chiefly Hindus and Muslims) 33 Nawab, Pathan,
Muslim 13 Commissioner for Bareilly (ex officio Political Agent)

Tehri (Garhwal) 4,180 268,885 (chiefly Hindus) 3 Raja, Rajput Hindu 11
Commissioner of Kumaun (ex officio Political Agent)
Total 5,079 802,097 36

Central Provinces (15 States)

15 States under the suzerainty of the Provincial Government of the
Central Provinces[15]

Name of Princely State Area in Square Miles Population in 1901
Approximate Revenue of the State (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title,
ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for Ruler Designation of
local political officer

Kalahandi 3,745 284,465 (chiefly Hindus) 4 Raja, Rajput, Hindu 9
Political Agent for the Chattisgarh Feudatories

Bastar 13,062 306,501 (chiefly Animists) 3 Raja, Kshatriya, Hindu
Political Agent for the Chattisgarh Feudatories

13 other states 12,628 1,339,353 (chiefly Hindus) 16 11
Total 29,435 1,996,383 21

Punjab (34 States)

34 states under the suzerainty of the Provincial Government of the
Punjab[16]

Name of Princely State Area in Square Miles Population in 1901
Approximate Revenue of the State (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title,
ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for Ruler Designation of
local political officer

Bahawalpur 15,000 720,877 (chiefly Muslims) 24 Nawab, Daudputra,
Muslim 17 Political Agent for Phulkian States and Bahawalpur
Patiala 5,412 1,596,692 (chiefly Hindus and Sikhs) 57 Maharaja, Sidhu
Jat, Sikh 17 Political Agent for Phulkian States and Bahawalpur

Nabha 928 297,949 (chiefly Hindus and Sikhs) 12 Raja, Sidhu Jat, Sikh
15 (including 4 guns personal to the then ruler Political Agent for
Phulkian States and Bahawalpur
Jind 1,259 282,003 (chiefly Hindus and Sikhs) 15 Raja, Sidhu Jat, Sikh
11 Political Agent for Phulkian States and Bahawalpur

Kapurthala 630 314,351 (chiefly Muslims and Hindus) 13 Raja, Ahluwalia
Kolal, Sikh 11 Commissioner of the Jullundur Division (ex-officio
Political Agent)

Faridkot 642 124,912 (Sikhs, Hindus, and Muslims) 4 Raja, Barar Jat,
Sikh 11 Commissioner of the Jullundur Division (ex-officio Political
Agent)

28 other states 12,661 1,087,614 30
Total 36,532 4,424,398 155

Assam (26 States)

26 States under the suzerainty of the Provincial Government of Assam
[17]

Name of Princely State Area in Square Miles Population in 1901
Approximate Revenue of the State (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title,
ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for Ruler Designation of
local political officer

Manipur 8,456 284,465 (chiefly Hindus and Animists) 4 Raja, Kshatriya,
Hindu 11 Political Agent in Manipur

25 Khasi States 3,900 110,519 (Khasis and Christians) 0.5 Deputy
Commissioner, Khasi and Jaintia Hills
Total 12,356 394,984 4.5

Accession

After independence in 1947, the princely states were forced to accede
— and thus sign away their political autonomy — either to the secular,
mainly Hindu dominion of India or the majority Islamic dominion of
Pakistan (consisting of West Pakistan and East Pakistan; the latter
would later break away as Bangladesh). The accession was to be chosen
by its ruling Prince, not by the population, akin to the 16th century
European principle of cuius regio eius religio — though, in practice,
there were exceptions to this rule. Most acceded peacefully, except
for four: Junagadh, Hyderabad, Jammu and Kashmir and Tripura.

Junagadh, the largest state in the Kathiawar peninsula (now in
Gujarat), was a princely state with a Muslim ruler over a Hindu
majority. It had originally announced to join Pakistan by its Nawab
Muhammad Mahabat Khanji III. He was traveling in Pakistan's capital
Karachi to sign the treaty of accession when the Indian Army, with the
support of Junagadh's Hindu majority, took over control of the state.
The Nawab fled into exile and the Indian-appointed Prime Minister of
the state announced its merger with India.

In Hyderabad, a similar fate befell a Muslim dynasty which had been
the highest in rank since the abolition of the Mughals at Delhi and
the Kingdom of Oudh. The Muslim ruler of Hyderbad Osman Ali Khan, Asaf
Jah VII, the last Nizam, and his followers, Razakars, wished to remain
independent. The Indian Government carried out the so called
“Hyderabad Police Action” against the Nizam. Code-named “Operation
Polo” by the Indian military, this action by the Indian armed forces'
ended the rule of the Nizams of Hyderabad and led to the incorporation
of the princely state of Hyderabad into the Indian Union.

Jammu and Kashmir had a Muslim majority but was ruled by a Hindu Raja.
The Muslim League-dominated legislative assembly issued one statement
that represented the will of the Muslim people: “After carefully
considering the position, the conference has arrived at the conclusion
that accession of the State to Pakistan is absolutely necessary in
view of the geographic, economic, linguistic, cultural and religious
conditions… It is therefore necessary that the State should accede to
Pakistan."

The Maharaja Hari Singh, reluctant, would have preferred to remain
independent, but was advised by his later Prime Minister, Mehr Chand
Mahajan, that a landlocked country such as Kashmir would be soon
engulfed by foreign powers such as the USSR or China[18].

However, M.A. Jinnah, creator and Governor-General of Pakistan,
included Kashmir in his concept of Pakistan. The British-controlled
Gilgit Scouts staged a rebellion in the Northern Areas, as a result of
which this region became effectively a part of Pakistan, unilaterally
without a referendum and is up to the present being administered by
Pakistan as a part of Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (POK)

The Tribal Kabailis of the North West Frontier Province attacked and
ravaged Kashmir proper, with the help of the Pakistan armed forces
which were still controlled and administered by British officers.

With an independence no longer an option, the Maharaja now turned to
India, requesting troops for safeguarding Kashmir. Though Indian Prime
Minister Nehru was ready to send the troops, the acting Governor
General of India, Lord Mountbatten of Burma advised the Maharaja to
accede to India before she can send her troops. Hence, considering the
emergency situation he signed the instrument of accession to the Union
of India. However, evidence proved that long before the Maharaja could
meet the Indian Prime Minister, Nehru, and sign the instrument of
accession,India had sent forces into Kashmir. After not being able to
push back the Pakistani tribals and people of Gilgit, Nehru under
Mountbatten's advise took the matter to the UN, insisting that Jammu
and Kashmir's accession to India was legal,the UN did not agree and
Nehru promised the people of Kashmir the choice to join either India
or Pakistan after a plebiscite and also mentioned, "If the people
don't want to be part of the Indian union, then even though it might
hurt us, we will accept their choice."

United Nations Security Council Resolution 47 was adopted on 21 April
1948, stating that "(...) After hearing arguments from both India and
Pakistan, the Council increased the size of the Commission established
by United Nations Security Council Resolution 39 to five members,
instructed the Commission to go to the subcontinent and help the
governments of India and Pakistan restore peace and order to the
region and prepare for a plebiscite to decide the fate of Kashmir".

The resolution further recommended that in order to ensure the
impartiality of the plebiscite, Pakistan withdraw all tribesmen and
nationals who entered the region for the purpose of fighting, and that
India to also remove all her troops. The Commission was also to send
as many observers into the region as it deemed necessary to ensure the
provisions of the resolution were enacted" [1].

In practice, the resolution failed to resolve the problem, which
remains unresolved up to the present. At the time and up to the
present, Pakistanis and Kashmiri separatists accused India of having
acted with a double standard - i.e., acting according to the wish of a
majority Hindu population where the ruler was Muslim (as in the case
of Junagadh) and according to the wishes of the Hindu ruler where the
majority population was Muslim. (As Kashmir was no longer a Princely
state, further developments fall outside the scope of the present
page, and can be found in Kashmir#Post-1948 developments).

Tripura remained an independent kingdom after the Partition of India,
until it joined India 2 years later under the Tripura Merger
Agreement.

Post-independence

India

On accession by a princely state, its territories and administrations
merged into the Union of India. The rulers of the princely states were
allowed to retain their hereditary titles and official residences.
Depending upon their size, importance and revenue they were also
allowed to retain additional properties and given privy purses (in
compensation of the state's revenue which now would go the new Union).
On abolition of the privy purse (and the right to the hereditary
titles) by the government in 1971 the princely states ceased to exist
as recognised political entities.

Mohammed Abdul Ali Azim Jah, the former Prince of Arcot, is the only
former royal in India who was not affected by the abolition of privy
purses. In the order of precedence, he enjoys the rank of cabinet
minister of the state of Tamil Nadu.

The former Nawab hails from a family that traces its lineage back to
the second caliph, Umar ibn al-Khattāb. The title 'Prince of Arcot',
uniquely using the European style prince, was conferred on his
ancestor by the British government in 1870 after the post of Nawab of
the Carnatic (a title granted by the Mughal emperor) was abolished.

Former states sometimes still maintain and observe their ceremonies,
forms of address etc. either as family traditions or as popular folk-
customs. For example, processions during the popular Gangaur festival
in Jaipur begin, as per tradition, from the City Palace, which remains
the private residence of its former royal family.

Devgadh Baria was one of the princely states in western India which is
planned on European town planning principles along with controlled
architectural character at selected junctions in the town. The town is
surrounded by about 250 mt high hills on three sides which dominate
its skyline.

Pakistan

After independence, a new hereditary salute of 15 guns was granted in
1966 by President Ayub Khan, for the Wali of Swat, ruler of one of the
last princely states to be created (1926). Before that, there were
four Gun-Salute States in Pakistan: Bahawalpur, Chitral, Kalat, and
Khairpur. A few lesser non-salute states also acceded to Pakistan,
including Dir, Kharan, and Amb. In present-day Pakistan's tribal
region in the North-West Frontier Province, the princely states were
maintained until 1971, when all states were abolished by merger into
the republic; all princely titles were abolished in 1972.

Kashmir was under a Maharaja, and is disputed and divided with India.

Other princely states

British Empire: Princely states existed elsewhere in the British
Empire. Some of these were considered by the Colonial Office (or
earlier by the BHEIC) as satellites of, and usually points of support
on the naval routes to, British India, some important enough to be
raised to the status of salute states.

A number of Arab states around the Persian Gulf, including Oman, the
present-day United Arab Emirates and Kuwait, were British
protectorates under native rulers.
On the Malay peninsula a number of states, known as the Malay states,
were administered by local rulers, who recognized British sovereignty;
they still reign, but now constitutionally, in most constitutive
states of modern Malaysia.

Netherlands: Indirect rule through princely states (or even mere
tribal chieftaincies) was also practiced in other European nations'
colonial empires. An example is the Dutch East Indies (modern
Indonesia), which had dozens of local rulers (mainly Malay and Muslim,
others tribal, Hindu or animist). The colonial term in Dutch was
regentschap 'regency', but did not apply to lower-level fiefs.

It is not customary to use the term princely state, although it would
be technically correct, for western principalities, neither in the
feudal past (there were many, especially in the Holy Roman Empire, see
Fürst) nor for the presently independent Principality of Monaco or
Principality of Liechtenstein, nor for non-sovereign entities referred
to as principalities such as Wales.

See also

See List of Indian Princely States for a list of Indian princely
states at the time of Indian Independence

Prince and Principality for information on princely styles worldwide

Notes

^ Ramusack 2004, pp. 85 Quote:

"The British did not create the Indian princes. Before and during the
European penetration of India, indigenous rulers achieved dominance
through the military protection they provided to dependents and their
skill in acquiring revenues to maintain their military and
administrative organisations. Major Indian rulers exercised varying
degrees and types of sovereign powers before they entered treaty
relations with the British. What changed during the late eighteenth
and early nineteenth centuries is that the British increasingly
restricted the sovereignty of Indian rulers. The Company set
boundaries; it extracted resources in the form of military personnel,
subsidies or tribute payments, and the purchase of commercial goods at
favourable prices, and limited opportunities for other alliances. From
the 1810s onwards as the British expanded and consolidated their
power, their centralised military despotism dramatically reduced the
political options of Indian rulers. (p. 85)"

^ Ramusack 2004, p. 87 Quote:

"The British system of indirect rule over Indian states ... provided
a model for the efficient use of scarce monetary and personnel
resources that could be adopted to imperial acquisitions in Malaya and
Africa. (p. 87)"

^ Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, pp. 59-60

^ 1. Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume IV, published under the
authority of the Secretary of State for India-in-Council, 1909, Oxford
University Press. page 5. Quote:

"The history of British India falls, as observed by Sir C. P. Ilbert
in his Government of India, into three periods. From the beginning of
the seventeenth century to the middle of the eighteenth century the
East India Company is a trading corporation, existing on the
sufferance of the native powers and in rivalry with the merchant
companies of Holland and France. During the next century the Company
acquires and consolidates its dominion, shares its sovereignty in
increasing proportions with the Crown, and gradually loses its
mercantile privileges and functions. After the mutiny of 1857 the
remaining powers of the Company are transferred to the Crown, and then
follows an era of peace in which India awakens to new life and
progress."

2. The Statutes: From the Twentieth Year of King Henry the Third to
the ... by Robert Harry Drayton, Statutes of the Realm - Law - 1770
Page 211 (3)

"Save as otherwise expressly provided in this Act, the law of British
India and of the several parts thereof existing immediately before the
appointed ..."

3. Edney, M.E. (1997) Mapping an Empire: The Geographical Construction
of British India, 1765-1843, University of Chicago Press. 480 pages.
ISBN 9780226184883 4. Hawes, C.J. (1996)

Poor Relations: The Making of a Eurasian Community in British India,
1773-1833. Routledge, 217 pages. ISBN 0700704256.

^ Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. II 1908, p. 463,470 Quote1: "Before
passing on to the political history of British India, which properly
begins with the Anglo-French Wars in the Carnatic, ... (p.463)"
Quote2: "The political history of the British in India begins in the
eighteenth century with the French Wars in the Carnatic. (p.471)"

^ a b Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, p. 60

^ a b Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, p. 92

^ Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, p. 93

^ Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, pp. 94-95

^ a b Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, p. 96

^ Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, p. 101

^ Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, p. 98

^ Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, p. 97

^ Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, p. 99

^ Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, p. 102

^ Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, p. 100

^ Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, p. 103

^ Victoria Schofield. Kashmir in conflict: India, Pakistan and the
unending war.

References

Copland, Ian (2002), Princes of India in the Endgame of Empire,
1917-1947, (Cambridge Studies in Indian History & Society). Cambridge
and London: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 316, ISBN 0521894360,

http://www.amazon.com/Princes-Endgame-19171947-Cambridge-Studies/dp/0521894360/
.

Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. II (1908), The Indian Empire,
Historical, Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary
of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp.
xxxv, 1 map, 573.

Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. III (1907), The Indian Empire,
Economic (Chapter X: Famine, pp. 475–502, Published under the
authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council,
Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp. xxxvi, 1 map, 520.

Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV (1907), The Indian Empire,
Administrative, Published under the authority of His Majesty's
Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon
Press. Pp. xxx, 1 map, 552.

Ramusack, Barbara (2004), The Indian Princes and their States (The New
Cambridge History of India), Cambridge and London: Cambridge
University Press. Pp. 324, ISBN 0521039894,

http://www.amazon.com/Indian-Princes-States-Cambridge-History/dp/0521267277

External links

Exclusively on Indian princely states and domains at Queensland
University

ROYAL AND NOBLE LINEAGES

Welcome to the website devoted to Royalty and nobility in countries
outside of Europe. Feel free to click on any of the links in the left
hand panel to select the country of your interest. The amount of
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258606 accesses since 10th of April 1996

http://uqconnect.net/~zzhsoszy/

Indian Princely states and their History and detailed Genealogy -
Royalark

The Golden Book of India: A Genealogical and Biographical Dictionary
of the Ruling

Princes, Chiefs, Nobles, and Other Personages, Titled or Decorated, of
the Indian

Empire, by Sir Roper Lethbridge 1893.(Full Text)

Exhaustive lists of rulers and heads of government, and some
biographies.

WorldStatesmen Exhaustive lists of rulers and heads of government, and
many legal dates.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Princely_State

...and I am Sid Harth
Sid Harth
2010-02-03 17:22:02 UTC
Permalink
NAME OF STATE TYPE UPDATED

ACHLAVDA Jagir - Pratapgarh 1-7-2002
ACHROL Thikana - Jaipur 1-1-2004
ADESAR (SANTALPUR) PS 1-7-2002
AGAR PS 10-9-2002
AGORI-BARHAR Zamindari 11-10-2005
AGRA BARKHERA PS 10-9-2002
AHIRWAL Thikana 1-7-2002
AHMEDNAGAR ? 26-3-2002
AHOR Thikana - Jodhpur 24-5-2002
AIYAVEJ PS 1-7-2002
AJABPUR Zamindari 16-7-2005
AJAIGARH PS 10-9-2002
AJAR Thikana - Jodhpur? 1-7-2002
AJITSINGHI Jagir - Jodhpur? 1-7-2002
AJRAODA PS 10-9-2002
AKADIA PS 1-7-2002
AKALKOT PS 10-9-2002
AKALTARA
Zamindari
3-9-2006

AKNUR or AKHNOOR Zamindari 24-4-2003
ALAMPUR (DEWANI) PS 1-7-2002
ALANIAWAS Jagir - Jodhpur 22-3-2002
ALELAL Jagir - Kashmir 30-9-2003
ALI RAJPUR PS 10-9-2002
ALIDHRA (Amra Moka Estate) Mendarda PS 28-5-2003
ALIPURA PS 25-5-2003
ALMORA PS - Uttar Pradesh 1-7-2002
ALSISAR Thikana - Jaipur 1-1-2004
ALWA PS 1-7-2002
ALWAR PS 20-1-2002
AMALA PS 10-9-2002
AMARCHINTA Zamindari - Hyderabad 14-4-2002
AMARGADH Thikana - Udaipur 10-3-2002
AMARGARH Thikana - Karauli 13-2-2005
AMARKOT Thikana?? - Pakistan 1-10-2002
AMARNAGAR THANA DEVLI PS 28-5-2003
AMB PS - Pakistan 20-1-2002
AMBAO PS 1-7-2002
AMBLIARA PS 22-3-2002
AMBIRAMA Jagir - Pratapgarh 1-7-2002
AMET Thikana - Udaipur 10-3-2002
AMETHI Thikana - Uttar Pradesh 19-9-2002
AMLA Jagir - Gwalior 1-1-2004
AMLETA Thikana - Ratlam
30-9-2007
AMMAYANAYAKKANUR Zamindari - Tamil Naidu
28-8-2007

AMOD Thikana 1-7-2002
AMRAPUR (Dhrafa Thana) PS 1-7-2002
AMRAPUR (Pandu Mewas) PS 1-7-2002
AMRAVATI ? 22-3-2002
ANANDPUR (Surag Sadul or Chotila Thana) PS 1-1-2004
ANANDPUR (Khachar Desa Bhoj) PS 1-1-2004
ANANDPUR (Khachar Dada & Nana Jiwa) PS 1-1-2004
ANEGUNDI Zamindari 17-1-2004
ANGHAD PS 4-6-2002
ANKEVALIA or AKEWALIA PS 1-7-2002
ANTARBELLA Jagir - Jhabua 1-7-2002
ANTARDA ?Thikana - Kotah 1-7-2002
ARCOT PS 16-11-2003
ARJYA Jagir - Udaipur 22-3-2002
ARNIA PS 1-7-2002
ARNOD Jagir - Pratapgarh 5-3-2002
AROOKA Thikana - Jaipur 16-11-2003
ARTHUNA Jagir - Banswara 1-7-2002
ASIND Thikana - Udaipur 10-4-2002
ASKOTE Zamindari 24-9-2002
ASOPE Thikana - Jodhpur 24-9-2002
ASSAM PS 24-9-2002
ATHADAMA Thikana - U.P.
1-11-2005
ATHGARH PS 10-9-2002
ATHMALIK PS 210-9-2002
ATHOON Thikana - Udaipur 26-11-2001
ATRAULA Taluk - Oudh 24-9-2002
AUL
Zamindari - Orissa
6-12-2007

AUNDH PS 4-6-2002
AUWA Jagir - Jodhpur 6-3-2002
AVCHAR PS 10-9-2002
AWAGARH Jagir 4-3-2007

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/a/a.html

NAME OF STATE TYPE UPDATED

BAAKRA
Jagir - Jodhpur
7-12-2009

BABHNIPAIR Taluk - Oudh 10-8-2003
BABRA PS 1-7-2002
BADA KHEDA Thikana - Bundi 2-4-2003
BADABUJURG Jagir - Jaipur 19-2-2004
BADANWARA Istimrari - Jodhpur 1-1-2004
BADCHAULI Thikana - Alwar 21-10-2003
BADGAON ? - Jodhpur 24-5-2003
BADNORE Thikana - Udaipur 22-3-2002
BADLU Jagir - Jodhpur 1-7-2002
BADU Jagir - Jodhpur 12-12-2002
BADVET Jagir - Jhabua 1-7-2002
BAGASRA I (Hadala Estate) PS 28-5-2003
BAGASRA II (Ram Harsur Estate) PS 28-5-2003
BAGASRA III (Ram and Vira Mulu Estate) PS 28-5-2003
BAGHAL PS 10-9-2002
BAGHAT PS 10-9-2002
BAGHELKHAND PS 1-7-2002
BAGHERA see Deogaon-Baghera Istimrari - Jodhpur 1-1-2004
BAGLI PS 10-9-2002
BAGORE Thikana - Udaipur 10-4-2002
BAGOT 1-7-2002
BAGRI Thikana - Jodhpur 20-2-2002
BAGSEU Thikana - Bikaner? 1-7-2002
BAGSURI Istimrari - Jodhpur 1-1-2004
BAHADURNAGAR Taluk - Oudh 24-9-2002
BAHAWALPUR PS - Pakistan 24-3-2002
BAI PS 10-9-2002
BAIKUNTHPUR Jagir - Rewah 22-9-2005
BAJANA or Nani Jatwad (see Warahi) PS 15-5-2003
BAJRANGGARH PS 1-7-2002
BAKHATGARH PS 19-12-2006
BAKROL
Taluk
14-9-2009

BALARAMPUR
Zamindari - Orissa
15-7-2008

BALARWA ? 25-5-2003
BALASINOR PS 10-9-2002
BALI ? - Jodhpur 1-7-2002
BALLABGARH Zamindari 10-8-2003
BALOTRA ? - Jodhpur 1-7-2002
BALRAMPUR Zamindari - Oudh 1-11-2002
BALSAN PS 10-9-2002
BALTISTAN PS 10-8-2003
BALUNDA Thikana - Jodhpur 24-5-2003
BALWAN Thikana - Kotah 1-7-2002
BAMANBOR PS 1-7-2002
BAMBORA Thikana - Udaipur 16-3-2002
BAMBORI ?? - Udaipur 16-3-2002
BAMRA PS 10-9-2002
BANDANWARA ? 16-3-2002
BANERA Jagir - Udaipur 19-9-2002
BANGAHAL
PS - Himachal Pradesh
10-8-2008

BANGANAPALLE PS 10-9-2002
BANKA PAHARI PS 26-9-2002
BANKALI Thikana 19-4-2003
BANLAS Thikana - Udaipur 1-7-2002
BANOL
Thikana - Udaipur
27-7-2008

BANSDA PS 10-9-2002
BANSI Thikana - Udaipur 19-4-2003
BANSI Taluk - Oudh 10-8-2003
BANSKHOH Thikana - Jaipur 1-1-2004
BANSRA Thikana - Udaipur 10-8-2003
BANSWARA PS 26-11-2001
BANSYA Thikana - Jodhpur 16-3-2002
BANTVA BARAMAJMU PS 25-5-2003
BAONI PS 10-9-2002
BAP ?-Jaisalmer 1-7-2002
BAR ? - Jodhpur 16-3-2002
BARA BARKHEDA see MOTA BARKHERA ?-Dhar 31-8-2002
BARAMBA PS 10-9-2002
BARAUNDHA PS 10-9-2002
BARDIA (BARRA) PS 10-9-2002
BARHPURA
Thikana
1-2-2007

BARIA PS 10-9-2002
BARI RUPAHELI ? - Udaipur 16-3-2002
BARI SADRI Thikana - Udaipur 16-3-2002
BARKANA or Varkana? Jagir - Jodhpur 16-3-2002
BARKHERA DEO DUNGRI PS 1-7-2002
BARKHERA PANTH PS 1-7-2002
BARLI Istimrari - Jodhpur 1-1-2004
BARMAWAL ?-Sailana 1-7-2002
BARMER ?-Jodhpur 1-7-2002
BAROD Thikana - Jodhpur 13-7-2002
BARODA PS 28-7-2003
BARSORA 1-7-2002
BARWAHA ? 1-7-2002
BARWALA (Vala Bhan Desa Estate) PS 1-1-2004
BARWANI PS 10-9-2002
BASAI Thikana 1-7-2002
BASHAHR PS 5-6-2003
BASODA PS 10-9-2002
BASOHLI PS 26-3-2003
BASSI ? - Udaipur 16-3-2002
BASTAR PS 10-9-2002
BASTI Taluk - Oudh 26-9-2002
BATHERDA Thikana - Udaipur 10-4-2002
BAUDH PS 10-10-2001
BAVDA PS? or Jagir -Kolhapur 14-7-2002

BEDA Jagir - Jodhpur 1-7-2002
BEDA-NO-NESS PS 1-7-2002
BEDLA Thikana - Udaipur 16-3-2002
BEGUN Thikana - Udaipur 16-3-2002
BEJA PS 25-10-2005
BELGAUM Zamindari 16-3-2002
BELHA Zamindari 26-1-2005
BEMALI ? - Udaipur 16-3-2002
BEMLA
Jagir - Jodhpur
14-9-2009

BENARES PS 26-11-2001
BENGAL Ancient Kingdom 20-6-2007
BENGU Thikana - Udaipur 1-7-2002
BERA Thikana 10-4-2002
BERI PS 10-9-2002
BETMA
Thikana
4-3-2009

BETTIAH PS 10-9-2002
BHADAWAR Zamindari
17-10-2005
BHADESAR Jagir - Udaipur 2-4-2003
BHADLI PS 1-7-2002
BHADRAJUN Thikana - Jodhpur 1-1-2004
BHADRANA PS 1-7-2002
BHADRAWAH PS 1-1-2004
BHADRI Taluk - Oudh 12-12-2002
BHADURAN Jagir -Jodhpur 1-7-2002
BHADVA PS 10-9-2002
BHADVANA PS 17-11-2003
BHAGAT PS 1-7-2002
BHAGWANPURA ?Thikana - Udaipur 10-4-2002
BHAINSRORGARH Thikana - Udaipur 2-4-2003
BHAISAUNDA PS 10-9-2002
BHAISOLA (DOTRIA) PS 10-9-2002
BHAJJI PS 10-9-2002
BHALALA PS 1-7-2002
BHALGAM BHALDOI PS 1-7-2002
BHALGAMDA PS 1-7-2002
BHALTHAN PS 1-7-2002
BHALUSNA PS 26-3-2002
BHANDARIA PS 1-7-2002
BHARATPUR PS 5-6-2002
BHARDARWAH Jagir - Jammu & Kashmir 1-7-2002
BHAREJDA PS 1-7-2002
BHARUD PURA ? - Dhar 1-7-2002
BHATHAN PS 26-3-2002
BHAU PS 24-4-2003
BHAVNAGAR PS 10-9-2002
BHAYAVADAR PS 1-1-2004
BHAWAL PS 26-3-2002
BHENSWARA Thikana - ? 10-4-2002
BHILODIA PS 26-3-2002
BHILWARA Thikana - Udaipur 1-7-2002
BHIMORA PS 1-7-2002
BHIMSAR 1-7-2002
BHINAI Istimrari - Jodhpur 1-1-2004
BHINDAR Thikana - Udaipur 16-11-2003
BHINGA Taluk 5-9-2002
BHOIKA PS 1-7-2002
BHOITE SARANJAM
Saranjam - Maharashtra
15-2-2009

BHOJAVADAR PS 1-7-2002
BHOJAKHERI PS 10-9-2002
BHOJAPARA Taluk 22-10-2003
BHOJPURA Thikana - Bhavnagar 1-7-2002
BHOPAL PS 26-11-2001
BHOR PS 10-9-2002
BHOTI PS 24-4-2003
BHUKARKA Thikana - Bikaner 1-7-2002

BHUNAS ? - Udaipur 15-4-2002
BHUPALGARH Thikana - Jodhpur 20-6-2005
BIBIPUR Thikana - Alwar 21-10-2003
BICHRAND I aka BICHHROD I PS 10-9-2002
BICHRAND II aka BICHHROD II PS 10-9-2002
BIDASAR Thikana - Bikaner 1-7-2002
BIDWAL Jagir - Dhar 1-1-2004
BIHAT PS 10-9-2002
BIHORA PS 10-9-2002
BIJA PS 10-9-2002
BIJAIPUR Thikana - Udaipur 17-9-2003
BIJATHAL Thikana - Jodhpur 10-4-2002
BIJAWAR PS 10-9-2002
BIJNA PS 10-9-2002
BIJOLIAN Thikana - Udaipur 24-7-2003
BIKAMPUR Thikana - Bikaner 4-1-2006
BIKANER PS 26-01-2002
BILARA ?-Jodhpur 1-7-2002
BILASPUR PS 26-11-2001
BILAUD PS 1-7-2002
BILAUDA PS 10-9-2002
BILBARI PS 26-3-2002
BILDI PS 1-7-2002
BILKHA PS 26-5-2003
BILPAD Taluk - Umeta 1-7-2002
BINDRABAN ?-Awadh 1-7-2002
BIRSINGHPUR Taluk - Oudh 24-9-2002
BISHRAMPUR
Zamindari
22-2-2006

BISSAU Thikana - Jaipur 10-4-2003
BITHIAN Jagir - Jodhpur 10-4-2002
BOBBILI Zamindari - Vizagapatam 16-3-2002
BODANONESS PS 26-3-2002
BODINAICKANUR Zamindari - Tamil Naidu
28-8-2007

BODO KHEMUNDI Zamindari - Orissa
16-12-2007
BOHERA Thikana - Udaipur 16-11-2003
BOLUNDRA PS 26-3-2002
BONAI PS 12-12-2002
BORASAMBER Zamindari 12-12-2002
BORI Jagir - Jhabua 1-7-2002
BORKHERA (DEWAS) PS 10-9-2002
BORKHERA (JAORA) PS 10-9-2002
BROACH PS 1-7-2002
BUDU Jagir? 1-7-2002
BUDSU Thikana - Jodhpur 29-12-2003
BUNDI PS 10-10-2001
BURDWAN Zamindari 10-9-2002
BURWAHA Jagir - Indore 16-3-2002
BUSI
Thikana - Jodhpur
11-1-2009

BUSSAHIR PS 1-7-2002

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/b/b.html

NAME OF STATE TYPE UPDATED

CAMBAY PS 10-2-2003
CANNANORE PS 1-1-2004
CHALALA PS 17-11-2003
CHALUKYA
Dynasty
1-5-2006

CHAMARDI (VACHHANI) PS
CHAMBA PS 1-2-2002
CHAMPRAJPUR (Vala) PS 26-3-2002
CHAMU
Thikana - Jodhpur
16-6-2006

CHANCHANA or CACANA PS 17-11-2003
CHANDAWAL Thikana - Jodhpur 10-4-2002
CHANDARNI ? 22-3-2002
CHANDELAO Thikana - Jodhpur
28-12-2001
CHANDUP PS
CHANGBHAKAR PS 10-9-2002
CHANOD or Chanoud Thikana - Jodhpur 10-4-2002
CHAPANER PS
CHARKHA PS
CHARKHARI PS 28-12-2001
CHELAWAS
Thikana - Jodhpur
11-1-2009

CHENANI Jagir - Jammu & Kashmir 16-12-2009
CHERRA PS
CHHALIAR PS 10-9-2002
CHHATARI
CHHATARPUR PS 10-9-2002
CHHOTA BARKHERA PS 10-9-2002
CHHOTA NAGPUR PS
CHHOTA UDAIPUR PS 10-9-2002
CHHOTI SADRI Thikana - Udaipur
CHHUIKHADAN PS 10-9-2002
CHICKALWANA Thikana - Jodhpur 19-4-2003
CHICKALANA Thikana - Gwalior 31-8-2008
CHIKITI Zamindari - Orissa
15-1-2008

CHINCHLI GADED PS 26-3-2002
CHINNA MERANGI Zamindari - Andhra Pradesh
10-4-2002
CHIRODA PS 10-9-2002
CHITAL (Unad Rana Wala Estate) PS 1-1-2004
CHITRAVAV (DEVANI) PS
CHITOR Thikana - Udaipur
CHITRAL PS - Pakistan 28-12-2001
CHOBARI PS
CHOK PS
CHOLA
Empire
1-5-2006

CHOMU Thikana - Jaipur 10-4-2002
CHORANGALA PS 25-2-2006
CHOTILA (Anandpur or Surag Sadul Estate) PS 1-1-2004
CHOWKARI Thikana - Jaipur 1-1-2004
CHUDA PS 25-5-2003
CHUDA SORATH PS 26-3-2002
CHUDESAR PS
CHURHAT Thikana - Rewah 19-7-2005
CHURU Thikana - Bikaner
COCHIN PS 28-12-2001
COOCH BEHAR PS 28-12-2001
COORG PS
COSSIMBAZAR Zamindari - Bengal
28-12-2001

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/c/c.html

NAME OF STATE TYPE UPDATED

DABHA PS 10-9-2002
DABHAD Thikana - Dhar 1-7-2002
DABRI PS 1-7-2002
DADHALIA PS 10-9-2002
DAHIDA PS 1-7-2002
DAIYA
Zamindari - Uttar Pradesh
16-12-2009

DAKLA Jagir - Jodhpur 1-7-2002
DALIPPUR ? 22-4-2002
DALPATPUR Zamindari 24-4-2003
DANGA PS 1-7-2002
DANTA PS 10-9-2002
DANTA Thikana - Jaipur 1-1-2004
DAPHLAPUR PS 1-7-2002
DARBHANGA Zamindari 10-9-2002
DARIA KHERI PS 10-9-2002
DARKHAST ?- Sirmur 1-7-2002
DARKOTI PS 10-9-2002
DAROD PS 1-7-2002
DASADA PS 1-7-2002
DASPALLA PS 10-9-2002
DASPAN ? - Jodhpur 15-4-2002
DATARPUR PS 12-6-2003
DATHA PS 1-7-2002
DATIA PS 25-5-2003
DATTIGAON
Jagir - Gwalior
16-9-2009

DAUDSAR Thikana - Bikaner 28-12-2001
DAULATGADH Jagir - Idar 15-4-2002
DAULATGADH ? - Udaipur 15-4-2002
DAULATPUR Jagir - Bhopal 11-8-2003
DAVAD ? 1-1-2004
DEDAN (Unad Bhan Estate) PS 30-5-2003
DEDAN (Jaitmal Champraj Estate) PS 30-5-2002
DEDARDA PS 1-7-2002
DEDHROTA aka DEDHARTA? PS 11-8-2003
DELATH PS 1-7-2002
DELHI (Mughal) PS 14-11-2004
DELOLI PS 1-7-2002
DELWARA Thikana - Udaipur 10-4-2002
DEO
Zamindari - Bihar
18-11-2007

DEODAR PS 10-9-2002
DEODAR THANA PS 26-3-2002
DEOGAON BAGHERA Istimrari - Jodhpur 1-1-2004
DEOGARH Thikana - Udaipur 29-9-2003
DEOLIA Istimrari - Jodhpur 21-5-2008
DERBHAVTI PS 1-7-2002
DERDI JANBAI PS 1-7-2002
DEROL PS 10-9-2002
DESURI ?Thikana - Jodhpur 1-7-2002
DEVALIA PS 17-11-2003
DEVASTHAN Thikana - Udaipur 1-7-2002
DEVRALA Thikana - Jaipur 25-5-2003
DEWA ka BASS Thikana - Jaipur 15-11-2003
DEWALGHAT Jagir 1-7-2002
DEWAS Jnr PS 10-9-2002
DEWAS Snr PS 10-9-2002
DHABLA DHIR AND KAKARKHERI PS 10-9-2002
DHABLA GHOSI PS 10-9-2002
DHADI PS 12-10-2005
DHAKA Zamindari - Bangladesh 13-4-2004
DHAMASIA aka VANMALA PS 10-9-2002
DHAMI PS 10-9-2002
DHAMOTAR Jagir - Pratapgarh 1-1-2004
DHANBARI Zamindari 1-7-2002
DHANK Jagir - Gondal 10-8-2003
DHANLA
Thikana - Jodhpur
12-1-2009

DHAORA GANJARA PS 1-7-2002
DHAR PS 10-9-2002
DHARAFA PS 1-7-2002
DHARAKOTE Zamindari - Orissa
24-1-2008
DHARAMPUR PS 29-9-2003
DHARI PS 1-7-2002
DHARIAWAD Thikana - Udaipur 1-1-2004
DHARNODA or DHARNANDA PS 10-9-2002
DHARSIKHERA Thikana - Dhar 15-4-2002
DHENKANAL PS 28-9-2003
DHERI-TALOKAR Jagir - Pakistan 21-9-2005
DHIR PS - Pakistan 28-12-2001
DHOLA (DEVANI) PS 1-7-2002
DHOLARVA PS 1-7-2002
DHOLPUR PS 28-12-2001
DHOOM MANIKPUR Taluq
17-10-2003
DHOURPUR Zamindari - Udaipur (M.P.)
17-11-2009

DHRAFA PS 25-4-2002
DHRANGADHRA PS 29-9-2003
DHROL PS 29-9-2003
DHULA Thikana - Jaipur 1-1-2004
DHULATIA PS 10-9-2002
DHUNI Thikana - Jaipur 1-1-2004
DHURWAI PS 10-9-2002
DHUWANKHERI Thikana - Narsingarh 15-4-2002
DIGGI Thikana - Jaipur 20-4-2002
DINAJPUR Zamindari 10-9-2002
DODKA PS 1-7-2002
DOMPADA Zamindari - Orissa
13-8-2008

DOTRIA Thikana - Dhar 1-7-2002
DUDHPUR PS 10-9-2002
DUDHREJ aka Dhudhraj PS 1-7-2002
DUDOD
Thikana - Jodhpur
8-2-2009

DUGRI PS 10-9-2002
DUJANA PS 10-9-2002
DUJOD Thikana - Jaipur 25-6-2005
DUMARIA Zamindari 27-9-2004
DUMRAON Princely State 2-3-2003
DUNDLOD Thikana 22-01-2002
DUNGARPUR PS 25-5-2003

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/d/d.html

...and I am Sid Harth
Sid Harth
2010-02-03 17:24:25 UTC
Permalink
NAME OF STATE TYPE UPDATED

EBHAL VAJSUR ESTATE PS 26-3-2002
EKA ? 24-9-2002
ELICHPUR ? - Andhra Pradesh
ERAL ? - Gujarat 2-4-2003
ETA ?
ETAIYAPURAM Zamindari - Madras 24-5-2004
ETTAWAH PS? 26-9-2002

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/e/e.html

NAME OF STATE TYPE UPDATED
FALICHRA Thikana - Udaipur 1-1-2004
FALNA Thikana - Jodhpur 12-11-2002
FARIDKOT PS 30-12-2001
FARRUKHABAD PS 26-9-2002
FATEGARH Thikana - Kishangarh 29-11-2003
FATEHPUR I 26-9-2002
FATEHPUR II 26-9-2002
FATEHPUR III

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/f/f.html

NAME OF STATE TYPE UPDATED

GABAT PS 10-9-2002
GAD BORIAD PS 26-3-2002
GADARMALA Thikana 26-3-2002
GADHALI (Songadh Thana) PS 26-3-2002
GADHIA PS 26-3-2002
GADHKA PS 10-9-2002
GADHOL PS 10-9-2002
GADHULA PS 10-9-2002
GADHWADA THANA 10-9-2002
GADIA Taluk - Oudh 3-9-2003
GADVI PS 10-9-2002
GADWAL Zamindari - Hyderabad 12-10-2002
GAGUDA
Thikana - Marwar
27-1-2006

GAINTA Thikana - Kotah
10-9-2002
GAJENDRAGAD PS 8-3-2005
GANDHOL PS 10-9-2002
GANGPUR PS 10-9-2002
GANGWAL Taluk - Oudh 14-8-2003
GANTEL Thikana 2-4-2003
GARAON 2-4-2003
GARBA PS 2-4-2003
GARDNER Family 19-9-2005
GARHA PS 10-9-2002
GARHI Thikana - Alwar 26-9-2002
GARHI Jagir - Banswara 10-4-2002
GARHI (BHAISAKHO) PS 2-4-2003
GARHWAL see also TEHRI-GARHWAL PS 30-12-2001
GARMALI MOTI PS 2-4-2003
GARMALI NANI PS 2-4-2003
GAROLI ??aka GARRAULI/GARAULI 2-4-2003
GARRAULI PS 10-9-2002
GAURIHAR PS 10-9-2002
GAVRIDAD PS 10-9-2002
GED PS 2-4-2003
GEDI PS 2-4-2003
GEEJGARH Thikana 26-3-2002
GEI PS 17-11-2003
GHANERAO Thikana - Jodhpur 30-12-2001
GHANGHU Thikana - Bikaner 25-6-2005
GHANSHYAMPUR Jagir - Dhrangadhra? 30-12-2001
GHODASAR aka GHODSAR PS 10-9-2002
GHUND Zaildari 18-8-2004
GIDAD 2-4-2003
GIDHAUR Zamindari
10-9-2002
GIGASARAN PS 2-4-2003
GIRWA 2-4-2003
GOELA Istimrardari - Jodhpur 1-7-2002
GOGUNDA Thikana - Udaipur 26-11-2001
GONDA Taluk 28-8-2002
GONDAL PS 4-1-2005
GONDHER see SANTHA Thikana - Jodhpur 2-4-2003
GOPALPET
Zamindari - Hyderabad
3-6-2008

GOTARDI PS 2-4-2003
GOTHDA PS 2-4-2003
GOVINDGARH Istimrari - Jodhpur 3-1-2004
GURHA MALANI Thikana - Jodhpur
18-9-2006
GUDARKHERA PS 10-9-2002
GULER PS 3-1-2004
GUMANPURA ? - Dungarpur 21-1-2003
GUNDERDEHI Zamindari 2-4-2003
GUNDIALA PS 2-4-2003
GUNDOJ Thikana? 22-3-2002
GURA SONIGARA
Thikana - Jodhpur
29-10-2008

GURDAN Thikana 2-4-2003
GURGUNTA Jagir - Hyderabad 10-5-2002
GURLA Thikana 2-4-2003
GWALIOR PS 1-02-2002
GYANGARH Thikana - Udaipur 26-3-2002

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/g/g.html


NAME OF STATE TYPE UPDATED
HADALA PS 26-3-2002
HADALI Zamindari 2-6-2005
HADOL PS 9-9-2002
HALARIA PS 26-3-2002
HALDIA Zamindari 22-3-2002
HALIA
Zamindari
19-8-2009

HAMIRGARH Jagir - Udaipur 15-4-2002
HANSI ? 26-3-2002
HAPA PS 9-9-2002
HARASAR Thikaner - Bikaner 3-1-2004
HARIADHANA Thikana - Jodhpur 3-8-2003
HARJI
Thikana - Jodhpur
24-2-2009

HARSORO ? 26-3-2002
HASANPUR Taluk - Oudh 26-9-2002
HARSURPUR (Nana Devalia) Vala XXI PS 28-5-2003
HATHASNI ? 26-3-2002
HATHRAS Princely State 14-9-2004
HATNARA
Thikana - Ratlam
15-8-2007

HAZARA see Nawabganj
Jagir - ? 26-9-2002
HEERWA Thikana - Jaipur 3-1-2004
HEMGIR Zamindari - Gangpur 15-4-2002
HINDOL PS 9-9-2002
HINTA Jagir - Udaipur 30-12-2001
HIRANI Thikana - Jodhpur 13-7-2002
HIRAPUR PS 9-9-2002
HOTI Jagir 26-3-2002
HUNZA PS - Pakistan 8-8-2002
HYDERABAD PS 30-4-2002

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/h/h.html

NAME OF STATE TYPE UPDATED

IAVEJ PS
ICHA Zamindari - Seraikela 15-4-2002
ICHALKARANJI Thikana - Kolkapur 30-12-2001
IDAR PS 25-11-2002
IJPURA PS 9-9-2002
ILOL PS 9-9-2002
INAYATI
Thikana - Karauli
15-5-2008

INDORE PS 30-12-2001
INDERGARH Thikana - Kotah 24-6-2007
ISARDA Thikana - Jaipur 15-4-2002
ITARIA PS 25-11-2002
ITAUNJA Taluq - Oudh 24-8-2004
ITWAD PS 25-11-2002

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/i/i.html

NAME OF STATE TYPE UPDATED

JABRIA BHIL AND JABRI PS 10-9-2002
JAFRABAD PS 10-9-2002
JAGDISHPUR Zamindari 25-5-2005
JAGMANPUR
Zamindari - Bundelkhand
30-9-2007

JAHAZPUR 10-9-2002
JAHOTA Thikana - Jaipur 14-9-2005
JAINTIAPUR 10-9-2002
JAIPAIGURI 10-9-2002
JAIPUR PS 22-01-2002
JAIPUR RAJ Zamindari 14-4-2002
JAISALMER PS 25-11-2002
JAIWANA also Jewana
Thikana - Udaipur
30-5-2006

JAKHAN PS 17-11-2003
JALAMAND 10-9-2002
JALAUN 10-9-2002
JALIA AMRAJJI 10-9-2002
JALIA DEVANI PS 10-9-2002
JALIA KAYAJI PS 10-9-2002
JALIA MANAJI PS 10-9-2002
JALIM VILAS 10-9-2002
JALORE Jagir - Jodhpur 31-3-2002
JAMBUGODHA PS 30-12-2001
JAMKHANDI PS 27-9-2002
JAMLI Thikana - Jhabua 14-4-2002
JAMMU PS 24-9-2002
JAMMU and KASHMIR PS 22-01-2002
JAMNIA PS 19-6-2007
JAMOLI Thikana - Udaipur 30-12-2001
JANDALA PS 12-5-2003
JANJIRA PS 31-12-2001
JAOLA Thikana - Jodhpur 2-3-2004
JAOLI
Thikana - Alwar
29-3-2009

JAORA PS 10-9-2002
JARADA
Zamindari - Orissa
26-12-2007

JARAR
Zamindari - UP
15-3-2007

JARASINGHA Zamindari 14-4-2002
JARKHANA Thikana - Udaipur 31-12-2001
JASANA
Thikana - Bikaner
24-6-2007

JASDAN PS 10-9-2002
JASHPUR PS 10-9-2002
JASNAGAR Jagir - Jodhpur
7-3-2007
JASO PS 10-9-2002
JASOL Thikana - Jodhpur 2-4-2003
JASROTA PS - Jammu 25-5-2003
JASWADI Thikana - MP 19-4-2003
JASWAN ? 3-1-2004
JATH PS 10-9-2002
JAWAS ? 3-1-2004
JAWASIA PS 10-9-2002
JAWHAR PS 10-9-2002
JEHANGIRABAD Taluq - Oudh 14-4-2002
JESAR PS 10-9-2002
JEITPUR PS 10-9-2002
JETPROLE Zamindari - Hyderabad 14-4-2002
JETPUR BHAYAVADAR (Vala or Bhaya Nathu Estate) PS 28-5-2003
JETPUR SANALA (Vala or Giga Hipa Estate) PS 28-5-2003
JEYPORE Zamindari 3-1-2004
JHABUA PS 28-10-2002
JHAKNAVDA 10-9-2002
JHALAI Thikana - Jaipur 14-4-2002
JHALAWAR PS 10-9-2002
JHALERA PS 10-9-2002
JHAMAR PS 5-6-2003
JHAMKA (VELANI) PS 5-6-2003
JHAMPODAD PS 5-6-2003
JHANDA Jagir 1-8-2003
JHANSI PS 15-4-2002
JHANTLA Jagir - Pratapgarh 10-9-2002
JHARGRAM
Zamindari - West Bengal
13-7-2008

JHARI GHARKADI PS 10-9-2002
JHAROL Thikana - Udaipur 31-12-2001
JHINJHUVADA PS 10-9-2002
JIGNI PS 10-9-2002
JILIYA
Thikana - Jodhpur
28-9-2007

JIND PS 10-9-2002
JIRAL KAMSOLI PS 10-9-2002
JOBAT PS 10-9-2002
JOBNER ? 15-4-2002
JODHPUR PS 1-02-2002
JUBBAL PS 5-5-2005
JUDA 10-9-2002
JULLUNDAR 10-9-2002
JUMKHA PS 10-9-2002
JUNAGADH PS 10-9-2002
JUNAPADAR PS 10-9-2002
JUNIAN Istimrari - Jodhpur 3-1-2004

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/j/j.html

...and I am Sid Harth
Sid Harth
2010-02-03 17:27:25 UTC
Permalink
NAME OF STATE TYPE UPDATED

KACHAR 1-7-2002
KACHHI BARODA PS 10-9-2002
KACHHOLA 1-7-2002
KADANA PS 1-7-2002
KADOLI PS 1-7-2002
KAGAL Jnr Jagir - Kolhapur 7-2-2007
KAGAL Snr Jagir - Kolhapur 2-7-2007
KAIMAHRA see OEL
Taluq - Uttar Pradesh
4-11-2009

KAITHAL 1-7-2002
KAKINA Zamindari 26-9-2002
KALABAGH Taluq? 31-12-2001
KALADWAS Thikana 1-7-2002
KALAHANDI PS 3-02-2002
KALAKANKAR Taluq 3-02-2002
KALAPIPAL
Jagir - Madhya Pradesh
24-7-2009

KALAT PS - Pakistan 9-9-2002
KALAYANI 1-7-2002
KALI BAORI PS 9-9-2002
KALSIA PS 9-9-2002
KALLAR
Jagir - Punjab
28-02-2007

KALUKHERA PS 9-9-2002
KALYANPURA Jagir - Pratapgarh 1-7-2002
KAMA Jagir? - Jaipur 20-4-2003
KAMADHIA Princely State - Kathiawar
17-9-2008
KAMALPUR PS 9-9-2002
KAMTA RAJAULA PS 9-9-2002
KANAI KALAN Thikana - Jodhpur 17-2-2004
KANAI KHURD
Thikana
24-7-2009

KANANA 1-7-2002
KANER PS 1-7-2002
KANGRA PS 2-3-2003
KANIKA PS 1-5-2002
KANJAL PS 26-3-2002
KANJHARDA 1-7-2002
KANKARWA
Thikana - Udaipur
6-11-2005

KANKASISALI PS 1-7-2002
KANKER PS 9-9-2002
KANKREJ THANA 9-9-2002
KANKROLI also KANKRAULI Thikana - Udaipur 9-9-2002
KANNOD Thikana - Madhya Pradesh 10-7-2005
KANOD Thikana - Udaipur 9-9-2002
KANODA PS 9-9-2002
KANORE Thikana - Udaipur 20-4-2002
KANOTA Thikana - Jaipur 22-1-2002
KANPUR Zamindari 14-6-2003
KANTALIA Thikana - Jodhpur 12-1-2009
KANPUR-ISHWARIA PS 1-7-2002
KANTHARIA PS 1-7-2002
KANTODIA 1-7-2002
KAPASAN 1-7-2002
KAPSHI PS 16-7-2005
KAPURTHALA PS 16-8-2003
KARANSAR
Thikana - Jaipur
14-10-2006

KARAUDIA or KARODIA PS 9-9-2002
KARAULI PS 1-5-2002
KARIANA PS 1-7-2002
KARJALI Jagir - Udaipur 3-1-2004
KARJU 1-7-2002
KARMAD PS 1-7-2002
KARNAL Jagir 19-4-2002
KAROI 1-7-2002
KAROL PS 1-7-2002
KARWAR 1-7-2002
KASALPURA PS 9-9-2002
KASHIPUR Jagir 3-1-2004
KASHTWAR PS 25-5-2003
KASMANDA Taluq - Oudh 31-10-2002
KASLA PAGINU MUWADA PS 1-7-2002
KASLI Jagir - Jaipur 7-6-2005
KASOTA
Thikana - Rewah
4-6-2008

KATHAUN PS
KATHIWADA PS 3-5-2006
KATHODIA Thikana - Dhar
KATHODIA (VACHHANI) PS
KATHROTA PS
KATOSAN THANA PS 9-9-2002
KAWARDHA PS 2-3-2003
KAYATHA PS 9-9-2002

KEBANIYA
Istimrari - Jodhpur
29-10-2008

KEONJHAR PS 9-9-2002
KEONTHAL PS 9-9-2002
KERANYA Thikana - Bansda 1-7-2002
KERIA Thikana 1-7-2002
KEROTE
Istimrari - Jodhpur
29-10-2008

KESARIA PS 2-3-2003
KHACHARIAWAS Thikana - Jaipur 3-1-2004
KHADAL PS 2-3-2003
KHAIRAGARH PS 21-9-2002
KHAIRIGARH PS 2-3-2003
KHAIRPUR PS 9-9-2002
KHAJURGAON Taluk 28-10-2003
KHAJURIA PS 9-9-2002
KHAKHRI Thikana
7-5-2006

KHALLIKOTE Zamindari 3-1-2004
KHAMBHALA PS 2-3-2003
KHAMBHLAV PS 2-3-2003
KHAMNOR 2-3-2003
KHANDELA-Jnr Thikana - Jaipur 1-11-2003
KHANDELA-Snr Thikana - Jaipur 1-11-2003
KHANDIA PS 2-3-2003
KHANDPARA PS 9-9-2002
KHANDU ? 18-3-2002
KHANETI PS 7-10-2005
KHANIADHANA PS 9-9-2002
KHANPUR Jagir - Pakistan 21-9-2005
KHAPRADIH Taluq - Oudh 3-11-2004
KHAPULU Jagir - Kashmir 17-8-2003
KHARAN PS - Pakistan 1-5-2002
KHARDA
Thikana - Jodhpur
24-2-2009

KHARIAR
4-12-2007

KHARI BAGASRA (Vala Ram and Vira Mulu Estate) PS 28-5-2003
KHARMANG Jagir - Kashmir 17-8-2003
KHARSAWAN PS 9-9-2002
KHARSIA PS 9-9-2002
KHARWA Istimrari - Jodhpur 3-1-2004
KHASI HILLS ? 18-3-2002
KHATOLI Thikana - Kotah
24-6-2007
KHATU Thikana - Jaipur 3-1-2004
KHAWASA Thikana - Jhabua 18-5-2003
KHEDAWADA Jagir - Udaipur 18-3-2002
KHEDAWADA PS 26-3-2002
KHEDLI ? 18-3-2002
KHEJARLA Thikana 1-7-2002
KHERABAD Thikana - Udaipur 31-12-2001
KHERALI PS 1-7-2002
KHERI RAJPURA PS 1-7-2002
KHERWA or KHERAWARA PS 9-9-2002
KHERWASA PS 9-9-2002
KHETRI Thikana - Jaipur 31-12-2001
KHIANDA PS 9-9-2002
KHIJADIA-NAJANI (Lakhpadar Thana) PS 3-1-2004
KHIJADIA (Dosaji) (Songadh Thana) PS 3-1-2004
KHIJADIA (BABRA THANA) PS 3-1-2004
KHIJADIA (Vala Shri Valera Raning) Vala XIX PS 3-1-2004
KHILCHIPUR PS 9-9-2002
KHIMSAR Thikana 21-8-2003
KHINWARA Thikana 16-5-2004
KHIRASRA PS 9-9-2002
KHIWARA ? 18-3-2002
KHOJAN KHERA Thikana - Ratlam
29-8-2008
KHOOD Thikana - Jaipur 3-1-2004
KHURDA PS - Orissa 23-9-2005
KHYRIM PS 9-9-2002

KIRLI or KIRALI PS 9-9-2002
KIRLOSKARWADI 1-7-2002
KISHANGARH PS 22-01-2002
KOCHORE Thikana 1-7-2002
KOD Thikana - Dhar 1-5-2002
KOELA Jagir? - Kotah 24-5-2003
KOLABA ? 26-3-2002
KOLHAPUR PS 31-12-2001
KOREA PS 1-5-2002
KOTAH PS 1-5-2002
KOTDA NAYANI PS 1-7-2002
KOTDA PITHA PS 1-7-2002
KOTDA SANGANI PS 9-9-2002
KOTHARIA I Jagir - Udaipur 24-9-2002
KOTHARIA II PS 9-9-2002
KOTHI
Zamindari - Rewah
20-6-2008

KOTI PS 11-6-2005
KOTKHAI
PS
23-10-2005

KOTLA Thikana 3-1-2004
KOTPUTLI 1-7-2002
KOTRI RAOLA 1-7-2002
KOTWARA Zamindari 20-11-2002
KOVUR Zamindari 16-11-2003
KUBA PS 1-7-2002
KUCHAMAN Thikana - Jodhpur 31-12-2001
KULLU Zamindari? 3-02-2002
KUMAON PS 1-7-2002
KUMHARSAIN PS 9-9-2002
KUNIHAR PS 9-9-2002
KUNJPURA 1-7-2002
KURABAR Jagir - Udaipur 1-5-2002
KURNOOL 1-7-2002
KURSELA Zamindari 5-7-2004
KURUNDWAD Jnr PS 9-9-2002
KURUNDWAD Snr PS 9-9-2002
KURUPAM Z? 3-02-2002
KURWAI PS 9-9-2002
KURWAR Taluk 27-9-2002
KUSALPUR or KASSALPURA PS 9-9-2002
KUSHALGARH PS 1-7-2002
KUSHALGARH Thikana - Banswara 1-5-2002
KUTCH PS 9-9-2002
KUTHAR PS 9-9-2002
KUTLEHAR Jagir 20-10-2001

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/k/k.html

NAME OF STATE TYPE UPDATED

LADAKH Kingdom - Kashmir 13-8-2002
LADNUN ? 18-3-2002
LAHORE PS 24-9-2002
LAKHAPADAR PS
LAKHTAR PS 1-1-2002
LAKHTAR (THANA LAKHTAR) PS
LALGARH PS 9-9-2002
LALIAD PS
LAMBAGRAON Jagir 2-3-2003
LAMBIA ? 18-3-2002
LANGACH Th
LANGRIN PS 18-3-2002
LAS BELA PS - Pakistan 9-9-2002
LASANI Thikana 1-1-2002
LASDAWAN ? 18-3-2002
LATHI PS 9-9-2002
LAWA ? - Jaipur 9-9-2002
LERI ? 18-3-2002
LIKHI PS 9-9-2002
LIMBDA PS
LIMBDI or LIMRI PS 9-9-2002
LIMDI Thikana 2-4-2003
LODHIKA (Majmu) PS 26-3-2002
LODHIKA (Mulwaji Estate) PS 12-9-2002
LODHIKA (Vijaysinhji Estate) PS 12-9-2002
LODRAU
Thikana - Jodhpur
1-3-2009

LOGASI or LUGASI PS 9-9-2002
LOHARU PS 9-9-2002
LOROLI Jagir - Jodhpur
LUNAWADA PS 9-9-2002
LUNDA Thikana - Udaipur 1-1-2002
LUNI Thikana - Jodhpur 7-1-2004

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/l/l.html

NAME OF STATE TYPE UPDATED

MADANPUR-RAMPUR Zamindari 29-4-2002
MADHAN or KIARI Zaildari 18-8-2004
MAGODI PS 26-9-2002
MAGUNA PS 26-3-2002
MAHAJAN Thikana - Bikaner 1-1-2002

MAHANSAR Thikana - Jaipur 16-11-2003
MAHARAM PS 26-9-2002
MAHILOG or MAHLOG PS 26-9-2002
MAHISIDAL ? 1-1-2002

MAHMUDABAD Taluq 1-1-2002
MAHSON Zamindari 22-12-2004
MAHUVA NANA see MOWA PS 26-3-2002
MAIDAS Thikana - Jodhpur 29-4-2002
MAIHAR PS 26-9-2002
MAINPURI PS 2-10-2002
MAIRWARA Thikana - Udaipur 9-9-2002

MAKADAI ? 9-9-2002

MAKRAI PS 9-9-2002
MAKRAN PS - Pakistan 9-9-2002
MAKSUDANGARH PS 26-9-2002
MAKSUDPUR
Zamindari - Bihar
20-3-2007

MALAISOHMAT PS 9-9-2002
MALARI (Champawat)
Thikana - Jodhpur
14-8-2009

MALARNA CHOR ? 26-3-2002
MALAUDH Jagir 24-9-2002
MALER KOTLA PS 26-9-2002
MALIA or MALIYA PS 9-9-2002
MALPUR PS 7-1-2004
MALSISAR Thikana - Jaipur 30-7-2003
MAMDOT Jagir 26-9-2002
MANADAR ? 26-3-2002
MANAVADAR PS 7-6-2007
MANAVAV PS 9-9-2002
MANDA
Thikana - Jodhpur
12-1-2009

MANDA Jagir? 1-1-2002
MANDAWA Thikana - Jaipur 16-11-2003
MANDAWAD PS 16-7-2006
MANDAWAL
Thikana - Jaora
9-3-2008

MANDHOLI Jagir - Jaipur 12-2-2004
MANDI PS 5-6-2003
MANDRELLA Thikana - Jaipur 7-1-2004
MANDVA PS 26-9-2002
MANDWAS Thikana - Jaipur 19-4-2003
MANGAL PS 26-9-2002
MANGROL ? 26-3-2002
MANGROP Jagir - Udaipur 29-4-2002
MANIPUR PS 1-1-2002
MANJUSHA
Zamindari
25-11-2007

MANKAPUR Taluk 29-12-2004
MANPUR PS 26-3-2002
MANSA PS 26-9-2002
MARIAW PS 26-9-2002
MAROT ? 26-3-2002
MASUDA ? - Rajasthan 22-4-2002
MASWADIA Thikana 29-4-2002
MATHWAR PS 26-9-2002
MATRA TIMBA PS 1-1-2002

MAWIANG PS 26-9-2002
MAWSYNRAM PS 26-9-2002
MAYAPADAR (Desa Nag Estate) Vala XI PS 28-5-2003
MAYURBHANJ PS 20-4-2002
MEHMADPURA PS 26-3-2002
MEHRUN Istimrari - Jodhpur 7-1-2004
MEHSANA Thikana - Rewah 15-9-2005
MEJA Jagir - Udaipur 19-9-2002
MENDARDA (Amra Moka Estate) Vala II PS 30-5-2003
MENDARDA (Manasia Nag Estate) Vala V PS 30-5-2003
MENGNI PS 12-9-2002
MERTA ? - Jodhpur 26-3-2002
MEVASA PS 1-1-2002
MEVLI PS 26-3-2002
MEWAR MERWARA ? 26-3-2002
MIANWALI ? 1-1-2002
MINDA ? 26-3-2002
MIRAJ Jnr PS 1-1-2002
MIRAJ Snr PS 1-1-2002
MITHARI Thikana - Udaipur 23-7-2003
MOHANPUR PS 26-9-2002
MOHRRA Thikana - Jodhpur 29-4-2002
MOHUR ? 26-3-2002
MOKA PAGINA MUWADA PS 26-3-2002
MONVEL PS 26-9-2002
MORCHOPNA PS 26-9-2002
MORVI PS 14-3-2003
MORWADA ? 26-3-2002
MOTA KOTHASNA PS 26-3-2002
MOTA BARKHERA aka Bara Barkhera PS? 9-3-2002
MOWA (MAHUVA) PS? 26-9-2002
MUDHOL PS 1-1-2002
MUHAMMADGARH PS 26-9-2002
MUKANGARH Thikana - Jaipur 16-11-2003
MULI PS 29-4-2002
MULIADERI aka MUTILA DERI PS 26-9-2002
MULTHAN Jagir - Madhya Pradesh
26-4-2008

MUNDERI ? 26-9-2002
MUNDLI ? 26-9-2002
MUNDOTA
Thikana - Jaipur
14-09-2009

MUNGELA ? 26-3-2002
MUNJPUR PS 26-9-2002
MURARMAU Taluq - Oudh 26-9-2002
MURSHIDABAD Zamindari - Bengal
7-1-2004
MUSTANG PS 26-9-2002
MYLLIEM or MALLIEM PS 26-9-2002
MYMENSINGH Zamindari 26-9-2002
MYSORE PS 3-02-2002

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/m/m.html

NAME OF STATE TYPE UPDATED

NABHA PS 4-6-2002
NACHANA Thikana - Jaisalmer 25-9-2002
NADALA PS 26-3-2002
NADAUN Jagir 15-12-2004
NADIA Zamindari 1-1-2002
NAGAR PS - Pakistan 1-1-2002
NAGAUR Thikana? 18-3-2002
NAGIR PS 18-3-2002
NAGOD PS 9-9-2002
NAGPUR PS 25-5-2003
NAHARA PS 18-3-2002
NAIGAWAN REBAI PS 25-9-2002
NAILA Thikana - Jaipur 1-1-2002
NAJIBABAD ? 18-3-2002
NALAGARH PS 1-1-2002
NALIA PS 18-3-2002
NAMLI Thikana - Ratlam 2-6-2004
NANA DEVALIA (Harsurpur or Vala XXI) PS 28-5-2003
NANDGAON PS 1-1-2002
NANGAM PS 18-3-2002
NANPARA Taluq 26-9-2002
NARAJAL ? 25-9-2002
NARAYANPETT ? 18-3-2002
NARSINGARH PS 25-11-2002
NARSINGHPUR PS 29-11-2007
NARUKOT (Jambugodha) ? 26-9-2002
NARWAR ? 26-9-2002
NARWANIA PS 26-3-2002
NASVADI PS 7-1-2004
NATHDWARA Thikana - Udaipur 7-1-2004

NATORE
Zamindari - Bengal
20-6-2007

NATWARNAGAR PS 26-3-2002
NAUGAON ? 25-9-2002

NAULANA ? 26-9-2002
NAWABGANJ
Taluq
27-6-2006

NAWAGAI (BAJAUR) PS? 27-6-2006

NAWALGARH Thikana 1-1-2002
NAWANAGAR PS 9-9-2002
NAYAGAON Zamindari - Bihar 1-3-2002
NAYAGARH PS 26-9-2002
NEEMAJ or NIMAJ Thikana - Jodhpur 16-9-2003
NETAWAL Thikana - Udaipur 1-1-2002
NILGIRI PS 16-9-2003
NILVALA PS 16-9-2003

NIMBAHERA Thikana - Udaipur 1-1-2002
NIMKHERA PS? 26-9-2002
NIMRANA ? 29-4-2002
NIMRI Jagir - Udaipur 29-4-2002
NINDAR
Thikana - Jaipur
30-12-2006

NINORA ? 25-9-2002
NOBOSOPHOH PS 25-9-2002
NOGHANVADAR PS 25-9-2002
NOKH ? 25-9-2002
NONGKHLAW PS 25-9-2002
NONGSPUNG PS 25-9-2002
NONGSTOIN PS 25-9-2002
NURPUR PS 25-5-2003

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/n/n.html

...and I am Sid Harth
Sid Harth
2010-02-03 17:30:33 UTC
Permalink
NAME OF STATE TYPE UPDATED

OEL Taluq 28-10-2003
OGNA
ORCHHA PS 11-10-2002
OSIAN Thikana 28-10-2003
OUDH

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/o/o.html

NAME OF STATE TYPE UPDATED

PACHHEGAM (DEVANI) PS 14-6-2003
PACHLANA Thikana - Gwalior 18-3-2002
PACHON
PS - Uttar Pradesh
27-8-2008

PADIV ? 18-3-2002
PADNOR Thikana - Udaipur 14-6-2003
PADRAUNA Zamindari 24-3-2005
PAH PS 14-6-2003
PAHARGARH

14-9-2009

PAHRA (CHAUBEPUR) PS 25-9-2002
PAHUNA
Thikana - Udaipur
6-11-2005

PAJOD
Jagir - Junagadh
27-3-2007

PAL Jagir - Gujarat 7-2-2003
PAL PS 25-9-2002
PAL LAHARA PS 25-9-2002
PALAITHA also PALAYATA Thikana - Kotah 21-4-2002
PALAJ PS 25-9-2002
PALALI PS 14-6-2003
PALANPUR PS 21-4-2002
PALASNI PS 7-1-2004
PALASVIHIR PS 25-9-2002
PALDEO PS 7-1-2004
PALI ? 18-3-2002
PALIAD (Thana) PS 18-3-2002
PALIDA 14-6-2003
PALITANA PS 25-9-2002
PALKIANA Thikana 14-6-2003
PALRI-MARWAR see BITHIAN Thikana - Jodhpur 21-4-2002
PANARWA ? 18-3-2002
PANCHAKOTE ? 1-2-2003
PANCHAVDA (VACHHANI) PS 14-6-2003
PANCHER Thikana - Ratlam 14-6-2003
PANDARIA ? 7-1-2004
PANDU MEWAS PS 18-3-2002
PANNA PS 25-9-2002
PAN TALAVDI PS 9-9-2002
PANTHAWADA
Thikana - Gujarat
18-9-2006

PARA Istimrari - Jodhpur 7-1-2004
PARBATSAR ? 18-3-2002
PARLA KHIMEDI Zamindari - Orissa
22-12-2007
PARNA
Thikana
1-2-2007

PARON (NARWAR) aka PARONE? PS 25-9-2002
PARSOLI Jagir - Udaipur 18-3-2002
PATAN Thikana - Rajasthan 26-4-2002
PATAUDI PS 25-9-2002
PATDI PS 25-9-2002
PATHARI PS - Bhopal 25-9-2002
PATHARI ? 25-4-2002
PATHARIA ? 25-9-2002
PATIALA PS 1-1-2002
PATNA PS 25-9-2002
PATTI SAIFABAD Taluk - Oudh 25-9-2002
PAWAYAN
Zamindari - Uttar Pradesh
9-5-2008

PAYAGPUR Taluk - Oudh 31-10-2002
PEELWA Thikana - Jodhpur 1-1-2002
PEINT ? 25-4-2002
PESHWA Office - Poona 2-10-2004
PETHAPUR PS 25-9-2002
PHALTAN PS 25-9-2002
PHALTAN ? 18-3-2002
PHAROD ? 18-3-2002
PHULERA PS 25-4-2002
PILIBHIT 25-4-2002
PIMPLADEVI PS 25-9-2002
PIMPRI PS 25-9-2002
PINDARDA ? 7-1-2004
PIPALDA ? 18-3-2002
PIPALIA aka Pipaliya PS 25-9-2002
PIPLA ? - Jaipur 4-4-2002
PIPLIANAGAR PS 25-9-2002
PIPLODA PS 25-9-2002
PIPODAR PS? 25-4-2002
PIPRA
Zamindari - Bihar
18-11-2007

PIRPUR 25-4-2002
PISANGAN Istimrari - Jodhpur 7-1-2004
PITHADIA JETPUR PS 28-5-2003
PITHAPURAM Zamindari 7-1-2004
POICHA PS 1-1-2002
POKHRAN Thikana - Udaipur 25-4-2002
POLAJPUR PS? 25-4-2002
POONCH PS 25-4-2002
PORAHAT PS 25-4-2002
PORBANDAR PS 9-9-2002
POSHINA Thikana - Idar
10-4-2002
PRATAPGARH PS - Rajasthan 25-4-2002
PRATAPGARH Taluk - Uttar Pradesh 31-10-2002
PRATAPPUR
Jagir - Maharashtra
7-12-2005

PREMPUR PS 14-6-2003
PUDUKOTTAI PS 14-6-2003
PUNADRA PS 25-4-2002
PURI Zamindari - Orissa 27-9-2005
PURNEA ? 14-6-2003

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/p/p.html

NAME OF STATE TYPE UPDATED

RADHANPUR PS 25-9-2002
RAGHOGARH Thikana - Gwalior 25-9-2002
RAIGARH PS 3-02-2002
RAIKA PS 26-3-2002
RAIPUR Thikana - Jodhpur 9-5-2006
RAIPUR Jagir - Pratapgarh 24-4-2003
RAIPUR BICHAUR Taluk - Oudh 24-9-2002
RAIPUR EKDARIA see ITAUNJA Taluk - Oudh 24-8-2004
RAIPUR RANI
Haryana
27-4-2009

RAIRAKHOL PS 25-9-2002
RAISANKLI PS 9-9-2002
RAJAURI PS 7-1-2004
RAJGARH PS 25-9-2002
RAJGARH Bhumiate - Indore 7-1-2004
RAJKOT PS 9-9-2002
RAJLANI ? 26-3-2002
RAJOR Thikana - Madhya Pradesh 2-7-2005
RAJPARA PS 25-9-2002
RAJPIPLA PS 9-9-2002
RAJPUR - Kathiawar PS 7-1-2004
RAJPUR - Gujarat PS 26-3-2002
RAJPUR- SAMBALPUR Zamindari 22-3-2002
RAJPURA (HALAR) PS 24-4-2003
RAJSHYE Zamindari 24-4-2003
RAKHI Thikana - Jodhpur 7-1-2004
RAKHI JOJAWAR Thikana - Jodhpur 29-3-2002
RALA
Zamindari - Bhopal
5-6-2006

RAMANATHAPURAM Zamindari 1-11-2002
RAMANKA PS 26-3-2002
RAMAS PS 25-9-2002
RAMBRAI PS 26-3-2002
RAMDURG PS 7-1-2004
RAMGARH Zamindari - Bihar 25-9-2002
RAMGARH
Jagir - Haryana
18-12-2009

RAMNAD
Zamindari
3-6-2008

RAMNAGAR Jagir 26-3-2002
RAMNAGAR DHAMERI Taluk - Oudh 5-10-2002
RAMPARDA PS 24-4-2003
RAMPUR PS 3-02-2002
RAMPUR-BAGHELAN Thikana - Rewah 22-9-2005
RAMPURA
Taluq - Uttar Pradesh
2-7-2008
RAMPURA (Western India) PS 26-3-2002
RANASAN PS 24-9-2002
RANDHIA PS 24-9-2002
RANIGAM PS 24-4-2003
RANIPURA PS 24-9-2002
RANPARDA (CHOK THANA) PS 24-4-2003
RANPUR Princely State - Orissa
9-1-2008
RANSIGAON
Thikana - Jodhpur
17-11-2009

RAOTI Thikana - Jodhpur 25-9-2008
RAPURIA ? 26-3-2002
RAS ?Thikana 24-9-2002
RATAN ? 24-4-2003
RATANMAL PS 24-9-2002
RATANPUR DHAMANKA PS 24-4-2003
RATESH (KOT) Zaildari - Keonthal 18-8-2004
RATLAM PS 24-9-2002
RAWATSAR Thikana - Bikaner 10-12-2001
REL Jagir - Sant 30-9-2004
RENGAN PS 26-3-2002
RENWAL Thikana - Jaipur 26-3-2002
REWAH PS 1-1-2002
RIAN Thikana - Jodhpur 25-4-2002
RIASI Zamindari 24-4-2003
RIDI Thikana
24-4-2003
RINDON ? 24-4-2003
RINSI
Thikana - Jodhpur
2-2-2009

ROHET Thikana - Jodhpur 25-4-2002
ROHISALA PS 24-4-2003
RONDU Jagir - Kashmir 17-8-2003
ROOPNAGAR Jagir - Udaipur 25-4-2002
RUPAL PS 24-4-2003

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/r/r.html

NAME OF STATE TYPE UPDATED

SABALDUR ? 26-3-2002
SACHIN PS 1-1-2002
SACHODAR ? 26-3-2002
SADA KHERI (SHEOGARH) PS 24-6-2002
SAHASPUR Zamindari 28-12-2001
SAHRAN ? 26-3-2002
SAHUKA PS 26-3-2002
SAILANA PS 1-1-2002
SAKTHALI Jagir - Pratapgarh 26-3-2002
SAKTI PS 24-9-2002
SALAMGARH Jagir - Pratapgarh 26-3-2002
SALEMPUR Zamindari 26-3-2002
SALUMBER Thikana - Udaipur 10-4-2002
SAMADIA
Thikana - Jodhpur
9-2-2009

SAMBHAR SHAMLAT 26-3-2002
SAMBHAR I ? 26-3-2002
SAMBHAR II ? 26-3-2002
SAMADHIALA (Chok Thana) PS 24-9-2002
SAMADHIALA (Chamardi Thana) PS 24-9-2002
SAMADHIALA CHHABHADIA PS 24-9-2002
SAMBALPUR PS 19-3-2002
SAMATHUR
Zamindari - Tamil Naidu
28-10-2008

SAMLA PS 26-3-2002
SAMODE Thikana - Jaipur 1-1-2002
SAMTHAR PS 24-9-2002
SANALA JETPUR PS 28-5-2003
SANAUDA 1-1-2002
SANDERAO ? 26-3-2002
SANDUR PS 24-9-2002
SANGANWA
Taluk
29-9-2008

SANGLI PS 24-9-2002
SANGRI PS 24-9-2002
SANJELI PS 24-9-2002
SANKHEDA MEWAS ? 26-3-2002
SANKHU
Thikana - Bikaner
2-4-2006

SANKHWAI ? 26-3-2002
SANKOTRA
Thikana - Jaipur
5-12-2009

SANOR ? 26-3-2002
SANOSRA PS 26-3-2002
SANSARI
Thikana
7-11-2006

SANT PS 1-1-2002
SANTALPUR (Thana) PS 24-9-2002
SANTHA Thikana 13-9-2003
SANTOSH Zamindari 1-1-2002
SANWAR
Thikana - Udaipur
19-8-2009

SAR LASHKAR ? 26-3-2002
SARANGARH PS 24-9-2002
SARANGI Thikana - Jhabua 24-9-2002
SARASANI
Thikana - Jodhpur
9-2-2009

SARDARGARH Thikana - Udaipur 8-1-2004
SARDARGARH-BANTVA PS 25-5-2003
SARDARGARH-BARAMAJMU PS 26-3-2002
SARILA PS 24-9-2002
SAROTHIA Thikana - Bikaner 23-5-2005
SARTHAL
Thikana - Jhalawar
25-2-2009

SARVARI
Thikana - Jaipur
12-10-2008

SARWAN PS 24-9-2002
SATANONESS PS 1-1-2002
SATARA PS 3-2-2002
SATHAMBA PS 24-9-2002
SATHEEN Thikana - Jodhpur 1-1-2002
SATHIN Thikana - Udaipur 1-1-2002
SATLASNA PS 24-9-2002
SATUDAD-VAVDI PS 1-1-2002
SAVANTVADI PS 24-9-2002
SAVANUR PS 24-9-2002
SAWAR Istimrari - Jodhpur 8-1-2004
SAYADPUR BHITARI see Ausanganj
Taluq - Oudh 24-9-2002
SAYLA PS 24-5-2003

SEBDI VADAR PS 26-3-2002
SEJAKPUR PS 1-1-2002
SELAM ? 26-3-2002
SEMLIA or SEMALYA Thikana - Sailana 1-1-2002
SEOHAR ?? 27-9-2002
SERAIKELLA PS 13-8-2003
SHAHJEHANPUR Zamindari - Uttar Pradesh
7-9-2009
SHAHMAU Taluk - Oudh 24-9-2002
SHAHPUR PS - Saurashtra 12-9-2002
SHAHPURA Thikana - Jaipur 8-1-2004
SHAHPURA PS - Udaipur 2-4-2003
SHANKU Thikana 1-1-2002
SHANOR PS 26-3-2002
SHEOGARH Thikana 1-1-2002
SHEOGARH (SADA KHERI) PS 26-3-2002
SHEOPUR-BARODA ? 2-4-2003
SHERGARH
Thikana - Jodhpur
30-8-2006

SHIGAR Jagir - Kashmir 17-8-2003
SHIVBARA PS 24-9-2002
SHIVPUR 26-3-2002
SHIVRAJPUR 1-1-2002
SHIVRATI Jagir - Udaipur 13-9-2003
SHORAPUR ? 26-3-2002
SHUJAOTA or SHAHJAOTA PS 24-9-2002
SIALKOT 1-1-2002
SIBA PS 8-1-2004
SIDHPURA Jagir - Pratapgarh 1-1-2002
SIDRI 26-3-2002
SIHORA PS 24-9-2002
SIKAR Thikana - Jaipur 16-9-2002
SIKKIM Kingdom 8-1-2004
SILANA PS 26-3-2002
SIND PS 24-9-2002
SINDHIAPURA PS 24-9-2002
SIRAS
Thikana - Jaipur
4-2-2006

SIRIYARI
Thikana - Jodhpur
15-1-2009

SIRMUR PS 1-1-2002
SIROHI PS 24-9-2002
SIRSI - Gwalior PS 24-9-2002
SIRSI - Malwa PS 24-9-2002
SISANG-CHANDLI PS 1-1-2002
SITAMAU PS 24-9-2002
SIVAGANGA Zamindari 1-1-2002
SIWAS
Thikana - Jodhpur
11-1-2009

SKARDU Jagir - Kashmir 17-8-2003
SODAWAS Thikana - Jodhpur 26-4-2002
SOHAGPUR
Thikana - Rewah
4-6-2008

SOHAWAL
PS 24-9-2002
SOLAN 1-1-2002
SONEPUR PS 24-9-2002
SONGADH (VACHHANI) PS 1-1-2002
SOOR Jagir - Idar 24-4-2002
SOTHIYA
Zamindari - Bhopal
5-6-2006

SRI MOHANGARH ? 26-3-2002
SUDAMADA DHANDHALPUR PS 1-1-2002
SUDASNA or SUDASANA PS 24-9-2002
SUIGAM PS 26-3-2002
SUKET PS 24-9-2002
SUNDEM PS 25-5-2003
SUNTH PS 24-9-2002
SURANGI
Zamindari - Orissa
13-1-2008

SURAT PS 25-5-2003
SURGANA PS 24-9-2002
SURGUJA PS 21-1-2004
SUSANGA Zamindari 8-1-2004
SWAT PS - Pakistan 1-8-2003

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/s/s.html

...and I am Sid Harth
Sid Harth
2010-02-03 17:32:33 UTC
Permalink
NAME OF STATE TYPE UPDATED

TAJPURI PS 24-9-2002
TALA Thikana - Rewah
24-9-2002
TALAWADA
Thikana - Udaipur
17-7-2009

TALCHER PS 24-9-2002
TALOLI Thikana 4-2-2002
TALSANA PS 1-6-2003
TAMKUHI
Zamindari
3-6-2008

TANA Thikana 4-2-2002
TANJORE PS 24-4-2002
TANTOTI Istimrari - Jodhpur 8-1-2004
TAPPA ? 24-9-2002
TARAON PS 24-9-2002
TASGAON ? 1-6-2003
TAVI PS 1-6-2003
TEHRI GARHWAL PS 29-11-2002
TEJPURA PS 1-6-2003
TEOTA
Zamindari - Bengal
26-5-2009

TERWADA PS 24-9-2002
THALRAI see KHAJURGAON Taluq 26-10-2003
THANA Thikana 4-2-2002
THANA DEVLI PS 1-6-2003
THARA PS 1-6-2003
THARAD PS 28-5-2003
THAROCH or TIROCH PS 24-9-2002
THEOG PS 7-10-2005
THEVARAM Zamindari 16-11-2003
TIGIRIA PS 24-9-2002
TILOI Taluk - Oudh 24-9-2002
TIMBA PS 24-9-2002
TIRWA Taluq? 24-9-2002
TODA VACHHANI PS 8-1-2004
TOKA ? 8-1-2004
TOLOI or TELOI or TILOI qv Zamindari 8-1-2004
TONK - Rajasthan PS 4-2-2002
TONK - Central India PS 24-9-2002
TORGAL PS 16-7-2005
TORI FATEHPUR PS 8-1-2004
TRAVANCORE PS 4-2-2002
TRIPURA PS 2-3-2003

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/t/t.html

NAME OF STATE TYPE UPDATED

UCHAD PS 24-9-2002
UDAIPUR (Rajasthan) PS 8-1-2004
UDAIPUR (Chhattisgarh) PS 4-2-2002
UDAYARPALAYAM Zamindari 1-11-2002
UDHANI
Thikana - Idar
1-3-2009

ULPUR (Shahpur) Zamindari
2-9-2008

UMARKOT Thikana - Jhabua 14-11-2006
UMAIDNAGAR Thikana 24-5-2004
UMETHA also UMETA PS 24-9-2002
UMRI (Guna) PS 24-9-2002
UMRI (Mahi Kantha) PS 24-9-2002
UNI PS 24-9-2002
UNIARA also UNIYARA Thikana
24-9-2002

UNTDI PS 24-5-2004
UNWAL Taluq? - Gorakhpur (UP) 24-5-2004
UPARWARA PS 24-9-2002
UTELIA Thikana
24-5-2004

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/u/u.html

NAME OF STATE TYPE UPDATED

VAANSDA Thikana 24-9-2002
VADAL BHANDARIA PS 24-9-2002
VADALI PS 24-9-2002
VADHARVA
Thikana - Kathaiawad
27-11-2006

VADHYAWAN PS 24-9-2002
VADIA PS 24-5-2003
VADOD (DEVANI) PS 24-9-2002
VADOD (JHALAWAR) PS 24-9-2002
VAGHAVADI (Vaghvori) PS 24-9-2002
VAHALI Jagir - Punjab
28-2-2007
VAJIRIA PS 24-9-2002
VAKHTAPUR (Gujarat) PS 24-9-2002
VAKHTAPUR (Western India) PS 26-3-2002
VALA PS 28-5-2003
VALA (Amra Moka Estate or Alidhra) Mendarda PS 28-5-2003
VALA (Bhan Desa Estate or Vaghania) Barwala PS 28-5-2003
VALA (Champraj Jasa Estate) Jetpur PS 28-5-2003
VALA (Manasia Nag Estate) Mendarda PS 28-5-2003
VALA (Surag Mulu Estate) Mendarda PS 28-5-2003
VALA (Bhabhabhai Unad Estate) Thumbala, Chuda, Jetpur PS 28-5-2003
VALA (Unad Rana Estate) Chital PS 28-5-2003
VALA (Ebhal Vajsur Estate or Sanathali) Jetpur PS 28-5-2003
VALA (Suryapratapgadh or Jethsur Punja Estate) Jetpur PS 28-5-2003
VALA (Anida or Mansur Punja Estate) Jetpur PS 28-5-2003
VALA (Kanthad Wala Estate) Bilkha PS 28-5-2003
VALA (Rawat Wala Estate) Bilkha PS 28-5-2003
VALA (Hadala Estate) Bagasra PS 28-5-2003
VALA (Ram Harsur Estate) Bagasra PS 28-5-2003
VALA (Ram and Vira Mulu Estate) [Khari-]Bagasra PS 28-5-2003
VALA (Giga Hipa Estate) Sanala PS 28-5-2003
VALA (Bhaya Nathu Estate) Bhayavadar PS 28-5-2003
VALA (Desa Nag Estate) Mayapadar PS 28-5-2003
VALA (Mulu Surag Estate) Pithadia Jetpur PS 28-5-2003
VALA (Valera Raning Estate) Khijadia PS 28-5-2003
VALA (Amarnagar) Thana Devli PS 28-5-2003
VALA (Harsur Vajsur Estate) Nana Devalia PS 28-5-2003
VALASNA PS 24-9-2002
VANA PS 24-9-2002
VANALA PS 24-9-2002
VANGADHRA PS 24-9-2002
VANOD PS 28-5-2003
VARATHI (Thana) PS 26-9-2002
VARNOL MOTI PS 24-9-2002
VARNOL NANI PS 24-9-2002
VARNOLMAL PS 26-3-2002
VARSODA PS 24-4-2002
VASAN SEVADA PS 24-9-2002
VASAN VIRPUR PS 24-9-2002
VASAVAD MAJMU PS 26-3-2002
VASNA PS 24-9-2002
VASURNA PS 24-9-2002
VATRAK KANTHA THANA ? 26-3-2002
VAVDI (Vachhani) PS 24-9-2002
VAVDI-DHARVALA PS 24-9-2002
VEJANONESS PS 24-9-2002
VEKARIA PS 24-9-2002
VENKATAGIRI Zamindari 8-1-2004
VERAGAON Jagir - Pratapgarh 24-9-2002
VICHHAVAD PS 24-9-2002
VIJALIA ?
24-9-2002
VIJAYNAGAR PS 23-2-2003
VIJAYANAGRAM Zamindari 24-9-2002
VIJIRIA PS? 24-9-2002
VILDYS Thikana 24-9-2002
VINCHOOR ?
24-9-2002
VIRAMPURA PS 24-9-2002
VIRPUR PS 24-5-2003
VIRSODA PS 24-9-2002
VIRVA or VIRVAO PS 24-9-2002
VISHALGADH Jagir 16-7-2005
VITHALGADH PS 13-9-2002
VIZAGAPATAM ? 1-7-2002
VIZIANAGRAM Zamindari 24-9-2002
VORA same as?? VOHORA PS 24-9-2002

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/v/v.html

NAME OF STATE TYPE - LOCATION UPDATED

WADAGAM PS 9-9-2002
WADHWAN PS 24-5-2003
WADHWAN THANA Jagir
26-3-2002
WADI JAGIR PS 1-5-2008
WAH Jagir
29-7-2008
WAI Zamindari
26-3-2002
WANKANER PS 24-5-2003
WANPARTI or Wanapurthi Samasthan - Hyderabad
26-3-2002
WAO or VAV PS 8-1-2004
WARAHI (Moti Jatwad or Jorawarkhanji's Estate) PS 15-5-2003
WARAHI (Muradkhanji's Estate) PS 15-5-2003
WARSORA see VARSODA PS 26-9-2002
WASNA see VASNA PS 26-3-2002

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/w/w.html

NAME OF STATE TYPE UPDATED
YELANDUR Jagir - Mysore 19-2-2002

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/y/y.html

NAME OF STATE TYPE UPDATED

ZAIDA Zamindari 27-5-2002
ZAINABAD PS 24-5-2003
ZABARDAST KHANJI PS 26-3-2002
ZANIADRA ? 20-4-2002

http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/z/z.html

For members of the Indian Princely States families.

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HENRY SOSZYNSKI
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INDIA-ROYALTY, a Mailing List for the Indian Princely States

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INDEX OF PERSONS

Daughter
Daughter
ABDUL KARIM KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
ABDUL MAJID KHAN DILER JANG BAHADUR, Nawab [1960 - ]
ABDUL RASHID KHAN DILER JANG BAHADUR, Nawab
ABDULLAH KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
ABDUS SAMAD KHAN, Nawab [27 SEP 1874 - 27 JAN 1943]
AFTAB ZAMANI BEGUM, [11 SEP 1928 - 4 AUG 1993]
AHMAD ALI KHAN, Nawab Syed [1786/1787 - 5 JUL 1840]
AHMED, Mahira
AHMED, Bader Durrez Justice
AHMED, Zulnoor Ali
AIMADUDDIN AHMED KHAN BAHADUR, Nawabzada Mirza [29 JUN 1944 - ]
AITIZAZUDDIN AHMED KHAN, Sahibzada Mirza [1899 - ]
AIZZUDDIN AHMAD KHAN (FAHAD MIRZA), Sahibzada Mirza [3 OCT 1991 - ]
AIZZUDDIN AHMED KHAN BAHADUR, Capt. HH Nawab Mirza [ - 1926]
AKBAR ALI KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
ALAUDDIN AHMED KHAN II BAHADUR, HH Nawab Mirza [30 JUL 1938 - ]
ALI MOHAMMAD KHAN (KAIVAAN MIAN), Nawabzada Syed [16 FEB 1989 - ]
ALI MUHAMMED KHAN, Nawab Syed [1705/1706 - 16 SEP 1749]
ALIYA SULTAN BEGUM, Sahibzadi [1888 - ?? FEB 1967]
ALIYA SULTANA, Nawabzadi
ALLAH YAR KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
AMINUDDIN AHMED KHAN BAHADUR, Capt. HH Nawab Mirza [23 MAR 1911 - ??
JUN 1983]
AMIRUDDIN AHMAD KHAN (FARRUKH MIRZA), Nawabzada Mirza [10 OCT 1961
- ]
AMIRUDDIN AHMED KHAN BAHADUR, HH Al-Haj Nawab Mirza Sir [1859 - 1937]
ARSHAD AHMAD KHAN (ARSHAD MIRZA), Sahibzada Mirza [12 JUL 1997 - ]
ASIF MOYEEN, Sahibzada
ASKARI BEGUM SAHEBA, HH Rafat Zamani Begum [1907 - 19 OCT 1987]
AZIMUDDIN KHAN, Gen. Sahibzada [1854 - 1891]
BANDEY ALI KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
BASHIRUDDIN AHMED KHAN, Nawabzada
BEGUM ABIDA SAHEBA, [1924 - ]
BEGUM ANJUM SULTANA, [1970 - ]
BEGUM FARHAT SULTANA,
CHHAMMAN KHAN SAHIB, Sahibzada Syed
FAIZA AHMED KHAN, Sahibzadi
FAIZA KHUSRO, Sahibzadi
FAIZULLAH KHAN, Nawab Syed [1733/1734 - 17 JUL 1794]
FAKHAR BEGUM SAHEBA,
FAKHRA BEGUM, Nawabzadi
FAKHRUDDIN ALI AHMED, Shri [13 MAY 1905 - 11 FEB 1977]
FATEH ALI KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
FATIMA SULTAN BEGUM,
FAUZIA BEGUM,
GHULAM MUHAMMED KHAN, Nawab Syed [1762/1763 - 27 OCT 1794]
HABIBULLAH, Muneeza [17 JAN 1944 - ]
HABIBULLAH, Naushaba [3 SEP 1948 - ]
HABIBULLAH, Shama [1941 - ]
HABIBULLAH, Ali Bahadur [ - 11 NOV 1982]
HABIBULLAH, Inayat Bahadur
HABIBULLAH, Isha'at Bahadur Maj.Gen.(retd.) [ - ?? DEC 1991]
HABIBULLAH, Waris [1938 - ]
HAIDER ALI KHAN (HAMZAH MIAN), Nawabzada Syed [19 MAR 1990 - ]
HAJRA KHUSRO, Sahibzadi
HAMZA AHMAD KHAN (HAMZA MIRZA), Sahibzada Mirza [6 JUL 2002 - ]
HASAN ALI KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
HASAN ALI KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
HOSAIN, Attia [20 OCT 1913 - 23 JAN 1998]
HUSAIN ALI KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
HYDER ALI KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
IRFAN ALI KHAN, Sahibzada
JAFAR ALI KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
JAHANARA BEGUM, Nawabzadi
JALALUDDIN KHAN, Nawab [ - 1857/1858]
KALBEY HASAN KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
KARIMULLAH ALI KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
KAZIM ALI KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
KHAN, ALAUDDIN AHMED Nawab [1833 - 1884]
KHURSHID LAQA BEGUM, Nawabzadi Syeda [ - 16 JUN 1967]
KORESHI, Abbas Asadullah Sahibzada [27 JUL 1982 - ]
KORESHI, S. M. His Excellency Dr.
KORESHI, Zafar Ullah Dr.
MAHBANO BEGUM, [24 JUL 1936 - ]
MAHMUD ALI KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
MAJLIS ARA BEGUM,
MEHER AFSHAR SULTANA, Nawabzadi
MOHAMMAD KAZIM ALI KHAN (NAVAID MIAN), HH Nawab Syed [16 OCT 1960 - ]
MOHAMMAD KHUSRO, Sardar Shri Sahib
MOHAMMED HABIBULLAH, Sheikh
MOINUDDIN AHMED KHAN (SHAHZADA MIRZA), Sahibzada Hafiz Haj Mirza [26
FEB 1912 - ]
MUBARAK ALI KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
MUHAMMED ALI KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
MUHAMMED ALI KHAN, Nawab Syed [1752/1753 - 20 SEP 1794]
MUHAMMED HAMID ALI KHAN BAHADUR, Col. HH Nawab Sir Syed [31 AUG 1875 -
20 JUN 1930]
MUHAMMED IBRAHIM ALI KHAN BAHADUR, HH Nawab Sir Hafiz [1848 - 23 JUN
1930]
MUHAMMED KALBEY ALI KHAN, Nawab Syed [1834 - 23 MAR 1887]
MUHAMMED MURTAZA ALI KHAN BAHADUR, HH Nawab Syed [22 NOV 1923 - 7 FEB
1982]
MUHAMMED MUSHTAQ ALI KHAN BAHADUR, Nawab Syed [1856 - 25 FEB 1889]
MUHAMMED RAZA ALI KHAN BAHADUR, HH Nawab Dr. Sir Syed [17 NOV 1906 - 6
MAR 1966]
MUHAMMED SAID ALI KHAN, Nawab Syed [19 MAY 1786 - 1 APR 1855]
MUHAMMED SALABAT KHAN II SAHIB BAHADUR, [20 MAY 1944 - ]
MUHAMMED USMAN KHAN, Sahibzada
MUHAMMED YAR KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
MUHAMMED YUSUF ALI KHAN, Nawab Syed [5 MAR 1816 - 20 APR 1865]
MURTAZA KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
NADIZ ZAMANI BEGUM,
NAZIM ALI KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
NOOR BAKHTE BEGUM,
NURUL HASAN, Syed [26 DEC 1921 - 12 JUL 1993]
OMAR MOYEEN, Sahibzada [12 MAY 1988 - ]
QASIM ALI KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
QUDSIA BEGUM,
RIAZUDDIN AHMAD KHAN (RIAZ MIRZA), Nawabzada Mirza [13 JAN 1963 - ]
ROSHANARA NOOR BANO BEGUM SAHEBA, HH Mehtab Zamani Begum [11 NOV 1939
- ]
SA'ADULLAH KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
SABA ALI KHAN (KANEEZ E-SHERBANO), Nawabzadi Syeda [2 FEB 1959 - ]
SABIR ALI KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
SADIA BANO BEGUM, Nawabzadi [10 FEB 1967 - ]
SAEEDA BANO, HH
SAFDAR ALI KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
SAMAN ALI KHAN (KANEEZ E-RABAB), Nawabzadi Syeda [17 NOV 1957 - ]
SARA BEGUM, HH
SHAHBANO BEGUM,
SHAMSUNNISSA BEGUM, Sahibzadi
SHAUKAT JEHAN BEGUM, HH
SHEHR BANO MEHR JABEEN REHANA BEGUM, Nawabzadi
SUHEILUDDIN AHMED KHAN (TUGHRAL MIRZA), Sahibzada Mirza [1938 - ]
SULTAN BEGUM, HH Shahzadi [1912 - 1994]
SULTAN MUHAMMAD SALAUDDIN KHAN, Nawabzada [1979 - ]
YAKUB KHAN, Nawabzada
YAQUB ALI KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
YASEEN SULTAN JEHAN SAHEBA, HH Firdaus Zamani Begum [27 MAR 1968 - ]
YUNUS KHAN, Nawabzada
YUSUF KHAN, Nawabzada
ZALNUR ALI AHMED, Col.
ZAMAL ABIDIN KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
ZARBADAST KHAN HUSAM UL-MULK, Sahibzada
ZAYED MOYEEN, Sahibzada [24 MAY 1986 - ]
ZOYA MOYEEN, Sahibzadi [10 FEB 1995 - ]
ZULFIQUAR ALI KHAN, Nawabzada Syed
ZULFIQUAR ALI KHAN BAHADUR, HH Nawab Syed [11 MAR 1933 - 5 APR 1992]

This page updated on 7 AUG 2004 : Database maintained by Henry
Soszynski

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~royalty/rampur/persons.html

Search billions of records on Ancestry.com

INDEX OF PERSONS

Adela
Aziza
Daughter
Daughter
Daughter
Kubrajan
SON [?? FEB 1929 - ]
SON
ABDUL AZIZ KHAN, Sardar
ABDUL BAQI,
ABDUL KADIR KHAN, Sardar
ABDUL KARIM KHAN,
ABDUL MAJID KHAN, [30 APR 1907 - 1929/1936]
ABDUL QUDDUS KHAN, Sardar
ABDUL RAHIM KHAN, Sardar
ABDUL WALI KHAN, General Sardar [5 JAN 1925 - ]
ABDULAZIZ KHAN,
ABDULAZIZ KHAN,
ABDULLAH KHAN, [1862 - ?? AUG 1878]
ABDULLAH KHAN,
ABDULQADIR KHAN,
ABDULSAMAD KHAN, Sardar [10 AUG 1893 - ]
ABDUR RASHID KHAN, [1901 - ]
ABDURRAHMAN KHAN, [1844 - 3 OCT 1901]
ABDUS SAMAD KHAN, Nawab
ABIDA BEGUM, HRH Princess [10 OCT 1917 - ]
ADELA BEGUM, HRH Princess [28 OCT 1925 - ]
AHMAD ALI KHAN, Sardar [1898 - ]
AHMAD ALI KHAN, [14 JUN 1906 - Bef 1939?]
AHMAD AYUB KHAN DURRANI, Sardar [1926 - 1969]
AHMAD SHAH KHAN, HE Sardar [1891 - ]
AHMAD SHAH KHAN, HRH Crown Prince [23 SEP 1934 - ]
AHMAD WALI KHAN, Sardar [1921 - ]
AHMED SIDIQ HAYA, Sardar
ALI AHMAD KHAN, Wali [1883 - ?? JUL 1929]
ALI SHAH JAN, Sardar [1900 - ]
ALIAH BEGUM, [1926 - ]
ALIAH BEGUM,
AMANULLAH KHAN, HM King [1 JUN 1892 - 26 APR 1960]
AMANULLAH KHAN DURRANI, Sardar
AMIN JAN KHAN, [1911 - ]
AMINA BEGUM,
AMINA BEGUM, HRH Princess [14 MAY 1915 - ]
AMINULLAH KHAN, [12 OCT 1885 - ]
AMIR, Soraya
AMIR MUHAMMED KHAN,
AREF, Fatmah Princess
AREF, Mariam Wali [1974 - ]
AREF, Zadran [1971 - ]
AREF, Zahra
AREF, Mohammad Tareq
AREF, Wali
AREF KHAN, General
ARIANE KHANUM, HRH Princess
ASADULLAH KHAN, [23 MAY 1910 - ]
ASADULLAH KHAN,
AYESHA BEGUM, [1920 - ]
AZIZULLAH QATIL, [1892 - 1935]
BALQIS BEGUM, HRH Princess [1922 - ]
BEGUM FARAH MIR, Sahebzadi
BIBI EVA KHANUM,
BILQIS BEGUM, HRH Princess [1932 - ]
BILQIS KHANUM, HRH Princess
DAOUD KHAN, HRH Prince [16 JAN 1966 - ]
DOST MUHAMMED KHAN, HH Emir [Abt 1790 - 9 JUN 1863]
DURRANI, Anjumun Sonia
DURRANI, Benezir Khanum
DURRANI, Mahjbeen Khanum
DURRANI, Nazifah Khanum
DURRANI, Nazrin Khanum
DURRANI, Nooriman Khanum
DURRANI, Parwin Khanum
DURRANI, Saira
DURRANI, Tahira Tina
DURRANI, Amar Imranullah Sardar
DURRANI, Ziaullah Sardar
FAIZ MUHAMMED KHAN, Sardar
FAIZ SEKANDER, General
FATEH MUHAMMED KHAN, Sardar [1863 - ]
FATH ALI KHAN, [1777 - ?? AUG 1818]
FATHULLAH KHAN, [ - Bef 1918]
FAZL AHMAD KHAN, Sardar
FREUDEN KHAN DURRANI, Sardar
GAILANI, Fatima
GAILANI, Ahmad Sayyid [1932 - ]
GAILANI, Hamid
GAILANI, Muhammad Sayyid
GHULAM AHMAD KHAN,
GHULAM ALI KHAN, [3 SEP 1890 - 1920]
GHULAM HAYDAR KHAN, [ - 2 JUL 1858]
GHULAM MUHAMMED KHAN, Sardar [1904 - ]
GUL MUHAMMED KHAN, Sardar [1876 - ]
GUL MUHAMMED KHAN, [1912 - ]
HABIBULLAH KHAN, HH Sir Amir [3 JUN 1872 - 20 FEB 1919]
HABIBULLAH KHAN DURRANI, Sardar
HADAYATULLAH KHAN,
HAMDAN SULTANA,
HAMIDA BEGUM,
HASAN JAN KHAN,
HASANULLAH KHAN, HRH Prince [3 OCT 1926 - ]
HAWA BEGUM,
HAYATULLAH KHAN, [29 DEC 1888 - 17 OCT 1929]
HEDAYATULLAH KHAN, HRH Prince Shahdazajan [1912 - ]
HOMA KHANUM DURRANI,
HOMAIRAH BEGUM, [1918 - 26 JUN 2002]
HUMAYUM KHAN DURRANI, Sardar [1 NOV 1963 - ]
IBRAHIM KHAN,
INAYATULLAH KHAN, HM King [20 OCT 1888 - 12 AUG 1946]
INDIA BEGUM, [7 JUN 1929 - ]
JABBAR KHAN,
JAMAL KHAN BARAKZAI, Haj [1719 - 1770/1771]
KADHER KHAN DURRANI, Sardar
KADICE SERAJ,
KAZIM KHAN, [1869 - ]
KHADIDJA POPALZAY,
KHAN, Mustafa Sardar
KHAN MUHAMMED KHAN, Sardar
KHATUL BEGUM,
KHUSH DIL KHAN, Loynab
KOHAN DIL KHAN, [ - ?? AUG 1855]
KOLTSIA BEGUM,
LALIFAH BEGUM, [?? AUG 1930 - ]
MAHBOUB GHAZI BEGUM,
MALIKA BEGUM, HRH Princess [13 APR 1920 - ]
MALOUK KHAN DURRANI, Sardar
MARGHALAY BEGUM, [ - 1998]
MARYAM BEGUM, HRH Princess [1936 - ]
MIR DIL,
MIR WAIS KHAN, HRH Prince [1957 - ]
MOSTAPHA KHAN, HRH Prince [2 MAY 1964 - ]
MUHAMMED AFZAL KHAN, [1811 - 7 OCT 1867]
MUHAMMED AFZAT KHAN, [1912 - ]
MUHAMMED AKBAR KHAN, [ - 1849]
MUHAMMED AKBAR KHAN, HRH Prince [10 AUG 1933 - 26 NOV 1942]
MUHAMMED AKBAR KHAN DURRANI, Sardar
MUHAMMED AKRAM KHAN, [1892 - ]
MUHAMMED AKTAR KHAN,
MUHAMMED ALI KHAN, Sardar [ - Bef 1936]
MUHAMMED AMIN KHAN, [ - 1865]
MUHAMMED AMIN KHAN,
MUHAMMED ASAF KHAN, Sardar [1866 - ]
MUHAMMED ASLAM KHAN, Sardar
MUHAMMED AYUB KHAN, Sardar [1854/1857 - ?? APR 1914]
MUHAMMED AYUB KHAN DURRANI, Sardar [ - Bef 1933]
MUHAMMED AZAM KHAN, Emir [1818 - 12 OCT 1869]
MUHAMMED AZAM KHAN, [1896 - ]
MUHAMMED AZAM KHAN, Sardar
MUHAMMED AZIM KHAN,
MUHAMMED AZIZ KHAN, HE Sardar [1875 - 6 JUN 1933]
MUHAMMED AZIZ KHAN, Sardar [ - 27 APR 1978]
MUHAMMED DAOUD KHAN, HE Sardar [1909 - 27 APR 1978]
MUHAMMED DAOUD PASHTUNYAR KHAN, HRH Prince [1949 - ]
MUHAMMED HASHIM KHAN, HE Sardar [1884/1891 - 26 OCT 1953]
MUHAMMED HASHIM KHAN, Sardar
MUHAMMED HEMIL KHAN,
MUHAMMED ISHAQ KHAN, Emir [1851 - ]
MUHAMMED NADIR KHAN, HM King [10 APR 1880 - 8 NOV 1933]
MUHAMMED NADIR KHAN, HRH Prince [1941 - ]
MUHAMMED NAIM KHAN, HE Sardar [1910 - 27 APR 1978]
MUHAMMED OSMAN KHAN,
MUHAMMED QABIR KHAN, [4 OCT 1895 - ]
MUHAMMED RAFIQ KHAN,
MUHAMMED SADIQ KHAN,
MUHAMMED SARVAR KHAN, [1894 - ]
MUHAMMED SHARIF KHAN, [ - ?? AUG 1883]
MUHAMMED SIDDIQ KHAN,
MUHAMMED SULAIMAN KHAN, Sardar
MUHAMMED UMAR KHAN, [1897 - ]
MUHAMMED UMAR KHAN, [1901 - ]
MUHAMMED UMAR KHAN, [16 SEP 1889 - ]
MUHAMMED WALI KHAN, Sardar
MUHAMMED YAQUB KHAN, [1849 - 15 NOV 1923]
MUHAMMED YUNUS KHAN, Sardar
MUHAMMED YUSUF KHAN, Sardar
MUHAMMED ZAHER KHAN, [1962 - ]
MUHAMMED ZAHIR SHAH, HM al-Mutawakkil al-Allah [30 OCT 1914 - ]
MUHAMMED ZAMAN KHAN,
MURTAZA KHAN DURRANI,
MUSA JAN KHAN, [1868 - 1951]
MUSTAFA KHAN DURRANI,
NADER KHAN, Sardar
NADJIAH BEGUM, [?? JAN 1934 - ]
NADJIAH BEGUM, [20 JUN 1930 - ]
NASRULLAH KHAN, HH Amir [7 APR 1875 - 31 MAY 1920]
NASSER-ZIYA, Humaira
NASSER-ZIYA, Hamid
NAZAR SEKANDER, Dr.
NAZIFAH BEGUM, [?? JUL 1928 - ]
NIK MOHAMMED KHAN,
NOAL BEGUM, HRH Princess [1980 - ]
NUR AHMAD KHAN, [1895 - ]
NUR AHMAD KHAN, [ - 1929]
NURUL SIRAJ,
PASHTUNYAR, Doran Daoud HRH Prince [1974 - ]
PAYINDA KHAN, [ - ?? OCT 1800]
QAMAR SULTAN BEGUM, [1921 - ]
RAHMATULLAH KHAN, HRH Crown Prince [7 JUN 1921 - ]
RAHMDIL KHAN,
RESMIYEH KHANUM,
ROKHSHAN BEGUM, [4 JUL 1956 - ]
ROMIN KHAN DURRANI,
SAFRIAH SAMAR AL SIRAJ, [1904 - ]
SAFURA BEGUM,
SAFURA QAMZUL BINAT, [1902 - ]
SALIH MUHAMMED KHAN,
SALTIK, Pakize Izzet Dr.
SANTERNO, Giulio_Omar_Khan SEGURINI di
SARA BEGUM,
SEKANDER KHAN,
SHAH ABDUL AZIM KHAN, Sardar [?? AUG 1932 - ]
SHAH BOBO ZULIKA KHANUM,
SHAH MAHMUD KHAN, HRH Prince [15 NOV 1946 - ?? DEC 2002]
SHAH MAHMUD KHAN GHAZI, HE Sardar [1887/1890 - 27 DEC 1959]
SHAH WALI KHAN, HE Prince [16 APR 1888 - 1976]
SHAHZADA KHANUM, [ - 1911/1912]
SHER DIL KHAN, Shahghasi Loynab
SHIR AHMAD KHAN, Sardar [1883 - ]
SHIR AHMAD KHAN, [1894 - ]
SHIR ALI,
SHIR ALI KHAN, Emir [1825 - 21 FEB 1879]
SIRAJUL BINAT,
STEENSGAARD, Anthony [21 MAR 1963 - 10 APR 2008]
STEENSGAARD, Alexandra [1st AUG 2003 - ]
SUFI DIN MUHAMMED KHAN, Sardar
SULEIMAN JAN KHAN, Sardar [1881 - ]
SULTAN AHMAD KHAN, Sardar [1904 - ]
SULTAN AHMAD KHAN, Amir
SULTAN AHMAD KHAN, [1892 - ]
SULTAN MAHMUD KHAN, Sardar [1925 - ]
SULTAN MUHAMMED KHAN, [Abt 1770 - 1833/1838]
SULTANA BEGUM, HRH Princess [1920 - ]
TAJ MUHAMMED KHAN, Sardar
TARZI, ABDUL AZIZ Sardar
TARZI, ABDUL FETTAH Sardar [ - 1978]
TARZI, ABDUL KADER Sardar
TARZI, ABDUL TAWAB Sardar
TARZI, ABDUL WAHAB Sardar
TARZI, Amina Seraj
TARZI, Ayte
TARZI, Aziza
TARZI, Fatma
TARZI, Houriya
TARZI, Kawkab Khanum [1895 - ]
TARZI, Kayriya Seraj
TARZI, MAHMUD
TARZI, MAHMUTCAN
TARZI, MEHMED
TARZI, MUSTAFA
TARZI, Soraya Khanum HM Queen [1897 - 21 APR 1968]
TARZI Hanim Efendi, Zeyneb HIH Princess [16 DEC 1940 - ]
TARZI, GHULAM MUHAMMED [1830 - 1900]
TARZI, MAHMUD BEG KHAN HE Sardar [23 AUG 1865 - 1933]
UBAIDULLAH KHAN, [18 NOV 1915 - ]
ULYA HAZRAT,
ULYA JENAB,
UMAIRAH BEGUM, [1927 - ]
WALI, Homaira [1953 - ]
WALI, Mayena [1960 - ]
WALI, Wana [1956 - ]
WALI MUHAMMED KHAN, Sardar
WALI SHAH KHAN, Sardar [?? JUL 1926 - ]
YAHYA KHAN, Sardar
YAQUB KHAN DURRANI, Sardar
YAR MUHAMMAD KHAN, Wazir [ - 1 JUN 1851]
YASMIN GUL KHANUM DURRANI,
YUNUS KHAN, [1876 - ]
ZAHERA BEGUM, HRH Princess [1915 - ]
ZAINAB BEGUM, HRH Princess [1919 - ]
ZALMAN KHAN, Sardar [1923 - ]
ZARIN BEGUM,
ZARMINA BEGUM, HRH Princess [1919 - ]
ZEKRYA, Lema Princess [27 MAR 1980 - ]
ZEKRYA, Hamzah Prince [8 JAN 1983 - ]
ZEKRYA, Tadj Ahmed
ZIAYI, Abdul Hakim [1915 - ]
ZIKRIA, Faiz Muhammed Sardar [1894 - 1979]
ZIKRIA KHAN, Sardar
ZULAIKAH KHANUM HAYA,

This page updated on 5 AUG 2003 : Database maintained by Henry
Soszynski

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INDEX OF PERSONS

Daughter [MAR 2001 - ]
Daughter
Daughter
Daughter [ - 21 OCT 1919]
Daughter1
Daughter2
Daughter3
Daughter4
Daughter4
Sri Panch Bada Maharani
Sri Panch Kanchhi Maharani
AISHWARYA RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, HM Queen [7 NOV 1949 - 1 JUN 2001]
AJATSHATRU SINGH, Maharajkumar [6 FEB 1966 - ]
AKSHITA MANJARI BHANJA DEO, Maharajkumari [1992 - ]
AMAR PRAKASH BAHADUR, Lt. Col. HH Maharajah Sir [26 JAN 1888 - 13 AUG
1933]
AMBIKA RANA,
ANANYA RAJE, Maharajkumari [APR 2002 - ]
ARIMARDAN SINGH, HH Maharaja [29 DEC 1903 - 8 NOV 1941]
BAHADUR RANA, Bam Shri [ - 1857]
BAHADUR RANA, Krishna Shri
BAHADUR RANA, Lalit Cdg.Gen. Shri
BAHADUR RANA, Ranadip Singh Cdg.Gen. HH Shri Tin Maharaja [1825 - 22
NOV 1885]
BAHADUR RANA, Uttam Shri [1892 - ]
BAHADUR SHAH, Maharajkumar [ - 1795]
BAHADUR SINHJI, HH Maharajah Shri Sir [3 APR 1900 - ]
BAL NARSINGH KUNWAR RANA,
BALA KUMARI DEVI, HH Bada Maharani
BASUNDHARA BIR BIKRAM SHAH DEV, HRH Prince [25 NOV 1921 - 31 AUG
1977]
BHADWAL TRILOKPUR, Rani
BHARATI RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, HRH Princess [17 FEB 1928 - ]
BHARATI RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, HH Maharani
BHAWANI SINGH, HH Maharaja Sawai [22 OCT 1931 - ]
BHUVAN RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, Rani
BIBHU KUMARI DEVI, HH Maharani [28 JUN 1944 - ]
BIKRAM RANA, Bam Shri
BIKRAM RANA, Indra Shri
BIKRAM SINGH, Rao Raja
BIPULA SHAHI, Rao Rani
BIR BIKRAM KISHORE DEV VARMA, HH Maharaja Manikya [19 AUG 1908 - 17
MAY 1947]
BIR BIKRAM SINGH, Rao Sahib
BIRENDRA BIR BIKRAM SHAH DEV, HM King [28 DEC 1945 - 1 JUN 2001]
BRAJRAJ SINGH, HH Maharawal
CHANDA KANWAR, Thakurani
CHANDRA RAJYA LAKSHMI, Rani [1895 - 18 JUL 1934]
CHANDRABATI, Maharani
DALAMARDAN SHAH, Raja
DALJIT SHAH, Rajkumar
DEB BURMAN, Pragya Maharaj Kumari [10 JAN 1969 - ]
DEB BURMAN, Pradyot Yuvaraj [4 JUL 1976 - ]
DEVA VAKTA LAKSHMI DEVI, Rani
DHAN KUMARI DEVI, Rani
DHARMA RAJYA LAKSHMI,
DHIRENDRA BIR BIKRAM SHAH DEV, HRH Prince [4 JAN 1950 - 4 JUN 2001]
DIBYA RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, Rao Rani
DIGVIJAY SINGH, Rao Sahib [27 MAR 1963 - ]
DIGVIJAY SINGHJI, HH Maharajah Shri Sir [1 SEP 1895 - 3 FEB 1966]
DIKSHYA KUMARI DEVI, HH Bada Maharani
DILASHA RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, HRH Princess
DIPENDRA BIR BIKRAM SHAH DEV, HM King [27 JUN 1971 - 4 JUN 2001]
DIVYA KUMARI, Maharajkumari [1970 - ]
DIVYESWARI RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, Maharani
DURGA LAKSHMI DEVI,
DUSHYANT SINGH, Yuvraj [1973 - ]
GAEKWAD, Sangram Singh Maharajkumar
GAJ SINGHJI II SAHIB BAHADUR, HH Raj Rajeshwar Maharajadhiraja
Maharaja Shri [13 JAN 1948 - ]
GAJRAJE RANE, Maharani [ - 1943]
GANGA RAJYA LAKSHMI,
GIRVAN YUDDHA BIKRAM SHAH, Maharaja [1797 - 22 NOV 1816]
GREANEY), Mrs. Shirley Shah (née Shirley [1960 - ]
GULAB KUNWERBA, HH Maharani
GYANENDRA BIR BIKRAM SHAH DEV, HM King [7 JUL 1947 - ]
HANWANT SINGHJI SAHIB BAHADUR, HH Maharaja [16 JUN 1923 - 26 JAN
1952]
HARDAYAL SINGH, Rao Raja
HARI SINGH BAHADUR, HH Shri Maharaja [30 SEP 1895 - 26 APR 1961]
HELEN RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, HRH Princess [21 SEP 1932 - ]
HEM RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, Rani
HEMANT SINGH, HH Maharaja
HEMLATA RAJYA, HH Maharani
HIMALAYA BIR BIKRAM SHAH DEV, HRH Prince [12 OCT 1921 - 9 MAY 1980]
HIMANI RAJYA LAKSMI DEVI, HRH Princess [1 OCT 1976 - ]
HOMA RAJYA LAKSHMI, [1913 - ]
HRIDAYENDRA BIR BIKRAM SHAH DEV, Shri Panch Nava Yuvaraj [30 JUL 2002
- ]
INDIRA DEVI, HH Maharani
INDIRA RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, Rani
INDRA RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, HM Queen [1924 - 27 AUG 1950]
INDRA RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, Rao Rani
INDRAJITENDRA NARAIN SINGH, Yuvaraj Sahib [27 JAN 1938 - ]
ISHWARI RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, HM Queen
JAGAT DEV SINGH, Raja [ - 1940]
JAYA RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, Rani
JAYANT SINGH JU DEO, HH Maharajadhiraj Sipahdar-ul-Mulk [23 MAY 1952
- ]
JAYANTI RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, HRH Princess [ - 1 JUN 2001]
JAYATI KUMARI, Maharaj Kumari [4 FEB 1982 - ]
JAYRAJ SINGH JU DEO, Maharaj Kumar [3 NOV 1985 - ]
JAYY SINGH JU DEO, Raja Bahadur [13 OCT 1984 - ]
JIVAJI III RAO SCINDIA, HH Maharajah Sir [26 JUN 1916 - 1961]
JUHAR KUMARI DEVI, Maharani [ - 1916]
JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Cdg.Gen. HH Shri Tin Maharaja Sir [18 JUN 1817 - 25
FEB 1877]
JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Gyan Shri
JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Jodhar Shri
JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Yuddha Pratap Cdg. Gen. Maharaja Sri Tin [ - 22 DEC
1885]
JUNG RANA, Belayat Shri
JUNG RANA, Dilli Bir Shri
JUNG RANA, Jagat Cdg. Gen. Maharaja Sri Tin [ - 1885]
JUNG RANA, Jeet Cdg. Gen. Maharajkumar
JUNG RANA, Juddha Maharajkumar
JUNG RANA, Maharshi Dambar Shri
JUNG RANA, Padma Cdg. Gen. Maharajkumar [ - 6 JUN 1906]
JUNG RANA, Piyush Shri [ - 1 APR 1907]
JUNG RANA, Ranabir Cdg. Gen. Maharajkumar
JUNG RANA, Thir Shri
JYOTI RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, HRH Princess
JYOTIRADITYA SCINDIA, HH Maharaja Shri [1-JAN-1971 - ]
JYOTSANA RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, HRH Princess
JYOTSNA DEVI, Maharajkumari [24 FEB 1957 - ]
KAILASH KUMARI, Rani
KAMAKHYA NARAIN SINGH, Maharaja [10 AUG 1916 - ]
KANIKA DEVI, Maharajkumari [29 JAN 1961 - ]
KANTI MATI, Maharani [ - 1799]
KANTI RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, HM Queen [1906 - 12 APR 1973]
KARAN SINGH, HH Maharaja Shri [9 MAR 1931 - ]
KASTURIKA MOOHINI DEVI, HH Maharani
KETAKI RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, HRH Princess [Abt 1946 - ]
KHAIDAGADH', 'Maharani of
KHEM KUNWARI,
KIRIT BIKRAM KISHORE DEV VARMA, HH Maharaja Manikya [13 DEC 1933 - ]
KISHORI RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, Rani [22 JAN 1927 - ]
KOMAL RAJYA LAXMI DEVI, HM Queen [18 FEB 1951 - ]
KRISHNA CHANDRA KUMARI, Rani
KRISHNA KUMARI BA SAHIBA, HH Maharani [1926 - ]
KRISHNA KUMARI DEVI, Rani
KRITI DEVI, Maharaj Kumari [3 JUN 1971 - ]
KUMARI RAJYA LAKSHMI, Rani
LAKSHMI KUMARI DEVI, Rani
LAKSHMI NARAIN SINGH, Maharaja [ - 3 APR 1919]
LAKSHMI RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, HRH Princess Royal
LALIT TRIPURA SUNDARI, Maharani [ - 1832]
LILA RAJYA LAKSHMI KUMARI DEVI, Maharani
LOKA BHAKTA LAKSHMI DEVI, HH Bada Maharani [ - 1905]
LOKENDRA SINGHJI, HH Maharajah [9 NOV 1927 - ]
MADALASA DEVI, HH Maharani
MADHAV II RAO SCINDIA, HH Maharaja Shri [10 MAR 1945 - 30 SEP 2001]
MADHAVI RAJE, HH Maharani
MADHAVRAO II SCINDIA, HH Maharajah Scindia [20 OCT 1876 - 5 JUN
1925]
MAHENDRA BIR BIKRAM SHAH DEV, HM King [11 JUN 1920 - 31 JAN 1972]
MAHENDRA RAJYA LAXMI KUMARI DEVI, Rani
MAHENDRA SINGH, Thakur [Abt 1890 - ]
MAHENDRA SINGH JU DEO, HH Raja Saheb Shri [5 FEB 1916 - ]
MAN SINGH II BAHADUR, HH Shri Maharajadhiraj Sir Sawai [21 AUG 1911 -
24 JUN 1970]
MANVENDRA SINHJI GOHIL, Maharaj Kumar
MARTANDAY SINGH,
MARUDHAR KUNWAR, HH Maharani [1899 - 24 DEC 1944]
MEGHA RAJYA LAXMI DEVI, Maharajkumari [ - JAN 1946]
MINAKSHI KUMARI GOHIL, Maharaj Kumari
MOHA BAKHTA RAJYA LAXMI KUMARI DEVI, Rani
MRIGANKA DEVI,
MRINALIKA MANJARI BHANJ DEO, Maharajkumari [1 DEC 1990 - ]
MUKUT RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, HH Maharani [1933 - ]
NAGENDRA SINGH, Maharaj Shri
NALINI RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, Rani
NARA BHUPAL SHAH, Raja
NARASINGH RANA, Badri Shri
NARENDRA BIKRAM SHAH, Maharajkumar
NIRAJAN BIR BIKRAM SHAH DEV, HRH Prince [6 NOV 1978 - 1 JUN 2001]
PADMA DEVI, Rani
PADMA KUMARI, Rani Saheba
PADMA KUMARI DEVI, Bada Maharani Shri
PADMA MANJARI BHANJ DEO, HH Maharani [OCT 1953 - ]
PADMA SCINDIA, HH Maharani [23 FEB 1942 - 26 APR 1969]
PADMINI DEVI, HH Maharani Saheba [1943 - ]
PARAS BIR BIKRAM SHAH DEV, HRH Crown Prince [30 DEC 1971 - ]
PASHUPATI PRATAP SINGH, Raja [14 AUG 1904 - ]
PATESHWARI PRASAD SINGH, Maharaja Sir [2 JAN 1914 - 1964]
PHANINDRA RAJYA LAKSHMI, Rani [1908 - ]
PRABHA DEVI, Rani
PRABHA MANJARI BHANJ DEO, Maharaj Kumari [21 DEC 1952 - 11 JUN 1990]
PRABHA RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, Maharani
PRADEEP CHANDRA BHANJ DEO, HH Maharaja Shri [12 DEC 1929 - 15 SEP
2000]
PRATAP CHANDRA BHANJ DEO, HH Maharaja Sir [18 FEB 1901 - 1968]
PRATAP KESHORE DEO, HH Maharaja [5 OCT 1919 - ]
PRATAP SINGH, Maharaja [1751 - 7 NOV 1777]
PRATAP SINGH, Lt.Gen. HH Maharajah Bahadur Sir [21 OCT 1845 - 9 SEP
1922]
PRATAP SINGH, Maharaj
PRATIMA DEVI, Rani Saheb [12 JUN 1962 - ]
PRAVEEN CHANDRA BHANJ DEO, HH Maharaja [JUL 1959 - ]
PREKSHYA RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, HH Princess [1952 - 12 NOV 2001]
PREMA KUMARI DEVI, HH Maharani
PRERANA RAJYA LAXMI DEVI, HRH Princess
PRINCEP RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, HRH Princess [16 MAR 1930 - 22 MAY 1982]
PRITHVI BIR BIKRAM SHAH DEV, HH Maharajadhiraj [18 AUG 1875 - 11 DEC
1911]
PRITHVI NARAYAN SHAH, Maharaja [1723 - 1775]
PRITHWIRAJ SINGH, Maharaj Kumar
PRIYADARSHANI, HH Maharani
PUJA RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, HRH Princess
PURNIKA RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, HRH Princess [11 DEC 2000 - ]
RABINDRA SHAH, Rajkumar
RAGHUBIR SINHJI, HH Maharana Shri
RAGHUNATH SINGH, HH Maharajah [1927 - 1981]
RAGHURAJ KUMARI, Rajmata Sahiba
RAJ RAJESWARI VIDYA LAKSHNMI, Maharani [ - 1805]
RAJENDRA BIKRAM SHAH, Maharaja [1813 - 1881]
RAJENDRA LAKSHMI DEVI, Maharani [ - 13 JUL 1785]
RAJENDRA PRAKASH BAHADUR, HH Maharajah Sir [10 JAN 1913 - 1964]
RAJENDRA SINHJI, HH Maharana Shri [30 MAR 1912 - 3 FEB 1963]
RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, Maharani
RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, Bada Maharani
RAJYA LAKSHMI RANA, Rani
RAJYA LAXMI KUMARI DEVI, Maharani
RAJYASHREE MANJARI BHANJ DEO, Maharajkumari [3 SEP 1985 - ]
RAMA RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, Maharani
RANA, Annapurna
RANA, Asha Rani
RANA, Devyani [Abt 1972 - ]
RANA, Geeta
RANA, Girvani Rajya Lakshmi [22 JUN 1998 - ]
RANA, Rama Maharajkumari [Abt 1947 - ]
RANA, Shivangini Rajya Laxmi
RANA, Sita
RANA BAHADUR, Maharaja [1775 - 1805]
RANENDRA BIKRAM SHAH, Maharajkumar
RASHMI KUMARI, HH Maharani [1962 - ]
RATNA RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, HM Queen [20 AUG 1928 - ]
REVATI RAMAN RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, HH Maharani [1878 - 1926]
RUDRAKSHI KUMARI, Rajkumari [25 AUG 1996 - ]
RUDRAVRAT SINGH, Rajkumar [4 NOV 1991 - ]
RUKMANI DEVI, HH Maharani
RUPARAJYA RAJYA LAXMI KUMARI DEVI, Rani
SAJJAN SINGHJI BAHADUR, Col. HH Maharaja Sir [13 JAN 1880 - 1947]
SANGRAM SINGH, Rawal [22 OCT 1900 - ]
SANO PHUJYU,
SARALA DEVI, Shrimati Rani
SCINDIA, Chitrangada Yuvrani [1967 - ]
SCINDIA, Yeshodhara Maharajkumari [19 JUN 1954 - ]
SCINDIA, Mahanaryaman Yuvaraj [1995 - ]
SHADARAJYA RAJYA LAXMI KUMARI DEVI, Rani
SHAH, Ushaanaa Laela [22 JUL 1994 - ]
SHANTI RAJYA LAXMI DEVI, HRH Princess [1941 - 1 JUN 2001]
SHARADA RAJYA LAXMI DEVI, HRH Princess [1942 - 1 JUN 2001]
SHATRUSHALYA SINGH, HH Maharaja Jam Sahib Shri [1939 - ]
SHER BAHADUR, Maharajkumar
SHIVRAJ SINGH SAHIB, Yuvraj Shri Maharajkumar [30 SEP 1975 - ]
SHIVRANJINI RAJYE BAIJI LAL SAHIBA, Maharaj Kumari Shri [22 AUG 1974
- ]
SHOBHA RAJYA LAXMI DEVI, HRH Princess [1950 - ]
SHRUTI RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, HRH Princess [15 OCT 1976 - 1 JUN 2001]
SHUMSHER, Hiranya Shri
SHUMSHER, Mahabir Shri
SHUMSHER, Prakash Shri
SHUMSHER, Rama Shri
SHUMSHER, Subarna Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Aditya Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Agni Gen. Maharajkumar
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Akhanda Col. Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Arjun Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Arun Gen. Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Baber Gen. Maharajkumar Sir [27 JAN 1888 -
1960]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Bahadur Maharajkumar
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Bahadur Gen. Maharajkumar Sir [1892 - 19
AUG 1977]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Bala Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Basant Maharajkumar
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Baulya Col. Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Bharat Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Bhim Gen. HH Shri Tin Maharaja Sir [16 APR
1865 - 1 SEP 1932]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Bhir HH Shri Tin Maharaja [1852 - 5 MAR
1901]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Bijaya Maharajkumar [15 DEC 1915 - 29 DEC
1953]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Brahma Shri [1909 - ]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Buddha Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Chakra Gen. Maharajkumar
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Chandra HH Projwala-Nepala Taradisha Sri
Tin Maharaja Sir [8 JUL 1863 - 26 NOV 1929]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Chudaraj Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Damber Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Dev HH Shri Tin Maharaja [1862 - FEB
1914]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Devendra Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Dharma Cdg. Gen. Maharajkumar [ - 1932]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Diamond Shri [1918 - ]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Dibhakar Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Durga Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Ekraj Col. Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Futteh Cdg.Gen. Shri [ - 1907/1908]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Gahendra Gen. Maharajkumar
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Gautam Shri [1957 - ]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Gorakh Kumar [17 FEB 1969 - ]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Hari Gen. Maharajkumar
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Harka Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Hem Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Ina Col. Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Jagat Maharajkumar
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Jharendra Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Jit Cdg.Gen. Shri [ - 27 JUL 1913]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Juddha HH Sri Tin Maharaja [19 APR 1875 -
23 NOV 1952]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Kaiser Lt.Gen. Maharajkumar Sir [8 JAN
1892 - 7 JUN 1964]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Kendra Lt.Gen. Shri [1927 - 24 JUL 1982]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Keyur Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Khadga Cdg. Gen. Shri [1861 - NOV 1921]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Khamba Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Kiran Maharajkumar [1916 - ]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Krishna Maj.Gen. Maharajkumar [8 FEB 1900
- 19 MAY 1977]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Kunjar Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Lila Gen. Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Madan Maj.Gen. Maharajkumar
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Manoj Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Mohun Gen. HH Shri Tin Maharajah [23 DEC
1885 - 6 JAN 1967]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Mrigendra Shri [1906 - ]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Narayan Gen. Maharajkumar
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Neer Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Padma Gen. HH Shri Tin Maharajah Sir [5
DEC 1882 - 11 APR 1961]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Pashupati Shri [1941 - ]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Prabhakar Shri [26 NOV 1935 - ]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Prabhu Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Prashiddha Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Pratap Gen. Maharajkumar [ - 1934]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Purna Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Rabi Gen. Maharajkumar
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Rudra Gen. Maharajkumar [1879 - 1964]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Run Cdg.Gen. Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Sahadev Col. Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Samrajya Gen. Shri[1921 - ]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Sarada Maharajkumar [18 OCT 1912 - ]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Shanker Maj.Gen. Maharajkumar [1909 - 4
JUN 1976]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Shanta Col. Maharajkumar
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Sher Maj. Gen. Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Shingha Lt.Gen. Maharajkumar [1893 - ]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Siddhi Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Sridhar Shri [1928 - ]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Subarna Col. Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Suraj Lt.Gen. Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Surendra Col. Maharajkumar
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Surya Gen. Maharajkumar [ - JAN 1945]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Sushil Shri [APR 1934 - ]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Tej Gen. Maharajkumar [1885 - 1942]
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Yadu Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Yuvraj Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG NAHADUR RANA, Dhawal Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG NAHADUR RANA, Kailash Shri
SHUMSHER JUNG NAHADUR RANA, Mussoorie Maharajkumar
SHUMSHER RANA, Dhir Cdg.Gen. Shri [1828 - 14 OCT 1884]
SHUMSHER RANA, Jagat Cdg. Gen. Shri [1827 - 1879]
SHUMSHERE JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Bishnu Maj.Gen. Maharajkumar [1908 - 29
JAN 1946]
SHUMSHERE JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Nara Gen. Shri [DEC 1906 - ]
SHUMSHERE JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Sarad Shri [4 SEP 1954 - ]
SHUMSHERE JUNG BAHADUR RANA, Sur Col. Shri
SINGH, Adishree
SINGH, Ritu
SINGH, Dhananajaya Kanwar [1968 - ]
SINGH, Mahendra Rao Raja [26 JUN 1944 - ]
SINGH, Nahar Rao Raja [1923 - ]
SINGH, Narendra Rao Raja [1917 - 1983]
SINGH, Narpat Rao Raja [28 MAR 1892 - 23 JUN 1967]
SINGH, Nikhilendra Kanwar [1970 - ]
SINGH, Paraharam Bhanwar [1998 - ]
SINGH, Ranvijay
SINGH RAJAWAT, Narendra Kunwar
SITABA SAHIBA, HH Maharani Shri
SITASHMA RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI SHAH, HRH Princess
SIVRATEN DEV SINGH, Raja [APR 1925 - ]
SNEHA MANJARI BHANJ DEO, Maharaj Kumari [2 MAY 1955 - ]
SUBARNA PRABHA, Maharani
SUNDER SINGH, Thakur [1946 - ]
SURENDRA BIKRAM PRAKASH, HH Maharajah Sir [14 NOV 1867 - 25 JUL
1911]
SURENDRA BIKRAM SHAH, Maharaja [1829 - 1881]
TARA DEVI, HH Maharani [1910 - 1967]
TARA RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, Rani
TARA RAJYA LAKSHMI KUMARI DEVI, Rani
TASMA KUMARI, Rani
TEHARI', 'Maharani of
THAGENDRA RAJYA LAXMI KUMARI DEVI, Rani
THULO PHUJYU,
TIPARA', 'Maharani of
TITILA LAKSHMI DEVI,
TRAILOKYA BIKRAM SHAH, Yuvaraj [1847 - 1878]
TRIBHUVAN BIR BIKRAM SHAH DEV, HM King [30 JUN 1906 - 13 MAR 1955]
TRILOKI RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, Rani
UDAYA SINGH, Rao Sahib
UDIT PRATAP DEO, HH Maharajah
UMA KUMARI, Rani
UNKNOWN SON,
UPENDRA BIKRAM SHAH, Maharajkumar
URMILA KUMARI, HH Maharani
USHARAJE SCINDIA, Rani [31 OCT 1943 - ]
VANDANA RAJYA LAXMI, Maharani
VASUNDHARA RAJE SCINDIA, Maharani [6 MAR 1953 - ]
VIJAYA RAJE, HH Maharani [12 OCT 1919 - 25 JAN 2001]
VIJAYA RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, HRH Princess
VIKRAMADITYA SINGH, Yuvraj [4 AUG 1964 - ]
VIRAD KUNWAR, Rani
YAMUNA RAJYA LAKSHMI,
YASHO RAJYA LAKSHMI DEVI, HH Maharani [1937 - ]
YUBA RAJYA LAKSHMI, Rani
This page updated on 29 JUL 2003 : Database maintained by Henry
Soszynski

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~royalty/nepal/persons.html

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Full text of "The golden book of India, a genealogical and
biographical dictionary of the ruling princes, chiefs, nobles, and
other personages, titled or decorated, of the Indian empire"

THE GOLDEN BOOK OF INDIA

A GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF THE
RULING PRINCES, CHIEFS, NOBLES, AND OTHER

PERSONAGES, TITLED OR DECORATED
OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE

BY

SIR ROPER LETHBRIDGE, K.C.I. E.

MACMILLAN AND CO.

AND NEW YORK

1893

A II rights reserved

Printed by R. & R. CLARK, Edinburgh

'By Special ^Permission
DEDICATED

TO

HER MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY

QUEEN EMPRESS OF INDIA

INTRODUCTION

i. SOURCES OF INFORMATION.

O official authority whatever attaches to this work, or to any
statement in it. The Editor has received the most kind and
valuable assistance from all those Indian officials who have
charge of matters relating to Dignities and Titles ; but he is
alone responsible for the contents of The Golden Book of
India. Much of the information has been derived from the Princes,
Noble-
men, and Gentlemen whose names are included herein. To each one has
been sent, so far as it has been found possible, a prospectus of this
work, with
a request for information, and with specimens of the form in which
that
information is desired; and in every case in which that appeal has
been
responded to, the fullest consideration has been given to the
particulars
submitted for insertion. It is hoped that, now the work in its
experimental
form is once before the Indian public, all those who are interested in
its
accuracy will send their suggestions, whether for additions, or for
alterations
or corrections, direct to the Editor, care of Messrs. Macmillan and
Co.,
29 Bedford Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. It will readily be
under-
stood that in a work of such magnitude, involving reference to some
thousands
of persons, individual correspondence must be impossible ; and
consequently
the Editor, while assuring those who favour him with their
communications
that these shall receive the most careful attention, hopes that he
will be
forgiven if he is unable to reply separately to each one.

The task of compiling this much-needed work has been of far greater
difficulty than was expected. Some of the difficulty has been due to
its
novelty ; for among those who have sent information regarding
themselves
and their families, there has naturally been little uniformity in
method or
scale. This difficulty will, it is anticipated, soon disappear. But
the chief
difficulty has been owing to the fact that India stands alone among
civilised
nations in possessing no special Department, College, or Chancery,
charged
with the duty a very necessary duty from the point of view alike of

Vlil THE GOLDEN BOOK OF INDIA

expediency and of national dignity of recording and certifying
national
honours and titles, of regulating their conferment, and of controlling
their
devolution where hereditary. The Foreign Department of the Government
of India, being that Department which has charge of the relations of
the
Paramount Power with the Feudatory States and their Rulers, naturally
and
properly directs so much of this business of State as cannot by any
possibility
be shirked. But the question of the very necessary establishment of a
Heralds' College, or a Chancery of Dignities, has only once (in 1877)
been seriously faced and then its solution was postponed.

The results of this neglect are already deplorable, and must ere long
receive the attention of the Government of India. Indian titles are
officially
defined to be, either by grant from Government, i.e. a new creation by
Her
Imperial Majesty the Queen Empress through her representative; or "by
descent, or by well-established usage." The Government alone can be
the
judge of the validity of claims, and of their relative strength, in
the case of
titles acquired by "descent" or by "well-established usage." And it is
clear
that this Royal Prerogative, to be properly used, ought to be
exercised openly
and publicly through the medium of a regular College or Chancery. It
is,
of course, true that the Foreign Department possesses a mass of more
or less
confidential information, and thoroughly efficient machinery, for
deciding all
questions of the kind, when such questions are submitted to, or
pressed upon,
the notice of Government. But when that is not the case, there seems
to be
no public authority or accessible record for any of the ordinary
Indian titles,
or for the genealogy of the families holding hereditary titles. Much
confusion
has already arisen from this, and more is likely to arise. In the
Lower
Provinces of Bengal alone, there are at this moment some hundreds of
families possessing, and not uncommonly using, titles derived from
extinct
dynasties or from common repute, yet not hitherto recognised formally
by
the British Government ; and these, sometimes justly, but more
frequently
perhaps unjustly, are in this way placed in a false and invidious
position.
The State regulation of all these matters, in a plain and
straightforward
manner, would undoubtedly be hailed with pleasure in India by princes
and
people alike.

In equal uncertainty is left, in many cases, the position of the
descend-
ants of ancient Indian royal and noble families ; as also that of the
Nobles
of Feudatory States, the subjects of ruling and mediatised princes.

Then, too, there is endless confusion in the banners, badges, and
devices
that are borne, either by the custom of the country or by personal
assump-
tion, by various families and individuals. Tod's learned work on The
Annals
of Rdjdsthdn^ taught us long ago that badges and family emblems were
as

1 Colonel Tod says : "The martial Rajpoots are not strangers to
armorial bearings. . . . The
great banner of Mewar exhibits a golden Sun on a crimson field ; those
of the chiefs bear a
Dagger. Amber displays \hepanehranga, or five-coloured flag. The lion
rampant on an argent
field is extinct with the State of Chanderi. In Europe these customs
were not introduced till
the period of the Crusades, and were copied from the Saracens ; while
the use of them amongst

INTRODUCTION IX

characteristic of Rajput chivalry as of the feudalism of Europe
appealing to
similar sentiments, and similarly useful for historical and
genealogical purposes.
To this day hundreds of Chiefs and country gentlemen in Rajputana, in
Central India, in Kathiawar, and in many other parts, use their
ancestral
devices in their seals or accompanying their signature. Thus every
petty
Thakur (as well as Chiefs of higher degree), from Oudh in the East to
the Western Sea, who can trace his descent from the proud Chauhan
clan of Rajputs that gave the last Hindu Emperors to Delhi and Ajmir,
still claims his ancestral right to the Chauhan santak, or device on
seal
and for signature, called the "Chakra" (see the drawing at p. 100).
Figures of Hanumdn (the Monkey God), of the Sacred Peacock, and of
the
Sacred Garur or Eagle, take the place, in the heraldry of the East, of
the lions,
the leopards, and the fleur-de-lys of the more elaborate and
artificial coat-
armour of the West. The kulcha, or "lucky chapdti" (biscuit), with
the
silver quatrefoils, on the green flag of the Nizam, the red oriflamme
of the
" Sun of the Hindus " (the Maharana of Udaipur), the falcon of
Marwar,
the Gangetic dolphin of Darbhanga, the white and green stripes of the
late
Sir Salar Jang, and many other hereditary devices and emblems, have
long
been and still are familiar in India. But there seems to be no
authority by
whom the use of such emblems is directed or controlled ; nor has the
Government of India ever had the prudence to avail itself of the rich
store
of revenue that might easily, and indeed (from the historical and
genealogical
point of view) usefully, be raised from the fees and duties to be
derived
from the extended use of armorial bearings. It is hoped that the
publication
of this work may have some influence in inducing the Government of
India
to establish that very necessary institution, a Heralds' College or
Chancery of
Dignities, in connection with its Political Department or, perhaps
better,
to petition Her Majesty to attach a duly-constituted Indian Department
to
the College of Arms in London under the Garter King of Arms.

In the existing circumstances it may be hoped only temporarily
existing
described above, the Editor has felt constrained, very reluctantly in
many
cases, to decline to insert the particulars of any titles that have
not been
more or less formally recognised by the Government of India, except
in
about half a dozen very special cases, where there could not by any
possibility
be any doubt of the authenticity of the claims. For instance, in the
case of
the Raikat of Baikanthpur, in the district of Jalpaiguri, Bengal, the
title appears
to be unique in India and there can be no doubt whatever that it has
been
borne by something like twenty generations of hereditary kinsmen of
the Rajas
of Kuch Behar ; some account of this singularly interesting title has
been
inserted, though there is some reason to doubt whether it appears in
any

the Rajpooc tribes can be traced to a period anterior to the war of
Troy. In the Maha-
bharat, or Great War, twelve hundred years before Christ, we find the
hero Bheesama exult-
ing over his trophy, the banner of Arjoona, its field adorned with the
figure of the Indian
Hanumdn. These emblems had a religious reference amongst the Hindus,
and were taken
from their mythology, the origin of all devices." Annals of Rdjdsthdn,
vol. i. pp. 123,

THE GOLDEN BOOK OF INDIA

official list. And so, too, with a few well-known courtesy titles (see
8 of this
Introduction).

2. METHOD OF ARRANGEMENT.

After much thought and deliberation, it has been determined that, at
least for this first edition of The Golden Book which in many respects
must
necessarily have something of the nature of an experiment the
Arrangement
of the work shall be simply alphabetical. In future editions it is
possible
that the volume may be divided into separate parts, distinguishing
between
Ruling Princes on the one hand, and Dignitaries and Titled Personages
of
British India on the other or possibly distinguishing between
Territorial
Titles and others. But the difficulties of classification would be
exceedingly
great in a large number of cases, and any attempt in that direction
would
certainly greatly delay the appearance of the work. And, after all,
even the
most careful and accurate classification would, for practical
purposes, be of
very little use ; for, as the next section of this Introduction will
show, there
is at present no strict gradation of titles and of some titles the
relative
values, strange as this may seem, are different in different parts of
India.

In India itself, the relative social importance of the various
Dignitaries
included in this work is well known, and any attempt further closely
to
define precedence would be an invidious as well as unnecessary task.

For European readers it may perhaps be sufficient to give very rough
and
general analogies from the European system. For instance, the relative
posi-
tion of such potentates as the Nizam of the Deccan or the Maharaja of
Mysore to the Indian Empire may not unfitly be compared with that of
the
King of Saxony to the German Empire. The hereditary Maharajas, Rajas,
and Nawabs of British India occupy a position very similar to that of
the
British Peerage at home ; while the holders of the lower titles may be
com-
pared with our Knights Bachelors, and the Knights and Companions of
the
Military Orders. Among the ruling chiefs, their comparative position
and
importance may also be estimated by observing the area and population
of
their respective States, as compared with the smaller Kingdoms and
Princi-
palities of Central Europe.

3. INDIAN TITLES : GENERAL.

A list of one hundred and ninety-six different titles known to the
Govern-
ment of India has been compiled in the Indian Foreign Office. Even
this
long list can hardly be regarded as exhaustive, for it does not
include many
dynastic appellations which have come to be regarded in the light of
titles,
such as Gaekwdr^ the dynastic name of the Maharajas of Baroda ;
Sindhia,
that of the Maharajas of Gwalior ; Holkar^ that of the Maharajas of
Indore.
Nor does it include such titles as that of Yuvardj or Jubardj
(Youthful Raja),
often applied (as lately in Manipur) to the heir to the Raj. And it is
of
course exclusive of the, Military Orders of Knighthood.

INTRODUCTION

The majority of these titles are Hindu (derived chiefly from the
Sanskrit
language), or Muhammadan (derived chiefly from the Persian). The Bur-
mese titles, though lengthy, are few in number ; while still fewer are
Ara-
kanese (or Magh), Thibetan, Afghan, Baluch, Somali, etc. Two
distinguished
Parsi families have received the English title of Baronet ; wKile one
Madras
family, the descendants of the old Nawabs of the Carnatic, has the
English
title of "Pjince of Arcot," called also " Amir-i-Arcot." The title of
Prince
is also often given by courtesy as the English rendering of the title
of " Shah-
zada," conferred by Her Majesty the Empress on certain descendants of
the
Tippu dynasty of Mysore, of the old kings of Oudh, and of former
Amirs
of Afghanistan.

Some Indian titles are personal ; others have been recognised by Her
Majesty as hereditary. It is intended in this work to distinguish
those which
are hereditary from those which are personal.

In the list of one hundred and ninety-six titles mentioned above
(which
is given below, in section 1 1 of this Introduction, with a glossary
of their
meanings where known), some are specific titles, analogous to the
English
" Duke," " Earl," etc. ; such are Maharaja, Rdjd, Nawdb. Some are
descriptive titles, somewhat analogous to the " Defender of the Faith
" borne
by our Gracious Sovereign ; such are Shams her Jang ("The Sword of
War"),
a title borne by His Highness the Maharaja of Travancore, and Path
Jang,
one of the many titles borne by His Highness the Nizam of the Deccan.
Titles of the latter form are generally confined to a single personage
or
dynasty; but a few are common to more than one State, as Lokendra
("Pro-
tector of the World "), borne by the Chiefs of Dholpur and Dattia.

4. INDIAN TITLES : RULING CHIEFS.

The normal or typical title of Chiefs or Nobles of Hindu descent is
Rdjd
(in the feminine Rant), or some of its numerous kindred forms. Some of
the
latter are Rand, Rao, Rdwal, Rdwat, Rai, Raikwdr, Raikbdr, Raikat. To
these is added, to indicate excess of rank, the prefix Mahd (" Great
"), as in
Mahdrdjd, Mahdrdnd, Mahdrao, Mahdrdj-Rdnd, etc. The affix Bahadur
("Brave," "The Hero") is very commonly added (as an extra honorific)
to
all Indian titles, Muhammadan as well as Hindu, and is placed at the
end of
the name, much like the English " Esquire." Saheb is a somewhat
similar
affix, and is very commonly used as a courteous form of address ; when
used
as the supplement of a title it indicates a rank somewhat less than
Bahadur,
thus Rao Bahadur and Khan Bahadur are titles usually of rather more
con-
sideration than Rao Saheb or Khan Saheb. Thdkur is also a frequently-
used
Hindu title. Some important feudatory Chiefs bear no other title, but
it
usually is of less consideration than Rdjd.

Diwdn and Sarddr are titles very similar in character to that of
Thdkur ;
but they are common to Hindus and Muhammadans.

The normal or typical title of a Chief or Noble of Muhammadan descent

Xli THE GOLDEN BOOK OF INDIA

is Nawdb (with Begam as its feminine form) ; usually with the
honorific suffix
of Bahddur, and in forms of courteous address with that of Saheb. The
title of Shdhzdda (" King's Son ") is given to some descendants of the
Tippu
dynasty of Mysore, to some descendants of former Amirs of Kabul, and
to
some descendants of the old Kings of Oudh. Other Muhammadan titles
sometimes equivalent in consideration to Nawdb, but not always are
Wali,
Sultan, Amir, Mir, Mirza, Mian, Khdn ; also Sarddr and Diwd%, which
are
common to Hindus and Muhammadans.

Among the Ruling Chiefs there are some exceptional titles, due
sometimes
to differences of language, sometimes to other known causes, and
sometimes
of unknown origin. The first and greatest of all the Princes of the
Empire
is always known as the Nizam of the Deccan a relic of the time when
His
Highness's ancestors were mediatised kings under the Emperor of
Delhi.
The title, though implying in itself fealty to an Imperial authority,
is one of
the highest dignity, and can hardly be translated by any European
title less
august than " king " ; it is therefore a suitable title for the first
mediatised
prince under the Indian Empire, charged with the absolute rule over an
area
more than twice as large as that of Bavaria and Saxony combined, and
a
population greater than that of the two kingdoms named.

Holkar and Sindhia are rather of the nature of dynastic names than of
titles ; and the Gaekwdr (the title of one of the greatest of the
Ruling Chiefs)
is of a similar nature, having been originally a caste name ; and all
these
three are relics of the Mahratta Empire.

Among the exceptional titles due to difference of language may be
noticed
that of Jam, which is of Sindhi or Baluch origin ; there are two Jams
of
ruling rank in Kathiawar, and one in Baluchistan. The Ruler of Spiti,
an
outlying Himalayan principality in the Punjab, is known as the Nono
of
Spiti " Nono " being a Thibetan form. One of the Assamese Rajas is
known
as "the Bohmong"; another simply as " the Mong Raja." Some of the
Madras
Chiefs have peculiar titles of local origin. Thus, the Maharaja of
Calicut
bears the historic title of " the Zamorin " probably a local
corruption of the
Malayalam Samundri, or " sea-king." The Maharaja of Puducotta is
known
as " the Tondiman " ; and some other Madras Rajas are called " the
Valiya
Raja." Nine Feudatories (eight in the Bombay Presidency and one at
Muscat in Arabia) bear the title of Sultan. The descendants of the
ancient
chiefs of Sind are called Mirs ; the Chief of Afghanistan is called
Amir. The
Chief of Kalat in Baluchistan is both a Mir and a Wali, and has been
created
(like the Amir of Afghanistan) a Grand Commander of the Star of
India.
In the Aden territory, which is subordinate to the Bombay Government,
some of the chiefs bear the title of Girad, which is of Somali
origin ; others
are known by the Arabic titles of Sultan, Amir, and Shaikh. Some of
the
heads of Hindu religious bodies are hereditary feudal chiefs ; and
their title
is Mahant.

All, or most of the titles mentioned above, though recognised by the
British Government, have come down to us from earlier times. Her

INTRODUCTION xill

Majesty has, in a few very special cases, authorised a change of title
among
the Feudatories ; as, for instance, when a Thdkur Saheb has been
authorised
to use the higher title of Maharaja Bahadur. But, generally speaking,
when
it is wished to confer honour on a ruling prince, it is conferred, not
by a
change in the ancient title of chiefship, but by appointment to one or
other
of the classes of the Orders of the Star of India or the Indian
Empire
by the addition of descriptive titles by an increase in the number of
guns
authorised for the salute, such increase being usually a personal one
or by
the conferment of Honorary military rank in the Imperial army.

5. TITLES RECOGNISED, AND REGULARLY CONFERRED BY HER MAJESTY

THROUGH THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA.

In British India there is now a well-established order and gradation
of nobility ; in which creations and promotions are made by Her
Gracious
Majesty's representative, the Viceroy, just as similar creations and
pro-
motions are made in England. In the higher ranks of this nobility, an
additional step or grade in each rank is made by the custom, unknown
as
yet in England, of making the creation or promotion in some cases
personal,
in others hereditary. But no rank below that of Raja for Hindus, or
Nawab
for Muhammadans, is now created hereditary.

Rai (or Rao in Southern and Western India) for Hindus, and Khan for
Muhammadans, are the first or least considerable titles conferred by
the British
Government. These, with or without the affix of Saheb, which adds to
the
dignity, are very commonly ex offitio titles, held by the subordinate
officers of
civil departments. Next above Rai Saheb, Rao Saheb, or Khan Saheb
comes
the title Rai Bahadur, Rao Bahadur, or Khan Bahadur ; and this is the
title though it has sometimes also been made simply an ex offitio
title
which is usually first conferred on Indian gentlemen who have
distinguished
themselves by their munificence, by their patriotism, or in any other
way.
Rai Bahadur is commonly used as the Hindu title in the Bengal
Presidency,
Rao Bahadur as that in the west and south of India, and Khan Bahadur
for Muhammadans and Parsis ; and this rank seems exactly analogous to
that
of Knight Bachelor in England.

Above this rank is the title of Rdjd (with the feminine Rani] for
Hindus,
Nawab (with the feminine Begaui) for Muhammadans ; and this may be
hereditary or personal a remark which applies to all the higher
ranks.
Next higher is a Rdjd Bahadur, or a Nawab Bahadur. Higher again,
for Hindus, is the title of Maharaja, and above that is Maharaja
Bahadur.
It is one of the many anomalies of the Indian system as at present
existing, that there do not seem to be any Muhammadan analogies to
these
last two highest Hindu titles, so that a Nawab Bahadur may be the
equal
either of a Rdjd Bahadur, or of a Mahdrdjd Bahadur, according to
circumstance. These seem to be very analogous to the various steps in
the
British Peerage.

xiv THE GOLDEN BOOK OF INDIA

Parsis share with Muhammadans their lower titles. But where they have
attained to higher rank than Khan Bahadur, it has been indicated by
appointment to one of the Military Orders, or by the conferment of
British
Knighthood, or (in two cases) by a British Baronetcy.

The ordinary sequence of rank, then, in the aristocracy of British
India,
is indicated by the subjoined tables :

Hindus. Muhammadans.

Mahdraja" Bahadur. Nawdb Bahadur.

Mahdrajl Nawdb.

Rdja Bahddur. Khan Bahddur.

Ra"jl Kha"n Saheb.

Rai (or Rao) Bahddur. Khdn.
Rai (or Rao) Saheb.
Rai (or Rao).

The eldest son of a Maharaja or Raja is called a Maharajkumar (or
Maharajkunwar), or Rajkumar (or Rajkunwar), or simply Kumar (or
Kunwar) ;
and these titles have in some cases been formally conferred by the
Govern-
ment. Nawdbzdda, or Mian, is the title given to the sons of Nawabs.

Among the Barons of the Punjab there is a remarkable uniformity of
title ; they are nearly all styled Sarddr or Sarddr Bahadur and their
sons
are often styled Mian, though this is also an independent title, as is
Diwdn
also, in the Punjab. In Oudh and in the Central Provinces, on the
other
hand, there is the greatest diversity in the form of the territorial
titles
Thdkur being the commonest title, but Rai is also frequent (and of
far
higher dignity than it seems to bear in some other Provinces), and so
are
Rdjd, Diwdn, and Rao.

6. BURMESE TITLES.

The chiefs of the Shan and other tribes on the frontiers of Burma
have
the titles (equivalent to Rdjd or Thdkur, or other Indian titles)
either of
Sawbwa, or Myoza, or Ngwegunhmu.

But the regular Burmese titles ordinarily conferred by the British
Government are these :

(1) Ahmitdan gaung Tazeik-ya Min (meaning "Recipient of a Medal for
Good Service"), indicated by the letters A.T.M. after the name much
as
the Companionship of the Bath in England is indicated by the letters
C.B.

(2) Kyet Thaye zaung shwe Salwe ya Min (meaning "Recipient of the
Gold Chain of Honour"), indicated by the letters K.S.M. after the
name.

(3) Thuye-gaung Ngweda ya Min (meaning " Recipient of the Silver
Sword for Bravery"), indicated by the letters T.D.M. after the name.

7. TITLES AS REWARDS FOR LEARNING.

It remains to notice two Imperial titles of ancient origin, as
indicating
exceptional distinction in learning, that were revived on the
auspicious

INTRODUCTION xv

occasion of Her Majesty's Jubilee. These are Mahdmahopddhydya for
Hindus, and Shams-ul-Ulama for Muhammadans. It is noteworthy, as
showing a wise regard for that reverence which great erudition has
always
commanded in the East, that holders of these titles, ranking equally
among
themselves according to date of creation, take rank directly after
titular
Rajas and Nawabs ; and thus the dignity is rendered somewhat analogous
to
the high Dignity of a Privy Councillor in the United Kingdom.

8. COURTESY TITLES.

There are many titles habitually used in India and a few have been
admitted into this work that are not substantive titles in the
strictest sense
of the term, but may best be described as courtesy titles. Of this
nature is
the title of "Prince" in most cases though not in the case of the
Prince of
Arcot, who enjoys a title specially conferred by the Sovereign. The
title of
" His Highness," conferred or recognised by the Queen Empress, belongs
as
of right only to a limited number of the Feudatory Chiefs, and to a
few of
the Nobles of British India ; but it is very generally conceded, as a
matter of
courtesy, to most of the Feudatory Chiefs and the greater Territorial
Nobles.
The title of " His Excellency " has been specially granted to one or
two
Chiefs ; it is also commonly used, as a matter of courtesy, in
addressing
the responsible Ministers of the chief Feudatory States.

The owners of some great Zaminddris or estates, especially in Madras,
are sometimes styled Raja in common parlance, even when they have not
received that title from the Sovereign. But there seems to be no
authority
for this ; nor so far as is known to the Editor, and with the few
exceptions
above noted is any name inserted in this work as that of a Raja, or
as
holding a similar title, unless recognised by the Government of
India.

Immemorial usage throughout India has conferred well - recognised
courtesy titles on the heirs-apparent of the greater titles ; and in
some cases
on the second, third, fourth, and younger sons. There is at least one
Raja
whose eldest son bears the courtesy title of Kunwdr, the second son
that of
Diwdn, the third that of Thdkur, the fourth that of Ldl^ and the fifth
and
younger sons that of Bdbu. It may here be noted that, in common use
in
Bengal, the title of Bdbu has degenerated like the French Monsieur
and
the English Esquire into a mere form of address ; but it belongs of
right
only to a very limited class and particularly to the sons, not
otherwise
titled, of the greater titled personages. In Orissa, Chota Nagpur,
and
Central India, the eldest son of a Raja or Thakur frequently bears the
title
of Tikait or Tikaildo ; and sometimes (but rarely) the second son
bears the
title of Pothait or Pothaildo, and the third that of Ldl But in most,
prob-
ably in all, cases, the younger sons are styled Bdbu. In some of the
Orissa
Tributary Mahals, and in Manipur and in Hill Tipperah and elsewhere,
the
heir-apparent is styled Jubardj or Yuvardj. In some other parts he is

xvi THE GOLDEN BOOK OF INDIA

called Diwdn ; while in the Punjab the heir-apparent of a territorial
Sarddr
is sometimes also called Sarddr, but more commonly he bears the title
of
Mian.

The curious Marumakkatayam law of inheritance which prevails in
Malabar and the extreme south of India under which the succession is
to
the offspring of the female members of the family, among whom the
next
eldest to the Raja is the heir-apparent makes it very fitting that tte
rank of
an heir-apparent, in those parts of India, should be marked by special
titles.
The heir-apparent to His Highness the Maharaja of Travancore is often
called
by Europeans the First Prince of Travancore ; but his proper courtesy
title is
" the Elaya Raja." The same title is borne by the heir-apparent to His
High-
ness the Maharaja of Cochin. The heir-apparent to the Zamorin of
Calicut
bears, by courtesy, the interesting title of "The Eralpad." It will be
seen
that, under the Marumakkatayam law, no son of a Raja can ever be in
the
line of succession ; these receive the courtesy title of Achchhan.

The colloquial use of the dynastic titles of Sindhia and Holkar may
be
illustrated by a somewhat similar Scottish usage, by which the actual
Chief or
Laird is colloquially known by the name of his estate. Mr. Cameron
becomes
" Lochiel " the moment he succeeds to the estate of that name ; so one
of
these young Princes becomes " Sindhia " the moment he succeeds to the
Gwalior Raj, and the other becomes "Holkar" the moment he succeeds to
the Indore Raj the junior members of these ruling Houses using the
title
as their family name.

9. ARMORIAL BEARINGS.

The Editor has already pointed out, in an earlier section of this
Intro-
duction, the need that exists for the services of an Indian King of
Arms and
an Indian Heralds' College. Such an institution, provided due regard
were
paid to Indian sentiments and prejudices, would be immensely popular
among the Chiefs and notables of India ; and a very considerable
revenue
might yearly be raised, with the greatest goodwill on the part of
those who
would pay it, from a moderate duty, similar to the one levied in the
United
Kingdom, on the authorised use of hereditary cognisances or armorial
bearings. At present an Indian noble is justly proud of a cognisance
that
has been honourably borne for centuries by his ancestors, and would
prefer
to use it with full legal authority ; but it is doubtful whether he
can do so
at all, except by a most difficult and most unusual application to the
Earl
Marshal of England and the Garter King of Arms in London, for an
authorised grant. So, too, with more modern adoptions of coat-armour;
these have been authorised by the College of Arms in London for the
two
Indian Baronets, and perhaps for a few more but as a rule the modus
operandi is unknown.

Wherever the Editor has been able to obtain a sketch of the
cognisance
or device usually used by .any Chief or that has been emblazoned on
his

INTRODUCTION xvii

banner, on such public occasions as the Imperial Assemblage at Delhi,
on
the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress of India a
copy has been given in this work in the actual form used, without
regard to
the question of its being duly authorised by the College of Arms, or
of its
being in accordance with the laws of European- heraldry. It is hoped
that
in a future edition this laxity will not be necessary, and that steps
will in the
meantime have been taken to regulate the devolution of ancient
cognisances,
and the assumption of new ones. It is stated that some of the
Feudatory
States have placed coats of arms on the postage stamps in use within
their
limits ; and it is quite clear that the use of such emblems is rapidly
becoming
common.

In the case of all those Chiefs whose banners were displayed at the
Imperial Assemblage of ist January 1877, *'* a ll tne Chiefs of
highest
rank the emblems then used were used " by authority " ; and copies of
some of them have been obtained for this work. The editor will be glad
to
be favoured with copies of others, sent through Messrs. Macmillan and
Co. ;
and will give his best consideration to them, though he must not be
taken to
pledge himself to the insertion of any.

10. CEREMONIES OBSERVED ON THE INSTALLATION OF AN INDIAN NOBLE.

The Warrant conferring (or authorising the hereditary succession to)
a
title is called a sanad sometimes spelt " sunnud." It is signed, on
behalf
of Her Majesty the Empress, by His Excellency the Viceroy ; and bears
the
Official Seal of the Empire.

It is usual though there appears to be no invariable rule for the
local
representative of Her Majesty, on the occasion of the installation or
succession of a Chief or Noble, to present him with a khilat^ and
receive
from him a nazar in return. "Khilat" literally means "a Dress of
Honour." It usually consists of pieces of cloth not made up ; but
some-
times it consists of arms, jewels, or other valuables, without any
article of
attire, although in most cases a turban and shawl form part of the
gift.
Indeed, a complete khilat may include arms, or a horse, or an
elephant, or
all of these together. The nazar (sometimes spelt nuzzur) must be of
corresponding value to the khilat.

In the case of a Maharaja Bahadur, or other noble of that rank, the
khilat and sanad are presented, in full Darbdr^ by the Governor,
Lieutenant-
Governor, or other Chief Civil Officer of the Province ; or if they
are unable
to be present, by the Commissioner of the Division at the sudder-
station (or
capital).

To the Darbar are invited all the civil and military officers
available, also
all the Indian notables and gentry of the neighbourhood.

The chair of the Presiding Officer is placed in the middle, and that
of
the noblefnan to be installed on his right. The brother, son, and any
of the

xvili

relatives of the nobleman who may be present, occupy places, according
to
their station, in the right-hand line.

The chairs for all the public functionaries are placed, according to
their
rank, on the left hand of the Presiding Officer's chair.

The local notables and gentry occupy chairs, also according to their
rank,
on the right hand of the Presiding Officer.

A company of soldiers is drawn up in front of the stairs, as a^Suard
of
Honour.

On the arrival of the noble near the stairs, the Sarishtadar or Munshi
of
the Presiding Officer leads him to the audience. All functionaries,
out of
respect to him, rise from their chairs on the Chiefs reaching the
Presiding
Officer ; who then asks him to take his seat. All functionaries and
Darbaris
must have assembled and taken their seats before the Chiefs arrival.

After a short conversation, the Presiding Officer orders his Munshi
to
take the Chief to an adjoining room, prepared previously for the
purpose,
where he is robed with the different parchas of the khilat except the
pearl
necklace. After this, he is again brought into the Darbar room, and
stands
in front of the Presiding Officer. The latter, rising from his seat
with all
the functionaries present, then ties the pearl necklace round the neck
of the
Chief.

The Presiding Officer then orders the Munshi to read out the sanad.
During the reading of the sanad the Presiding Officer and the
functionaries
resume their seats, while the Chief and the local notables and gentry
rise.

The Chief presents the usual nazardna of gold mohurs, and then all
resume their seats.

After a short pause, the Presiding Officer orders atr and pan to be
brought ; and standing up, serves out the same, first to the newly-
installed
Chief, and then to all the Indian notables and gentry present the
Munshi
bringing up each one in turn to receive the atr and pan.

They all then take their leave, and the ceremony is at an end.

The ceremony of the Installation of a Raja Bahadur, or titled
personage
of lower rank than a Maharaja Bahadur, is very similar to the one
described
above. But the Guard of Honour is not so large, and it is not
necessary
that the Chief Civil Officer of the Province should be present. Also,
the
sarpech, pearl necklace, or whatever may compose the khilat, is handed
by
the Commissioner to the Collector or Assistant Collector of the
district in
which the Chiefs estates are situated, and he requests him to invest
the
Chief with it.

A ceremonial similar to those described above is observed when a
Knight Grand Commander, or a Knight Commander, or a Companion of
the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India, or of the Most Eminent
Order
of the Indian Empire, is invested with the insignia of the Order by
the
representative of the Empress.

INTRODUCTION

xix

ii. LIST OF INDIAN TITLES, WITH A GLOSSARY OF THEIR
MEANINGS WHERE KNOWN.



TITLES.

Achchhan

Ahmudan gaung Tazeik-ya Min (A.T.M.

after name)
Ahsan Jang .
Ajdhat Sar Deshmukh

Alijdh (Sindhia) . . .

Amin-ud-daula" (Tonk)

Amir ......

Amir-ud-daula" Sayyid-ul-Mulk Mumta*z

Jang
Amir-ul-Umara .....

Arbdb

Asaf Jdh (Nizdm) ....

Azam ......

Azam-ul-Umara (Baoni)

Azim-ul-Iktiddr (Sindhia) .

Bahddur

Bahddur Desai .....
Bahadur Jang (Bhartpur) .
Bara"r Bans (Faridkot)

Bardr Bans Sirmur (Na"bha)

Begam (Bhopdl. See Nawdb Begam)

Beglar Begi (Kaldt) .

Bhup (Kuch Behar) .
Bohmong (Chief of the Regritsa

Maghs)
Brajendra (Bhartpur)

Chaube

Chaudhri ......

Chhatrapati Mahdraj (Kolhapur)

DaVar
Deshmukh

MEANING.

Achchhan (Malayalam^ a father, used
also as a title of respect, and in
Malabar applied especially to the
males of the Royal family who have
no office or official rank in the State
(Glos. of Indian Terms).

Recipient of a medal for good service
(Burmese).

Excellent in war.

(Ajdhat, Persian Wajdhat\ a title of
honour to a Vicegerent or represent-
ative, as one exhibiting the presence
of a fully authorised deputy (Mar.
Diet.)

Of exalted dignity.

Trustee of the State.

Prince, chief.

A prince of the State, distinguished in
war.

Chief of the nobles.

Lord.

An Asaf (Solomon's Wazir, according
to the Muhammadans) in dignity.

Very great.

The greatest of the nobles.

Most powerful.

Brave ; a hero ; at the 'end of a name a
title = the English "Honourable."

Desdi (Mar/^Truler of a province.

Brave in war.

Offspring of a Bardr (a Jat tribe. The
Raja" of Faridkot is head of the
tribe Griffin).

Sirmur^ a crowned head.

Lady ; queen ; title of Mughal ladies.

Lord of lords. The Governor of
Shiraz holds this title in Persia.

Sovereign, king.

(Arakanese) Head leader.

Lord of Braj, an epithet of Krishna.

A caste distinction.

Head man of a village ; an honorific

form of address.
Lord of the umbrella. A king entitled

to have an umbrella carried over

him as a mark of dignity.
A just prince, a sovereign.
An hereditary native officer under the

former Governments (Marathi).

XX

TITLES.

Diler Jang (Dholpur)
Dinkar Rao .....

Diwdn ......

Diwan Bahadur ....

Farzand-i-Arjumand Akidat Paiwand

Daulat-i-Inglishia (Ndbha)
Farzand - i - D ilband Rashikhul - 1 ti - kad

Daulat-i-Inglishia (Jind and Kapur-

thala)
Farzand - i -D ilpazir-i-Daulat - i - 1 nglishia

(Rdmpur)
Farzand - i - Khds - i - Daulat- i - 1 nglishia

(Baroda, Patidla)
Farzand - i - Saddat - i - Nishdn - i-Hazrat-i-

Kaisar-i-Hind (Faridkot)

Fath Jang (Nizam) ....

Fidwi-i-Hazrat-i-Malika-i-Muaz-zama-i-

Rafi-ud-Darjd-i-Inglista'n (Sindhia)

Gambhir Rao .....
Ghorpade.

Girad

Hafiz-ul-Mulk (Bahawalpur)

Heladi Naik Bahadur Desai Nadu-

gauda.
Himmat Bahddur ....

Hisdm-us-Saltanat (Sindhia)

Hizabr Jang .....

Ihtisham-ud-daula" (Jaora) .
Ihtisham-ul-Mulk ....

Ima"d-ud-daul (Baoni)

Indar (Kashmir) ....

Jai Deo (Dholpur) ....

Jaldl-ud-daula (Dujana)

Jdm . . ' .

Jamaddr ......

Khan

Khdn Bahddur

Khdn Saheb.

Khanzdda ...

Kiritapati (Travancore)

Kulashekhdra (Travancore)

Kumdr or Kunwdr ....

Kyet Thaye zaung shwe Salwe ya Min

(K.S.M. after name)
Lokendra (Dholpur, Dattia)
Mahant ......

Mahdrdj Kumdr ....

Mahardj Rdna (Dholpur, Jhalawar) .
Mahdrajd .....

MEANING.
Intrepid in war.
Dinkar (Sanskrit), Day-maker, the sun.

See Rao.

A minister, a chief officer of State.
See Diwdn and Bahadur.
Beloved and faithful son of the English

Government. p

Beloved and trusty son of the English

Government.

Esteemed son of the English Govern-
ment.

Favourite son of the English Govern-
ment.

A son emblematical of the good
auspices of Her Majesty the Empress
of India.

Victorious in battle.

A servant of Her August Majesty the
Queen of England, who is exalted
in position.

Sagacious chief.

A Somali title, apparently = a chief.
Guardian, preserver of the country.

Brave champion.

Sword of the State.

Lion of battle.

Pomp of the State.

Pomp of the country.

Pillar of the State.

Indra.

God of victory.

Glory of the State.

(Sindhi) Chief.

Chief or leader.

Lord, prince, title of Muhammadan

nobles.
Brave lord.

Son of a Khdn. Title of some Musal-
man chiefs settled in Pandu Mehvas.

Possessor of a diadem.

Head (Shekhara) of the race (Kulam).

Prince, son of a Rajd.

Recipient of the Gold Chain of Honour
(Burmese).

Protector of the world.

Head of a religious order.

Son of a Mahrajl

Supreme Rand or king.

Great Raj or king.

INTRODUCTION

xxi

TITLES.

Mahdrdjd Bahddur.
Mahdrdjd Dhirdj or Mahdrdj-Adhirdj
Mahdrdjd-i-Rdjagdn .
Mahdrand ....
Mahdrdnd Dhirdj (Udaipur)
Mahdrdni ....

Mahdrao . .
Mahdrao Bahddur (Kota).
Mahdrao Rdjd (Alwar and Bundi)
Mahdrdwal ....
Mahdrdwal Bahddur.
Mahdrdwat (Partdbgarh) .
Mahendra ....
Majid-ud-dauld
Malanmat Maddr.
Maldz-ul-Ulama-ul-Fdzila .

Malik

Mdlwandar (Ndbha) .
Mani Sultdn (Travancore) .

Mansur-i-Zamdn (Sindhia, Patidla)
Midn

Mihin Sarddr (Baoni)

Mir

Mirza

Mirza Bahddur.
Mong Rdjd
Muazzaz-ud-dauld
Mudabbir-ul-Mulk
Muhtashim-i-Daurdn (Sindhia)
Mujdhid-ul-Mulk
Mukhlis-ud-dauld (Bahdwalpur)
Mukhtdr-ul-Mulk (Sindhia)
Mulk ....

M umtdz-ud-dauld
Mumtdz-ul-Mulk
Mushir-i-Khas .
Mushir-ud-dauld
Mustakil Jang (Dujana)
Mustakim Jang
Mutalik ....
Muzaffar-ul-Mamdlik (Nizdm)
Naik ....
Nasrat Jang (Bahdwalpur) .
Nawdb ....
Nawdb Bdbi (Balasinor) .

MEANING.

Lord Paramount king of kings.

King of kings.

Great Rdnd or king.

Lord Paramount, king of kings.

Great Rdni or queen.

Great Rao or chief.

Supreme Rdjd or king.
Great Rdwal or prince.

Great Rdwat or prince.
Great Indra.
Glorious in the State.

Asylum of the learned and erudite.

Master, proprietor.

Lord of wealth.

The Sultdn par excellence. Mani a

jewel, a pearl.
Victorious of the age.
Lord, Master, title of sons, of Rdjput

princes.

Mihin^ greater, greatest, elder-born.
Chief, leader.
A contraction of Amir Zdda, " nobly

born." When affixed to a name, it

signifies " Prince " ; when prefixed,

simply " Mr."

Mong (Arakanese), a leader.

Honoured of the State.

Administrator or Minister of the country.

(The most) powerful of his age.

Warrior (for the faith) of the country.

Devoted servant of the State.

Ruler of the country.

Probably a misprint or corruption of

Malik, a king.
Distinguished in the State.
Distinguished in the country.
Privy counsellor, choicest counsellor.
Counsellor of the State.
Firm in battle.
Loyal in battle.
Mutlak, principal, supreme.
Victorious over kingdoms.
Nayak, leader, chief.
Victorious in battle.
Vicegerent.
Bdbi, door-keeper. The founder of

the family once held this post in the

Mughal Court, and hence the title is

given to his descendants.

XXII

TITLES.

Nawdb Bahddur.
Nawdb Begam (Bhopdl).
Nizdm-ud-dauld (Nizdm) .
Nizdm-ul-Mulk (Nizam) .
Nono (Spiti) .
Padmandbha Dasa (Travancore)
Pddwi

Pancha-Hdzdr Mansabddr .
Pant Pratinidhi

Pant Sachiv
Patang Rao
Prince (Arcot).
Rafi-ush-Shdn (Sindhia) .

Rai

Rai Bahddur.

Rai Rdydn (Banswara)

Rai Sdheb.

Rais-ud-dauld (Dholpur)

Raj Rdjendra (Jaipur)

Raj Rajeshwar (Holkar), etc.

Raj Saheb

Rdjd ....

Rdjd Bahddur.

Rdjd Dhirdj

Rdjd-i-Rdjagdn .

Rajeshwar.

Rand

Rani

Rao

Rao Bahddur.
Rao Saheb.
Rashid-ul-Mulk (Baoni) .

Rawal

Rdwat

Rukn-ud-dauld (Bahdwalpur)
Rustam-i-Daurdn (Nizam) .

Rustam Jang . . .
Saheb-i-Jdh (Baoni) .

Saif-ud-dauld

Sar Desdi

Sdrdmad - i - Rdjahd - i - Bundelkhand

(Orchha)
Sdrdmad - i - Rajahd - i - Hindustan

(Jaipur)
Sarddr ......

Sarddr Bahddur.

MEANING.

Regulator of the State.
Administrator of the country.
(Tibetan) Young nobleman.
Servant of Vishnu (the lotus-navelled).
Or Pdri)i) clan title borne after their

names by certain Merlvas Chiefs

(Bombay Gazetteer}.
Noble holding a mansab or military

rank of 5000 horse.
Pratinidhi) a vicegerent ; title borne by

a distinguished Maratha family.
SachiV) Minister, counsellor.
From Patang) the sun, and Rao^ prince.

Of exalted dignity.

(Prakrit Rai = Raja") Prince, chief.

Rai of Rais, prince of princes.

Ruler of the State.

Lord of kings, king of kings.

Rajeshivar, king of kings.

Raj = Raja".

King, prince.

Paramount Raja", king of kings.
Raja" of Raja's.

From Rajan ( = Rajd) + Ka (expressing

diminutiveness).
Title of a prince or Rajd, especially

among Rajputs.
Queen, princess.
King, prince, chief.

Director of the country.
Prince, chief.

Do.

Pillar of the State.
The Rustam (the most renowned of

Persian heroes) of his time.
A Rustam in battle.
Possessed of dignity.
Sword of the State.
Chief Desdi or ruler of a province.
Head of the Rdjds of Bundelkhand.

Head of the Rdjds of Hindustan.
Chief officer of rank.

INTRODUCTION

xxin

TITLES.

Saulat Jang (Tonk) .
Sawdi

Sawdi Bahddur (Kutch).

Sawdi Rao.

Send Khas Khel (Gaekwdr)

Send Pati

Shdhzdda

Shaikh

Shaikh-ul-Mushaikh ....
Shamsher Bahddur (Baroda)
Shamsher Jang (Travancore)
Shams-ud-dauld ....
Shiromani (Bikanir) .
Shrimdn Maha Naik Nadgauda

Nagnuriebirada Himori.
Shujd-at Jang . .
Sipahddr-ul-Mulk (Dholpur)
Sipar-i-Saltanat (Kashmir) .
Srindth (Sindhia) ....

Sultdn

Thdkur

Thdkur Rdwat.

Thdkur Saheb.

Thdkur Send Rai.

Thdkurdni .....

Thuye-gaung Ngweda ya Min (T.D.M.

after name)
Umdat-ul-Mulk .

Umdat-ul-Umara (Sindhia)
Vanji (Travancore) ....
Vishwdsrao .

Wachandth

Wdld Shikoh (Sindhia)

Wali (Kaldt)

Walvi

Wasava .
Wazir-ud-dauld .
Wazir-ul-Mulk (Tonk)
Zamorin .

MEANING.
Fury of war.
Literally, having the excess of a fourth ;

i.e. better than others by 25 per cent.

A Hindu title.

Chief of the army, commander of the

army of the State.
Army- Chief, General.
Prince-Royal, prince.
Chief.

Doctor of doctors (of law).
A mighty man of the sword.
The sword of war.
The sun of the State.
The gem, the best (of).

Brave in war.

Commander of the army of the country.

Shield of the Empire.

Lord of Fortune.

Prince, ruler.

Chief, feudal noble.

Female Thdkur.

Recipient of the Silver Sword for

Bravery (Burmese).
Chosen of the State.
Chosen from among the nobles.
Dynastic name.

From Vishvuds, trust, and Rao, prince.
Vachan-ndth, Lord of Speech.
Of high dignity.
Prince, governor.
Or Valvi. Clan title borne after their

names by certain Mehvas Chiefs

(Bombay Gazetteer],
Or Vasava Do.
Minister of the State.

Do.
Vernacular modification of Samundri,

the sea king (Malayalam).

NOTICE

THIS Edition of The Golden Book of India is up to date. It con-
tains the Honours conferred in January 1893 including fifty -four
new Titles, and nine appointments to, or promotions in, the Orders of
the Star of India and the Indian Empire, gazetted in Calcutta on 2nd
January 1893.

Communications relating to the Second Edition should be ad-
dressed to

SIR ROPER LETHBRIDGE, K.C.I. E.,
c/o Messrs. MACMILLAN & Co.,
29 BEDFORD STREET,

COVENT GARDEN,

LONDON, W.C.

January 3U/, 1893.

ABAJI BALWANT BHISB, Rao Bahddur.
The title is personal, arid was conferred on nth September 1884.
Residence. Bombay.

ABBAS ALI walad MUHAMMAD KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary. The Mir is a descendant of one of the Mirs
or
Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Sind.

ABBAS KHAN, MIRZA, C.I.E.

The Mirza was created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the
Indian Empire, ist January 1882.
Residence.

ABDUL ALI, Khan Bahddur.

The Khan Bahadur was born in 1863, and is a descendant of the old
Nawabs of the Carnatic, being the son of Muazzaz-ud-daula, and
grandson
of His late Highness Azim Jah, first titular Prince of Arcot. He was
granted
the personal title of Khan Bahadur in 1876.

Residence. M adras.

ABDUL ALI, MIR, Khan Bahddur, and Sarddr.

The titles are personal, and were conferred, the first on 22nd
January
1873, and the second on 3ist May 1891.
Residence. B ombay.

ABDUL FATEH, MAULAVI, SAYYID, Khan Bahddur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1887.
Residence. Na"sik, Bombay.

ABDUL FIROZ KHAN (of Sdvanur), Nawdb.

The Nawab is the uncle of the ruling Nawab of Savanur in the Dharwar
district.

Residence. -Dharwar, Bombay.

ABDUL PIROZ KHAN, Khan Saheb.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
tne
occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty.
Residence. Bhusdwal, Bombay.

ABDUL GHANI, KHWAJA SIR, K.C.S.I., Nawdb (of Dacca}.

Born about the year 1813. The title is hereditary, and was conferred
on ist January 1877. The Nawab, who is famous throughout Bengal for
his great wealth, liberality, and public spirit, is descended from the
Bonda
family, of Kashmiri origin. The Maulavi Abdullah, who was the son of
the Maulavi Abdul Kadir, and was born in Kashmir, came to Bengal in
the
reign of the Emperor Mahmud Shah, and established himself in Sylhet.
His grandson was the Khwaja Alimullah, who was the father of the
subject
of this notice. The Nawab Abdul Ghani first distinguished himself for
his
loyalty during the Mutinies of 1857, assisting the Government with
infor-
mation, advice, and funds. Placed his steamer, The Star of Dacca, at
the
disposal of Government during the famine of 1874, and after the
cyclone of
October 1876, for relief work. Has contributed largely to works of
public
utility, and on all occasions of distress. He has been a great
benefactor to
the city of Dacca, where he has supplied many public buildings, and
main-
tains a Free School, a Madrasa for Muhammadan students, an almshouse,
etc. He was created C.S.I. in 1871 ; Nawab (personal) in 1875 ;
hereditary
Nawab on the occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious
Majesty
as Empress, ist January 1877; K. C.S.I., 1886. His son is the Hon.
Nawab Ahsanulla (q.v.\ born 1846.

Residence. Dacca, Bengal.

ABDUL GHANI, MAULAVI, Khdn Bahadur.

An Extra Assistant Commissioner of the Punjab. Created a Khan
Bahadur, as a personal distinction, 2nd January 1893.
Residence. Punjab.

ABDUL HAKIM, MUNSHI, Khdn Saheb.

Granted the title, as a personal distinction, 2nd January 1893, for
eminent services at Gilgit.

Residence. Gilgit, Kashmir.

ABDUL HAKK, SAYYID, C.I.B., Sarddr Diler Jang Bahddur.

The Sardar, who is a descendant of the Karnal family, was in early
life
in the British service, and obtained the Companionship of the Indian
Empire for distinguished service in the Police. He was lent by the
British
Government to the Government of His Highness the Nizam, attained very
high office in the latter service, and was rewarded by the titles of
Sarddr

Diler Jang Bahadur, and subsequently of Sarddr Diler-ud-dauld
Bahadur;
and the former of these titles was recognised by the British
Government as
a personal distinction.

Residence. Hyderabad and Bombay.

ABDUL HAKK, MAULAVI, Shams-ul-Ulama.

The title^is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty. It
entitles the Maulavi to take rank in Darbar immediately after titular
Nawabs.

Residence. Cawnpur, North- Western Provinces.

ABDUL HAKK, MAULAVI (of Khairabad), Shams-ul-Ulama.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty. It
entitles the Maulavi to take rank in Darbar immediately after titular
Nawabs.

Residence. Sitapur, Oudh.

ABDUL HUSAIN KHAN, MIR (of Tando Mir), His Highness.

Born 1 3th May 1850. The title is personal, and was conferred in
recog-
nition of his position as grandson of the Amir, who was the ruler of
Sind at
the time of the annexation.

Residence. Hyderabad, Sind.

ABDUL ISLAM BIN ADAM, Khan Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist May 1880.
Residence. Na"sik, Bombay.

ABDUL JABBAR, MAULAVI, Khan Bahadur.

The Khan Bahadur is a Deputy Magistrate of the 24-Parganas at
Calcutta, and having rendered excellent service in that capacity,
received
the title as a personal distinction on 25th May 1892.

Residence. Calcutta.

ABDUL KADIR, SAYYID, Khan Bahadur.

As the term Sayyid implies, this gentleman claims to be descended
from
the Prophet. He is a descendant of the old Nawabs of the Carnatic ;
and
his title of Khan Bahadur was recognised by the Government in
December
1890.

Residence. Madras.

ABDUL KADIR, HAFIZ, Khan.

The Khan is sometimes styled Wajih-ulla-Khan-i-Hal ; his title, which
is
personal, was conferred by the Carnatic Nawab, but was recognised by
Government in 1890.

Residence. Madras.

ABDUL KADIR KHAN walad ALI GAUHAR KHAN, MIR.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a representative of one of the
Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation (see Khairpur).
Residence. Shika"rpur, Sind.

ABDUL KARIM, SHAIKH HAFIZ, C.I.E., Khan Bahadur.

Born 1838. The title was conferred on 24th May 1884, for services
rendered by his ancestors, and for his own acts of public generosity.
His
father was present at the battles of Bharatpur, Kamon, and Shekhawati
in
the first Kabul campaign ; and his brother was rewarded by a khilat
for his
services in the first and second Punjab campaigns. The Khan Bahadur is
a
large landed proprietor in the district of Meerut, North- Western
Provinces ;
and has been created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the
Indian Empire, 2ist May 1890.

Residence. Meerut, North- Western Provinces.

ABDUL LATIF, C.I.E., Nawdb Bahddur.

The Nawab Bahadur was born in March 1828. He traces his descent
from the celebrated Generalissimo of Islam, Khalid Ibn Walid, entitled
the
" Sword of God," who died in the twenty-first year of the Hijrah.
Shah
Ain-ud-din of Baghdad was the first member of the family to settle in
India.
His descendant, Kazi Abdur Rasul, was made Kazi by the Emperor of
Delhi, and sent to Faridpur in Bengal, where the family settled. A
descendant, Kazi Fakir Muhammad, was a leading pleader of the Sadar
Diwdni and Nizdmat Addlat at Calcutta ; and was a great oriental
scholar,
being the author of several works, of which the chief was the Persian
Jdmi-
ut-Tawdrikh or " Universal History." He was the father of the subject
of the
present notice; who entered the Government service in 1846, and after
some service in the Educational Department in the Dacca College and
the
Calcutta Madrasa, became a Deputy Magistrate of the 24-Parganas in
1849. Was appointed J.P. for Bengal, Behar, and Orissa, 1852. Acted
for
a short time as Police Magistrate of Calcutta, and has served three
times as
a Member of the Bengal Legislative Council. Has been a Member of the
Board of Examiners since 1860; has also been Member of the Central
Examination Committee. One of the Income -Tax Commissioners for
Calcutta, 1861-65. Fellow of the Calcutta University, 1863. In 1867
received from Government a gold medal, and a set of the new edition of
the
Encyclopedia Britannica^ with an autograph inscription by the
Viceroy : " In
recognition of his services in promoting native education, especially
the
education of those who like himself belong to the Muhammadan
religion."
In 1869 appointed one of the Commissioners to enquire into the state
of
the Calcutta and Hughli Madrasas, and received the thanks of
Government
for this work. Is a J.P. and Municipal Commissioner for Calcutta, and
also
for the suburbs ; Member of the Board of Management of the
Reformatory,
and of the District School Committee, 24-Parganas. Founder and
Secretary
of the Muhammadan Literary Society of Calcutta, established April
1863;

Hon. Secretary, Bengal Social Science Association ; Member of the
Philological Committee of the Asiatic Society of Bengal ; a Trustee of
the
Indian Association for Cultivation of Science ; Member of Committee
of
Albert Hall, also of the District Charitable Society. Received the
Companionship of the Order of the Indian Empire, ist January 1883.
Was
created a Nawab Bahadur in consideration of his eminent position and
dis-
tinguished public services on the occasion of the Jubilee of Her Most
Gracious
Majesty's reign, 1887. He has two sons Abul Fazl Muhammad Abdur-
rahman, Esquire, Barrister-at-law of the High Court, Calcutta ; Abul
Khair
Muhammad Abdus-Subhan, Khan Bahadur
Residence. 16 Toltollah Lane, Calcutta.

ABDUL LATIF AGHA JOHAR, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal; was conferred by the Carnatic Nawab, and
recognised by Government i6th December 1890. The Khan Bahadur also
bears the Carnatic titles of Asad Jang Said-ud-daula.

Residence. Arabia.

ABDUL, LATIP LONDB, KAZI, Shams-ul-Ulama.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 2nd January 1888, for
eminent oriental scholarship. It entitles the Kazi to rank in Darbar
immedi-
ately after titular Nawabs.

Residence. Bombay.

ABDUL MAHMUD KHAN, Khan Bahadur.

Has done good service in the Medical Department, Bengal ; and
received
the title on ist January 1891, as a personal distinction.
Residence. Calcutta.

ABDUL (ABDUR) RAHIM HAKIM, Khan Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 6th April 1882.
Residence. Bushire.

ABDUL (ABDUR) RAHIM, SHAIKH, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 2oth May 1890, for good
service in the Medical Department.
Residence. Bengal.

ABDUL (ABDUR) RAHIM KHAN, Khan Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877.
Residence. Bannu, Punjab.

ABDUL (ABDUR) RAHMAN, Khan Bahadur.

The Khan Bahadur is a Deputy Commissioner in the district of Shimoga,
Mysore, under the government of His Highness the Maharaja of Mysore,
and
received the title as a personal distinction on 25th May 1892.

Residence. Shimoga, Mysore.

ABDUL (ABDUR) RAUF, MAULAVI, Shams-ul-Ulama.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 2oth May 1890, for
distinc-
tion in oriental learning. It entitles him to take rank in Darbar
immediately
after titular Nawabs.

Residence. Patna, Bengal.

ABDUL (ABDUR) RAZZAK, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist June 1888, for dis-
tinguished medical service.
Residence. Jeddah.

ABDUL (ABDUS) SAMAD, Khan Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887.
Residence. Indore, Central India.

ABDUL VASA, Khan Bahadur.

Born 1843; a member of the Carnatic family, being the son-in-law of
His late Highness Zahir-ud-daula, the second of the titular Princes of
Arcot ;
was granted the personal title of Khan Bahadur in 1875.

Residence. M adras.

ABDUL WAHAB, MAULAVI, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887. The
Maulavi's ancestors are said to have come from Kandahar in the loth
century, and to have settled at Delhi. The family afterwards removed
to
Echoli in the Meerut district ; and one of his ancestors having been
killed by
Ragbars in the i yth century, his heirs were granted the village of
Echoli by
firman of the Emperor of Delhi. In course of time this grant passed
into
the hands of the Rani of Landhaura. Abdul Wahab has rendered very
distinguished service in the Police Department, and has been publicly
com-
mended and rewarded on many occasions. He is District Superintendent
of
Police at Ballia.

Residence. Meerut, North- Western Provinces.

ABDUL WAHAB, HAJI, Khan Bahadur.

This gentleman (who, as the title of Hdji implies, has performed the
Haj or Pilgrimage to Mecca) is connected with the Carnatic family ;
and
his title, conferred by the Carnatic Nawab, was recognised by
Government
as a personal one in 1890.

Residence. M adras.

ABDULLA walad GHULAM MURTAZA KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the
Chiefs
of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

ABDULLA KHAN, Nawdb.

The titfe is hereditary, and the Nawab Abdulla Khan was specially
selected to succeed to it in August 1881. The title had been
recognised
3oth July 1875.

Residence. Dera Ismail Kha"n, Punjab,

ABDULLA KHAN, Khan Saheb.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty.
Residence. Sibi, Baluchistan.

ABDULLA KHAN, Khan Sahtf.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 2nd January 1888.
Residence. Ajmir, Rajputdna.

ABDUS SUBHAN, Khan Bahadur.

Born in 1849 ) nas been granted the personal title of Khan Bahadur
for
good service under the Police Department of Madras.
Residence. Madura, Madras Presidency.

ABDUS SUBHAN, SAYYID, CHAUDHRI, Nawdb.
Granted the title of Nawab, as a personal distinction, 2nd January
1893.
Residence. Bogra, Bengal.

ABHAI CHANDRA DAS, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 23rd May 1888, for good
service as Deputy Magistrate and Deputy Collector of the 24-Parganas.
Residence. 10 Shama Charan Dey's Street, Calcutta.

ABHAI CHARAN MITTBR, Rai Bahadur.

Abhai Charan Mitter is a descendant of the Mitter family of
Charimandel
in Vikrampur, Dacca, originally imported from Rarh and stated to have
been
located in Charimandel by Chand Rai and Kedar Rai, the ruling
Kayastha
Sabas of Vikrampur. He is ninth in descent from Devaki Nandan Mitter,
who first migrated to Charimandel. Born on the i2th May 1839. His
father's name was Ram Kinker Mitter. He did meritorious service in
the
first Lushai Expedition, *both as an explorer and as a contractor for
transport ; and was kept for some time as a hostage by the Lushais.
His
services were equally valuable to Government in the last Chin -Lushai
Expedition, when he supplied boats, coolies, and other means of
transport,
notwithstanding the difficulties caused by a severe outbreak of
cholera. Was
rewarded with the title on ist January 1891.

Residence. Chittagong Hill Tracts.

ABID ALI BAHADUR, KAMR KADR MIRZA, Prince.
This is the courtesy title of the eldest son of the late King of
Oudh.
Residence. Calcutta, Bengal.

ABINAS CHANDRA BANERJI, Rat Bahadur.

Born 1 846. Son of Babu Navin Chandra Banerji, of Bali, in the
district of
Howrah, Bengal. Educated in the Free Church Institution, Calcutta ;
entered
the service of His Highness the Maharaja of Patiala, 1866; appointed
Director of Public Instruction, 1869; A.D.C. and Private Secretary to
His
Highness, 1875 ; worked for the organisation of the Bali Sadharani
Sabha, a
Public Association recognised by the Government, and made Secretary
thereof,
1882. In 1883 was elected Vice-Chairman of the Bali Municipality. In
1887, on the occasion of Her Majesty's Jubilee, received the title of
Rai
Bahadur for good service; elected Chairman of the Bali Municipality
in
1890. Is an Honorary Magistrate.

Residence. Bali, Howrah, Bengal.

ABU SAID, Khdn Bahadur.

A member of the Carnatic family, and styled Zahir-ud-din Khan Baha-
dur. The title was conferred by the Nawab of the Carnatic, and was
recog-
nised as a personal one by Government in 1890.

Residence. Madras.

ABU TURAB PARRUKH MIRZA BAHADUR, Prince.
This is the courtesy title of the fifteenth son of the late King of
Oudh.
Residence. Calcutta, Bengal.

ABUBAKR, BBARI, Khdn Bahadur.

Granted the title of Khan Bahadur, as a personal distinction, 2nd
January 1893.

Residence. Mangalore, Madras.

ABUL ALI DARAGAH MIRZA BAHADUR, Prince.
This is the courtesy title of the twentieth son of the late King of
Oudh.
Residence. Calcutta, Bengal.

ABUL HASAN, MAULAVI, Shams-ul-Ulama.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, for
eminence as an oriental scholar. It entitles him to take rank in
Darbar im-
mediately after titular Nawabs.

Residence. Lucknow, Oudh.

: ABUL KHAIR MUHAMMAD ABDUS-SUBHAN, MAULAVI,

Khdn Bahadur.

Son of Nawab Abdul Latif Khan Bahadur, C.I.E., of Calcutta.
Born 27th September 1857. Traces his descent from the celebrated
Generalissimo of Islam, Khalid Ibn Walid, entitled the " Sword of
God," who
died in the twenty-first year of the Hijrah. Shah Ain-ud-din of
Baghdad, a

most learned saint, came to India first. Kazi Abdur Rasul was made
Kazi
by the Court of Delhi and sent to Bengal, and the family settled in
the
Faridpur district. Kazi Fakir Muhammad, one of his descendants, was a
leading pleader of the Sadar Diwdni and Nizdmat Addlat at Calcutta,
and
was a great oriental scholar, being the author of several works, chief
among
which was an universal history in Persian, called the Jdmi-ut-
Tawdrikh.
His son is the Nawab Abdul Latif Bahadur (q.v.\ the father of the
sub-
ject of thetpresent notice. The Khan Bahadur was educated at the Cal-
cutta Madrasa and the Presidency College, Calcutta, where he was a
scholar, prizeman, and medallist. Received the title of " Khan Bahadur
"
with his appointment as a Deputy Magistrate and Deputy Collector, on
the
loth September 1884. Vested with first-class Magisterial powers,
1888;
appointed Secretary of the District Committee of Public Instruction at
Arrah
(Shahabad), 1886; a Member and Vice -Chairman of the District Board,
Champarun, 1887; and a Municipal Commissioner of Patna, 1891.
Married,
24th August 1889, Bibi Najmoon-Neesa Khanum, fourth daughter of
Chowdhry Muhammad Rasheed Khan, Khan Bahadur of Nattore, district
Rajshahi.

Residence. Gya, Bengal.

ACHAL SINGH (of Kaimahra), Rdjd.

Born 1 5th June 1880, and succeeded Raja Narpat Singh in 1886. The
title is hereditary. The Raja of Kaimahra represents the elder branch
of the
Janwar family, the Raja of Oel representing the junior branch. They
were
originally Chauhan Kshatriyas in the service of the Sayyids of Pihani,
having
migrated from Rajputana in the i6th century. In the time of Sayyid
Khurd, in 1553, their ancestor Jamni Khan obtained the post of
Chaudhri
of Kheri, with the right to levy a cess on all the lands in that
Pargana. At
a later period, when Than Singh was head of the family, he lived at
Oel, with
the title of Rai. Ajab Singh, who was the uncle and predecessor of
the
grandfather of the present Raja, in 1837 was acknowledged as Raja by
the
tribe, and the title was confirmed as hereditary in 1864. Sleeman
states
that the Raja of Oel attempted to seize the estates of his kinsman,
Jodha
Singh of Kaimahra, grandfather of the present Raja. The mother of the
latter is the Rani Ranikunwar.

Residence. Kheri, Oudh.

ADARJI JAMSHBDJI, Khdn Saheb.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 2oth October 1885.
Residence. B ombay .

AFGHANISTAN, His Highness the Amir of.

A Ruling Chief.

His Highness Sir Abdur Rahman Khan, G. C.S.I., Amir of Afghanistan,
was born about the year 1843, an d was placed on the throne by the
British
authorities on the 22nd July 1880. He is a younger son of the late
Amir
Sher Ali Khan, Amir of Kabul, and lived for some years as an exile,
but was

brought back after the last Afghan war. The area of the State is
about
270,000 square miles; its population about 4,901,000, chiefly Muham-
madans. His Highness is entitled to a salute of 2 1 guns ; and
maintains a
military force of 19,500 cavalry, 40,408 infantry, and 210 guns.
Residence. Kabul.

AGAR (RBWA KANTHA), THAKUR GAMBHIR &INGH,

Thdkur of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born about 1867; is a Muhammadan of Rajput descent. The area of
the State is about 9 square miles ; its population consists chiefly of
Bhils.
Residence. Agar, Rewa" Kdntha, Bombay.

AGRA BARKHBRA (BHOPAL), BALWANT SINGH, Thdkur of.

A Ruling Chief.

Thakur Balwant Singh is a Rajput Chief (Hindu), born about the year
1827. He succeeded to the title, which is hereditary, on the 9th July
1859.
The population of the State, which is situated in the Bhopal Agency,
Central
India, is about 4200, and consists chiefly of Hindus.

Residence. Agra Barkhera, Bhopal, Central India.

AHMAD, MAULAVI, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1890 "for
loyalty
and public spirit."

Residence. 70 Toltollah Lane, Calcutta, Bengal.

AHMAD ALI KHAN, Khan Bahadur.

The Khan Bahadur has rendered good service on the Survey of India,
and received the title as a personal distinction on 25th May 1892.
Residence. Calcutta.

AHMAD BAKHSH, SHAIKH, Khan Bahadur.

Born 1815. Son of Tir Bakhsh, who was in the service of the Raja of
Nagpur ; and whose ancestor, Malik Bal Lai, settled in the Fatehpur
district
in the reign of Shahab-ud-din Ghori. The Khan Bahadur served in the
Bengal Light Cavalry from the year 1830; and took part in the
campaign
against the Bhils in 1832, and in the Afghan war in 1839. He went
through
the Kabul campaigns, and joined in the pursuit of Dost Muhammad. For
his loyalty during the Mutiny he was rewarded with a khtlat, a jdgtr
(grant
of lands), and the title of Khan Bahadur, which was conferred on him
January 1866.

Residence. Fatehpur, North- Western Provinces.

AHMAD GURIKAL, MANJBRI, Khan Bahadur.

Born 1825 ; granted the personal title of Khan Bahadur for good
service
in the Madras Police, from which he retired on pension in 1888.

Residence. Malabar, Madras Presidency.

AHMAD HASAN KHAN, Nawdb Bahadur.

Son of the Nawab Kalb Ali Khan, and a grandson of the late Saadat AH
Khan, King of Oudh. The title is personal.

Residence. Lucknow, Oudh.

AHMAD HUSAIN KHAN, Nawdb (of Fatehpur}.

Born 1826. The title is hereditary. The family originally came from
Teheran; its founder, Sayyid Ikram-ud-din Ahmad, accompanied the
Emperor Humayiin on his return from Persia, took service under the
Delhi
emperors, and was appointed a mansabddr by the great Akbar. His
great-
grandson, Muhammad Taki, was in office under the Emperor Alamgir, and
was succeeded by his son Shah Kuli Khan. The grandson of the latter,
Nawab Zain-ul-Abdin Khan, came to Oudh, was appointed chakladdr of
Sarkars Kora and Kara under the Oudh Government, and obtained
extensive
jdgirs in the district of Fatehpur from the Nawab Asaf-ud-daula. He
was
succeeded by his son, Nawab Bakar Ali Khan, who transferred his head-
quarters from Kora Jahanabad to Fatehpur. He was succeeded by his
brother, Nawab Sayyid Muhammad Khan, the father of the present Nawdb.
The Nawab has two sons Ali Husain Khan and Bakar Husain Khan.

Residence. Bdkarganj, Fatehpur, North-Western Provinces.

AHMAD HUSAIN KHAN (of Pariawan), SHAIKH,
Khdn Bahadur.

Born 1865 ; succeeded 1877. The title is hereditary, and was
conferred
4th December 1877, on Dost Muhammad of Pariawan, on account of his
services in the Mutiny. The founder of the family is said to have
been
Haji Abdul Rauf, who migrated from Mecca to Ghazni, accompanied
Shahab-ud-din Ghori when he invaded India, and obtained the estate of
Pariawan, consisting of eight villages, revenue free, for services
rendered.
Revenue was, however, assessed in the time of Nawab Saadat Ali Khan.
Shaikh Gulam added to the estate by purchases, and was succeeded by
his
son, Haji Shaikh Dost Muhammad (see above), who did good service in
the
Mutiny, went on pilgrimage to Mecca, and died at Medina. Succeeded by
his son, the present Khan Bahadur, who is an Honorary Magistrate. He
has issue, two daughters.

Residence. Paridwan, Partdbgarh, Oudh.

AHMAD KHAN walad MUHAMMAD HUSAIN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, as being that of a descendant of the ancient
Mirs
of Sind.

Residence. Hyderabad, Sind.

AHMAD KHAN, JAMADAR, Khan Saheb.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty.
Residence. nth Bengal Lancers, India.

AHMAD KHAN, SAYYID, C.I.E.

Was created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian
Empire, ist January 1888.
Residence.

AHMAD MUHI-UD-DIN, Khan Bahadur.

Son of Ibruth Jang Bahadur, by a niece of the Hon. Sir Sharful Umra
Bahadur, K. C.S.I. ; born 1835; married, 1864, to the second daughter
of
His Highness Nawab Zahir-ud-daula, G.C.S.I., second Prince of Arcot.
Created Khan Bahadur, 1874. Claims close connection, on both father's
and
mother's sides, with the Nawabs Rulers of the Carnatic. Was present at
the
Imperial Assemblage, Delhi, as a member of the Prince of Arcot's
suite ;
Secretary to the Prince of Arcot, 1877 to 1883. Was delegated to the
Hyderabad Court, in 1884, by the Muslim community, Madras, for
present-
ing a congratulatory address to His Highness the Nizam, on his
accession to
the masnad. A member of the Madras Muhammadan Library. Founder of
the Aujuman-i Islarniah of Madras ; which afterward was amalgamated
with
the Madras Central Muhammadan Association, when he was elected as a
Vice-President of the latter. Vice -President of the Aujuman-i Himayat-
i-
Islam, Madras. Founder of the Muslim Herald, the first Muhammadan-
English tri-weekly paper in India, which, though not now existing,
was
remarkable for its loyal spirit and moderate tone.

Residence. Mylapur and Adyar, Madras.

AHMAD MUHI-UD-DIN, Khdn Bahadur.

The Khan Bahadur is a member of the Carnatic family, being a son-in-
law of His late Highness Zahir-ud-daula, the second of the titular
Princes of
Arcot. He was born in 1842, and was granted the personal title in
1875.

Residence. M adras.

AHMAD SHAH SAYYID (of Sardhana), Nawdb.

Born ist January 1835 ; succeeded in 1882. The family are Muswi or
Mashadi Sayyids, descended from Hayat AH Musa Raza, and originally
residing at Paghman near Kabul. On account of services rendered to
Alexander Barnes in his Kabul mission, and subsequently to the English
in
their retreat from Kabul, they were expelled from Kabul and settled
at
Sardhana,., At the time of the Mutiny, the head of the family, Sayyid
Muhammad Jan Fishan, Khan Saheb, took the side of the Government at
once. When the Mutiny occurred at Meerut, he raised a body of horse,
consisting of his followers and dependents, and officered by himself
and his
relatives ; accompanied General Wilson's force to the Hindan ; was
present
in both actions, and thence to Delhi, where he remained with the
head-
quarters camp till the city was taken, when his men were employed to
keep
order in Delhi. For these eminent services the title of Nawab, with a
suit-
able khilat, was conferred on him. And each of his successors have
received
the title of Na"wab for life on succeeding to the estates.

Residence. Sardhana, North-Western Provinces.

AHMAD-ULLA KHAN, Nawdb.

Born 1 6th December 1827. The title was conferred on 26th February
1885. The family claims descent from the Nawab Dadan Khdn, a Governor
of the Punjab. One of its most illustrious ancestors was Nawab
Muhammad
Khan, who, on account of his loyal services, received the title of
Khairandesh
Khan from the Emperor Alamgir. The Nawab Ahmad-ulla Khan served
the British Government for twenty-eight years as a Patrol in the
Customs
Department, and retired on pension in 1877 having distinguished
himself
for his fidelity during the Mutiny, when he was wounded and twice
robbed
by the rebels. He is an Honorary Magistrate of the first class, and
Vice-
President of the Meerut Municipal and District Boards ; in which
capacity
he has been distinguished for his public spirit.

Residence. Meerut, North-Western Provinces.

AHMAD-UN-NISA BEGAM SAHIBA, Nawdb.

Grand-daughter of His late Highness Azim-ud-daula", the first of the
titular Nawabs of the Carnatic ; granted the personal title of Nawab,
1815.
Residence. Madras.

AHMAD YAR KHAN, Khdn Bahadur.

The Khan Bahadur has occupied an important position in the police of
the Quetta-Peshin frontier, and received the title as a personal
distinction on
25th May 1892.

Residence. Quetta, Baluchistan.

AHSANULLA, THE HON. KHWAJA, C.I.E., Nawdb.

Son and heir of the Nawab (of Dacca) Khwaja Sir Abdul Ghani, K.
C.S.I.,
to whose life reference may be made for particulars of the family.
The
Nawab Ahsanulla, who was born in 1846, has long managed the large
family

property, and has followed in the footsteps of his father, both as a
liberal
and enlightened landlord, and in his large public benefactions. His
sons
are Khwaja Hafizulla Khan Bahadur and Khwaja Salimulla Khan Bahadur.
He is a member of the Legislative Council of Bengal, and belongs to
many
other public bodies.

Residence. Dacca, Bengal.

AIYASWAMI SASTRIYAR, B., Rai Bahadur. "~

Born 1836; was granted the personal title in 1887, for good service
in
the Madras Revenue Department.

Residence. Kumbhakonam, Tanjore, Madras.

AJAIGARH, BUNDELKHAND, HIS HIGHNESS MAHARAJA
SAWAI RANJOR SINGH BAHADUR, Maharaja of.

A Ruling Chief.

His Highness was bom on the 29th September 1848, and succeeded to
the Raj on the 9th September 1859. He is a Bundela Rajput, descended
from the famous Maharaja Chhatrasal of Panna (q.v.) The second son of
the Maharaja Chhatrasal was Jagat Raj, from whom are descended both
this
Chief and the Chiefs of Charkhari, Bijawar, and Sarila. His great-
grandson,
Maharaja Bakht Singh of Banda and Ajaigarh, received a sanad from the
British Government in 1807; and Bakht Singh's great-grandson is the
present Maharaja. Though Sawai was an old family title it was not
recog-
nised until 1877, when it was added to the title of Maharaja at the
Delhi
Imperial Assemblage on the occasion of the proclamation of Her Majesty
as
Empress of India. Ajaigarh has an area of 802 square miles, and a
popu-
lation of 81,454, chiefly Hindus. His Highness's revenues are Rs. 2, 2
5,000.
He is entitled to a salute of n guns, and maintains a military force
of 97
cavalry, 544 infantry, and 13 guns. The family motto is Randhir Ajai
Wir
(The Steadfast in War is an Unconquered Hero). His Highness has two
sons Raja Bahadur Bhopal Singh, aged 2 5 years ; Diwan Senapati
Jaipal
Singh, aged 17 years.

Listed Alphabetically.

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AJAMBAR SINGH DEO (of Anandpur), Thdkur.

Born about 1832. The title is hereditary, and was recognised by
Government on i5th February 1873. The Thakur is connected with the
Porahat family, which is descended (according to tradition) from a
Rajput of
Jodhpur who made a pilgrimage to Jagannath about twelve or thirteen
centuries ago. His son is Babu Ajit Narayan Singh Deo.

Residence. Singhbhum, Bengal.

AJRAUDA (WESTERN MALWA), DAULAT SINGH, Thdkur of.

A Ruling Chief.

Thakur Daulat Singh was born about the year 1835, and succeeded to
the title in 1859. He is a Rajput Chief (Hindu).
Residence. Ajrauda, Central India.

AKALKOT, SHAHAJI MALOJI, alias BABA SAHEB RAJB

BHONSLB, Rdjd of.

A Ruling Chief.

Rao Saheb Mehrban Shahaji Maloji Raje Bhonsle, alias Baba Saheb, is
the son of Maloji Raje; born 1867. Is a descendant of the Bhonsle
family. Educated at Rajaram College, Kolhapur. Married, 1881, Laxumi-
bai Saheb, daughter of Dhaibar Killedar of Baroda, and grand-daughter
of His
Highness trfe late Maharaja Khanderao Bahadur Gaekwar of Baroda. Has
two
daughters, Guzra Raje and Putala Raje, aged six and three
respectively.
His accession took place in 1870; but being a minor the management of
the State was in the hands of the British Government till 1891, when
the
administration of the State was made over to him. His step-grandmother
is
the Lady Kamaljabai Saheb, widow of Shahaji Raje II., alias Appa
Saheb.
His nearest relation is his second cousin, Tulaji Raje Bhonsle, son of
the
late Futtehsing, uncle to the late Maloji Raja. Shahaji Maloji,
Sambhaji
Tulzaji, and Bhavanji Raje of Kurla are the great-grandsons of the
late Tulzaji,
brother of Futtehsing II. The founder of the family was Ranoji, a son
of Sayaji
Lokhanday Patel of Parud in the Sewari Pargan of the province of
Aurangabad,
who, without being formally adopted, was taken by Sivaji, better known
as Shao
Rajcl (the son of Sambhaji and grandson of the great Sivaji), into his
family, and
had the family surname of Bhonsle of the Rajas of Satara conferred
upon him
under the following circumstances : After the death of the Emperor
Aurangzeb,
Shao Raja was released from captivity by the Emperor Bahadur Shah. He
was
on his return to the Deccan, and had encamped at Parud, when he was
attacked
by Sayaji Patel, who appears to have been a partisan of the famous
Tarabai
(widow of Rajaram, who had assumed the reins of government). Sayaji
was
defeated and was killed in the fight. His widow took her three little
boys and
threw herself at the feet of the Raja, imploring his forgiveness and
his protec-
tion. The Raja was moved with compassion, and being naturally of a
kind-
hearted disposition conceived the idea of taking care of the eldest of
the children.
He told the mother that if she would give up the boy, who was under
ten years
of age, he would provide for him, and she gladly gave her consent.
Ranoji was
a good-looking lad, and gained the favour of the Raja. It happened
that as the
Rajd, continued his march towards Satara some resistance was offered
by the
Bhils on the road, and it was necessary to disperse them. The nominal
com-
mand of the detachment employed on this occasion was given to the boy.
The
Bhils were defeated and dispersed, and the Rajd was so well pleased
with this
fortunate omen of the child's future career that he changed his name
to Futteh-
sing. Futtehsing grew in favour and remained with the Rajd at his
Court at
Satara. In 1710 the Rajd took him into his family and gave him the
family
surname of Bhonsle, and later conferred on him the Akalkot State as an
heredi-
tary jAgir. Futtehsing died in the year 1760, and was succeeded by his
adopted
son Shahaji Raje L, alias Baba Saheb, who in turn was succeeded by his
elder
son, Futtehsing II., alias Aba Saheb (the younger was Tulaji, who was
granted
the village of Kurla for maintenance). Futtehsing II. died in 1822,
and was
succeeded by his son Maloji Raj L, alias Baba Saheb, who was succeeded
by
his son Shahaji Raje II., alias Appa Saheb, born 1821, died 1857 (his
younger
brother was Futtehsing). Shahaji Raje II. was succeeded by his son
Maloji
Raja" II., alias Buwa Saheb, born 1838, died 1870; succeeded by his
son
Shahaji Raje III., alias Baba Saheb, the present chief. The area of
the State
is about 498 square miles, and its population is about 58,040, chiefly
Hindus,
though there are nearly 8000 Muhammadans. The Chief maintains a
military
force of 46 men and 7 guns.

Residence. Akalkot, Bombay. ,

AKBAR ALI, Khan Saheb.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i5th March 1887.
Residence. Sandra, Bombay.

AKBAR ALI, MIR, Khan Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th December
Residence. B ombay .

AKBAR ALI, MIR, C.S.I., Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was originally conferred by His Highness
the
Nizam of the Deccan. The Khan Bahadur was created a Companion of the
Most Exalted Order of the Star of India, 4th January 1869.

Residence. Hyderabad, Deccan.

AKHIL CHANDRA MUKHARJI, Rai Bahadur.

Granted the title of Rai Bahadur, as a personal distinction, 2nd
January
1893.

Residence. Calcutta.

ALAGHASINQHARU BHATTAR, Mahdmahopddhydya.

Born 1817; was granted the personal title (entitling him to rank in
Darbar immediately after titular Rajas), for his eminence as a
Sanskrit scholar,
on 1 5th February 1887, on the occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of
Her
Most Gracious Majesty.

Residence. Srirangam, Trichinopoly, Madras.

ALAM KHAN, MIR, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 5th September 1883, for
distinguished military service. The Khan Bahadur holds the high rank
of
Risaldar-Major in Her Majesty's Army.

Residence. With ist Punjab Cavalry.

ALAM SHAH, SAYYID, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty.
Residence. Lahore, Punjab.

ALBBL SINGH (of Lidhran), Sarddr.

Born in 1824. The title is hereditary, and the Sardar is descended
from Sardar Jai Singh, who joined the Nishanwala mis I or
confederacy,
which opposed Zain Khan, the Governor of Sarhind, who was slain in
battle.
The family did good service during the Mutiny.

Residence. Ludhia"na, Punjab.

ALI AHMAD, Khan Bahadur,

The Khan Bahadur, who is also styled Iktidar Jang Afsar-ud-daula,
Rafat-ul-Mulk, derived his titles from the Carnatic Nawab ; and they
were
recognised by Government in December 1890.
Residence. Madras.

ALI AHMAD KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, and the Mir is descended from one of the Mirs
of
Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

ALI BAHADUR KHAN (of Saidpur), Rdjd.

The Raja is a Chib Rajput of very ancient descent. His ancestor, Chib
Chand, and his descendants long ruled in the neighbourhood of
Bhimbar ;
and one of the latter, Sadip Chand, adopted the Muhammadan faith in
the
Court of the Emperor Babar, and was confirmed by that monarch in his
possessions, taking the name of Shadab Khan. This Chief accompanied
the
Emperor Humayun on many of his expeditions, and was at length killed
in a quarrel. A descendant, Raja Sultan Khan, was conquered by the
Maharaja Gulab Singh of Jammu, who threw him into prison, where he
died. After the first Sikh war, as the British Government made over
Kashmir (including Bhimbar) to the Maharaja Gulab Singh, the Raja
Talab
Singh removed to Saidpur, where the family has since been settled.
The
title is hereditary, and the Raja's son is named Ali Akbar Khan.

Residence. Saidpur, Jhelum, Punjab.

ALI BAKHSH walad PAZL MUHAMMAD KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the
Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

ALI DOST, Khan Bahadur.

Born 1829; was granted the personal title of Khan Bahadur for good
service in the Madras Police on ist January 1878; retired on pension,
1888.

Residence. North Arcot, Madras.

ALI DUT KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the
Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation (see Khairpur).
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

ALI GAUHAR walat SHAH MUHAMMAD KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, as in the last-mentioned case, and for the
same
reason.

Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

ALI GAUHAR KHAN, Khdn Bahadur. c
The title is personal, and was conferred on Qth June 1878.
Residence. Punjab.

ALI HAIDAR walad ALI MUHAMMAD KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, as the Mir is descended from one of the Mirs
or
Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

ALI HASAN KHAN, Amir-ud-dauld Ihtisham-ul-Mulk, Bahadur,

Shujdat Jang.

The title is personal, and was originally conferred by the late
Muhammad
Ali Shah, formerly King of Oudh, in 1837. He is the grandson of the
late
Saadat Ali Khan, King of Oudh ; and his title was recognised on the
4th
December 1877.

Residence. Lucknow, Oudh.

ALI HUSAIN walad ALI AHMAD KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, as the Mir is descended from one of the Mirs
or
Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shika'rpur, Sind.

ALI HUSAIN SARDAR MIRZA BAHADUR, Prince.

The Prince is the fourteenth son of the late King of Oudh, and his
title
is a courtesy title, personal to himself.
Residence. Calcutta, Bengal.

ALI HUSAIN KHAN, Shams-ud-dauld Mukhtar-ul-Mulk,
Bahadur, Mustakim Jang.

Is grandson of the late Saadat Ali Khan, King of Oudh. His titles
were
originally conferred by the late Muhammad Ali Shah, King of Oudh ;
and
were recognised by Government, 4th December 1877.

Residence. Lucknow, Oudh.

ALI JAN, Khdn Bahddur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1890.
Residence. North- Western Provinces.

ALI KHAN, SAYYID, Nawdb.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the celebration of the Jubilee of Her Most Gracious
Majesty.
Residence. Monghyr, Bengal.

MADAD KHAN walad SOHRAB KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, as the Mir is descended from one of the Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

ALI MADAD KHAN walad AHMAD KHAN, H.H. Mir, Mir.

Born 1835. The first title is personal. The second title (Mir) is
heredi-
tary, as His Highness is descended from the old Mirs or Chiefs of
Sind.
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

ALI MARDAN KHAN walad RUSTAM KHAN, Mir.

Born 1 3th July 1813. The title is hereditary. Belongs to the Suhra-
bani branch of the Talpur family, formerly Amirs of Sind, being the
son of
Mir Rustam Khan, who was a ruling Amir at the time of the annexation.
The Mir has two sons Mehrab Khan and Khudadad Khan.

Residence. Hyderabad, Sind.

ALI MAZHAR SAHIB, HAPIZ, Khdn Bahadur.

Connected with the Carnatic family ; was granted the personal title
on
ist June 1888.

Residence. Karur, Madras.

ALI MUHAMMAD KHAN walad SADIK ALI KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the
Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Sind.

ALI MUHAMMAD SHAD, SAYYID, Khdn Bahadur.

Is a descendant of the same family as the Nawab Vilayat AH Khan,
C.I.E. (g.v.) ; and was granted the title on ist January 1891, in
consideration
of his social position and learning.

Residence. Patna, Bengal.

ALI MUHAMMAD, Mirza.

The title is hereditary. Is the son of Mirza Khusro Beg.
Residence. Hyderabad, Sind.

ALI MURAD KHAN walad AHMAD KHAN, Mir.

Born ist September 1835. The title is hereditary; and the Mir is a
son of the Mir Ahmad Khan of the Shahwani branch of the Talpur
family,
formerly Amirs of Sind.

Residence. Hyderabad, Sind.

ALI NAWAZ walad SADIK ALI KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the
Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Sind.

ALI NAWAZ KHAN walad GHULAM SHAH KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the
Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

ALI NAWAZ KHAN walad GHULAM MURTAZA
KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the
Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

ALIM KHAN, JAMADAR, Khan Saheb.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, for
good
military service, on the occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her
Most
Gracious Majesty.

Residence. With 2Oth Bengal Infantry.

ALIPURA, CHHATARPATI, C.S.I., Rao Bahadur of.
A Ruling Chief.

The Rao of Alipura was born on the 29:11 August 1853 ; and succeeded
to the Raj on the 3rd November 1871. He is a Rajput (Hindu) of the
Parihar clan ; and is descended from the Rao Mukund Singh, a Sardar
of
Panna, whose grandson, Rao Pratap Singh, received a sanad from the
British
Government in 1808. The old title of the family was Sewai Rao; but
Rao
only was used until the year 1877, when the additional title of
Bahadur was
granted as a personal distinction at the Delhi Imperial Assemblage, on
the
occasion of the Proclamation of Her Majesty as Empress of India. The
area of the State is 69 square miles; its population 14,891, chiefly
Hindus.
The Rao Bahadur was created a C.S.I. on i5th February 1887, on the
occa-
sion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty. He
maintains
a military force of 6 cavalry, 277 infantry, and 3 guns.

Residence. Alipura, Bundelkhand, Central India.

ALIRAJPUR, RANA PARTAB SINGH, Rand of.
A Ruling Chief (ininor).

The Rana Partab Singh is a minor. He was born about the year 1881,
and succeeded to the Raj on the i4th February 1891. He is a Sisodiya
Rajput, said to be descended from the family of His Highness the
Maharana of Udaipur. The area of the State is 836 square miles ; its
population is 56,827, chiefly Hindus, but including nearly 19,000
Bhils.
The Rana is entitled to a salute of 9 guns, and maintains a military
force
of ii cavalry, 169 infantry, and 7 guns.

Residence. Alirajpur, Bhopdwar, Central India.

ALLAH BAKHSH walad ALI BAKHSH, Mir.
Born ist October 1865. The title is hereditary, the Mir being a son
of
Mir AH Bakhsh of the Shahwani branch of the Talpur family, formerly
Amirs of Sind.

Residence. Hyderabad, Sind.

ALLAH BAKHSH walad GHULAM MURTAZA
KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the Mirs
or
Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

ALLAH BAKHSH walad GHULAM HUSAIN KHAN, Mir.
The title is hereditary, for the same reason as above.
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

ALLAH BAKHSH, MUNSHI, Khdn Bahadur.

Granted the title of Khan Bahadur as a personal distinction, in
promo-
tion from that of Khan Saheb, 2nd January 1893.
Residence. Meshed.

ALLAH RAKHIO walad GHULAM MURTAZA KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the Mirs
or
Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

ALLAHDAD KHAN, Nawdb.

The title is hereditary, and the present Nawab, in 1889, succeeded
his
father, Nawab Sarfaraz Khan, C. S. I. Sarbuland Khan, the founder of
the family,
and the first Nawab of Mankerah, was an Afghan of the Saddozai, a
ruling
race of Kabul, and held the government of the Derajat under the Nawab
of

Multan. Subsequently he obtained, through the Kabul Government,
possession of the Mankerah territory, and took up his residence at
Bhakkar
on the Indus. On his death in 1816 he was succeeded by Hafiz Ahmad
Khan, his daughter's son, who was the great-grandfather of the
present
Nawab. He was succeeded by his son, Shah Nawaz Khan; and in the
latter's time, Ranjit Singh, after the conquest of Multan, besieged
and took
Mankerah. A treaty was, however, subsequently concluded, by which the
Nawab was left in possession of a considerable territory. He wa
succeeded
by his son, Nawab Sarfaraz Khan ; and the latter by his son, the
present t
Nawab.

Residence. Dera Ismail Kha"n, Punjab.

ALLAHDAD KHAN walad AHMAD KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the Mirs
or
Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Hyderabad, Sind.

ALLAHDAD KHAN walad WALIDAD KHAN, Mir.

The. title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the
Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

ALLAHDAD KHAN, RAISANI, MIE, Khdn Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty.
Residence. Khanak and Barkhan, Baluchistan.

ALTAP HUSAIN, SHAIKH (of Lucknow), Khdn Bahadur.

Born 1842. The title is personal, and was conferred on 2Qth May
1886. The Khan Bahadur is a son of the late Shaikh Kasim Ali, who was
chakladdr in the time of Amjad Ali Shah. Is an Honorary Magistrate,
and
Member of the Municipal and District Boards, Cawnpur.

Residence. Cawnpur, North- Western Provinces.

ALUMAL TRIKAMDAS BHOJVANI, Rao Saheb,
Rao Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1889.
Residence. Karachi, Sind.

ALVA (REWA KANTHA), THAKUR RASUL KHAN, Thdkur of.

A Ruling Chief.

Was born about the year 1875, and is a Muhammadan of Rajput descent.
The area of the State is about 3 square miles, and its population
consists
chiefly of aboriginal Bhils.

Residence. Alva, Rewd Kdntha, Bombay.

ALWAR, His Highness the Maharaja Sawai of.

His Highness the Maharaja is a minor, and only succeeded to the
Raj in the year 1892, on the death of the late Maharaja, Lieutenant-
Colonel His Highness the Maharaja Sawai Sir Mangal Singh Bahadur,
G.C.S.I. He is a Rajput (Hindu) of the Naruka clan, and is descended
from Pratap Singh, Rao of Macheri. The latter, on becoming Raja of
Raj-
t garh, took the title of Rao Raja of Macheri; and subsequently, on
bringing
the whole of Alwar into subjection, he assumed the title of Maharao
Raja, and proclaimed his independence in 1770 A.D. The family was an
offshoot from the ruling family of Jaipur. The area of the State is
3024
square miles; its population 682,926, chiefly Hindus (but including
more
than 150,000 Muhammadans). His Highness is entitled to a salute of 15
guns, and maintains a military force of 2189 cavalry, 3676 infantry,
and 351
guns. The revenue of the State is Rs. 2 6, 5 8, 7 9 2.

Residence. Alwar, Rajputdna.

AMALA, RAJA RATAN SINGH, Rdjd of.
A Ruling Chief.

The Raja was born about the year 1841, and is of Bhil descent. The
State, which is one of the Dang States, in Khandesh, is about 119
square
miles in area ; and its population, which consists chiefly of Bhils,
Konknas,
and other aboriginal tribes, is about 5300.

Residence. Amala, Khdndesh, Bombay.

AMAN SINGH, Rao.

Born 1 4th August 1876. The title is hereditary, and the traditional
account of its origin is, that Raja Chhatarsal gave the village of
Salaiyah in
Pargana Panwari in dowry to Sabha Singh, Panwar Thakur, to whom the
Raja's daughter was married, together with the title of Rao, which the
family
have ever since enjoyed. Rao Aman Singh's grandfather was Rao Nawal
Singh.

Residence. Hamirpur, North- Western Provinces.

AMAN SINGH (of Bhandra), Rdjd.

The title is hereditary, and was originally derived from Raja Nizam
Shah
of Mandla. The title was conferred on Raja Nirpat Singh, grandfather
of
the present Raja. The latter's son is Kunwar Hanman Singh.

Residence. Bhandra, Jabalpur, Central Provinces.

AMANAT FATIMA (of Basitnagar), Begam.
See Basitnagar.

AMAB CHAND, Rdjd.

The Raja, whose family is of Rajput (Katoch) origin, succeeded his
father, Raja Sir Jodbhir Singh, in 1873. Sir Jodbhir Singh was brother-
in-
law of the Maharaja Ran jit Singh of Lahore, and was created a Knight
of the
Most Exalted Order of the Star of India, and granted a personal salute
of 7
guns, by the Government. He has several sons, of whom the elc^sst is
Mian
Narindar Singh.

Residence. Nadaun, Kangra, Punjab.

AMAR SINGH, Rat.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 3oth August 1859.
Residence. Muzaffarnagar, North- Western Provinces.

AMAR SINGH (of Ramgarh), Midn.

The title is hereditary. The family is of Rajput origin, and claims
descent from Singar Chand, Raja of Bilaspur (Kahlur). A descendant of
Raja Singar Chand, named Khushal Singh, conquered Ramgarh and the
adjoining territories, and built a fort at Ramgarh.

Residence. Rdmgarh, Ambala, Punjab.

AMAR SINGH, Sarddr.

Born 1858. The title is hereditary. The family is of Jat origin, and
is
descended from Sardar Sujan Singh, who took possession of Shahkot and
ten
neighbouring villages in 1759 on the decline of the Mughal Empire.
His
successors were reduced to submission by Sardar Fateh Singh Ahluwalia,
and
subsequently by the Maharaja Ran jit Singh of Lahore.

Residence. Shdhkot, Jdlandhar, Punjab.

AMAR SINGH (of Balloki), Sarddr.

The title is hereditary.
Residence. Jdlandhar, Punjab.

AMAR SINGH (of Naugaza), Sarddr.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Jalandhar, Punjab.

AMAR SINGH, Sarddr.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Gujranwala, Punjab.

THE GOLDEN BOOK OF INDIA 25

AMAR SINGH, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 2oth May 1890.
Residence. Punjab.

AMARBNDRA KRISHNA DEB, Kumar.

Fourth son of the late Raja Kali Krishna Deb Bahadur, and a de-
scendant of the famous Maharaja Navakissen Deb Bahadur, the founder
of
the Sobha Bazar Raj family of Calcutta.

Residence. No. I Raja" Rally Kissen's Street, Calcutta, Bengal.

AMBIKA CHARAN RAI, Rai Bahddur.

Born in 1827, at Behala, near Calcutta; son of the late Bdbu Durga
Prasad Rai. Is twelfth in descent from Raja Gajendranath Rai, who was
a
Minister in the Court of Delhi in the reign of the Emperor Jahangir.
The
family was settled at Anarpur near Dum-dum, but removed to Behala to-
wards the close of the last century, on account of the Mahratta raids.
The
Rai Bahadur entered the service of Government in 1842, and in 1862
was
appointed Chief Translator of the Calcutta High Court, Appellate
Side.
Has taken an active and enlightened part in municipal affairs,
especially in
connection with the South Suburban Municipality, of which he has been
the elected Chairman ever since the introduction of the elective
system.
He has also been distinguished for public benefactions, in the
building of
schools, digging of tanks, and in other ways. On the occasion of Her
Majesty's Jubilee he obtained from Government the title of Rai
Bahadur,
and a gold medal with the following inscription : " Presented by
Govern-
ment to Umbica Churn Roy, Zaminddr, Chief Translator, High Court, and
Chairman, South Suburban Municipality, with the title of Rai Bahadur,
in
recognition of meritorious and faithful services to the State and
Public.
Presented on the occasion of Her Majesty the Queen Empress's Jubilee,
1 6th February 1887, to Umbica Churn Roy of Behala, 24-Pergunnahs."
He has four sons Surendranath Rai, B.A., B.L., of the High Court,
Cal-
cutta ; Satyendranath Rai ; Amarendranath Rai ; Devendranath Rai.

Residence. Behala, Bengal.

AMETHI, Rdjd of. See Madho Singh of Amethi.

AMIN CHAND (of Bijwara), Sarddr Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1887. The
Sardar Bahadur served for many years under the Punjab Government as
Extra Assistant Commissioner and Assistant Settlement Officer, and
was
subsequently Judicial Assistant Commissioner and Judge of the Small
Cause
Court of Ajmir. He is of a Khatri family ; his son is Ram Chand.

Residence. Bijwdra, Hoshidrpur, Punjab.

AMIR AHMAD, SAYYID, Shams-ul-Ulama.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of Her Most Gracious Majesty's reign, for
eminent
oriental scholarship. It entitles the holder to take rank in Darbar
im-
mediately after titular Nawabs.

Residence. North- Western Provinces. *

AMIR ALI, THE HON. SAYYID, C.I.E.

Is a Puisne Judge of the High Court of Calcutta. He was created a
Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, 1 5th
February
1887, in recognition of his position as an eminent member of the
Calcutta
Bar. Belongs to a family that claims descent from the Prophet.

Residence. C alcutta.

AMIR ALI, SAYYID, Khdn Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 2ist July 1877.
Residence. Delhi, Punjab.

AMIR ALI KHAN walad FAZL MUHAMMAD KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the
Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

AMIR HASAN, SAYYID, Khdn.

The title is hereditary.

Residence. Allahabad, North- Western Provinces.

AMIR HUSAIN, SAYYID, C.I.E.

Was created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian
Empire, ist January 1888.
Residence.

AMIR MUHAMMAD KHAN, JAMADAR, Khdn Saheb.

The title is personal, and was conferred i6th February 1887, on the
occasion of the Jubilee of Her Most Gracious Majesty's reign, for
military
services.

Residence. With nth Bengal Lancers.

AMIR SHAH, SAYYID, Khan Bahadur.

The Khan Bahadur received the title as a personal distinction on 25th
May 1892. Is an Assistant Surgeon in the Medical Service, and Lecturer
in
Chemistry in the Lahore Veterinary Surgeon.

Residence. Lahore, Punjab.

AMIR, SHAIKH, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1889.
Residence. B ombay .

AM JAD ALI, SAYYID, Sarddr Bahadur.

Son of Sayyid Anwar Ali. The title was conferred for eminent services
in the Mutiny. His son is Sayyid Kasim Ali, Honorary Magistrate of
Delhi.

Residence. Delhi, Punjab.

AMLIYARA, THAKUR JALAMSINGHJI AMARSINGHJI,

Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

The Thakur, who is a Hindu of Koli (aboriginal) descent, was born
about the year 1860, and succeeded to the gadi on the 23rd April
1876.
The State (which is in Mahi Kantha, Bombay Presidency) contains an
area
of about 157 square miles, and a population (chiefly Hindu) of
12,437.

Residence. Amliydra, Mcihi Kcintha, Bombay.

AMRIK SINGH,. CHHACHI, Sarddr.

Born 1836. The title is hereditary. Is son of Sardar Nehal Singh, who
married the only daughter of Sardar Gurmukh Singh, and was allowed to
take
the name of Chhachi and to succeed to his father-in-law's jdgir.
Sardar
Nehal Singh did valuable service to Government in the rebellion of
1848;
and for his loyalty in the time of the Mutiny received an additional
jdgir.
In 1857 the present Sardar (then Amrik Singh, eldest son of Sardar
Nehal
Singh) raised a risala of mounted police and took them down to Oudh,
where they did excellent service.

Residence. Rawalpindi, Punjab.

AMRIK SINGH, HASSANWALIA, SARDAR, Rai Bahadur.
Granted the title of Rai Bahadur, as a personal distinction, 2nd
January
1893.

Residence . Punj ab.

AMULAK SHIVDAS, Rao Saheb.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of Her Majesty's reign.
Residence. Ahmadabad, Bombay.

ANANDA DIN, Rat Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th May 1883.
Residence. Indore, Central India.

ANANDA GAJAPATI RAZ, Mahdrdjd Sir P., G.CV.E.
See Vizianagram.

ANANDATONAI RAI, Rdjd Rai.

This is one of the titles that appear not to have been formally
recognised
by Government. It was originally conferred for approved service by
the
Emperor of Delhi. The earliest Rajas were Raja Pratapaditya Rai and
Raja
Basanta Kumar Rai.

Residence. Khulna, Bengal.

ANANTA CHARLU, P., Rai Bahadur.

Born 1844 ; is an advocate of the High Court, Madras, and appointed
Member of the Madras Municipal Commission in 1884. Granted the
personal title in 1887.

Residence. Madras.

ANTARJI NARAYAN KOTNIS, Rao Saheb.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 20th May 1890.
Residence. Vingurla, Bombay.

ANTHONY, MATING, Thuye-gaung Ngweda ya Min.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1890. It
means
" Recipient of the Silver Sword for Bravery," and is indicated by the
letters
T.D.M. after the name.

Residence. Legaing, Burma.

APJI AMAR SING-H, Rao Bahadur.

The title was conferred on i6th February 1887, on the occasion of the
Jubilee of Her Majesty's reign.
Residence. Kotah, Rajputdna.

APPAJI RAOJI, Rao Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 9th April 1883.
Residence. Sholapur, Bombay.

APPU SASTRIYAR, S., Rao Bahadur.

Born 1855; was granted the personal title in 1889 for services to
education.

Residence. Kumbhakonam, Tanjore, Madras.

ARGOT, Prince of. See Muhammad Munawwar AH, Khdn Bahadur^

Prince of Arcot.

ARGOT, THE PRINCESS OF, Nawdb.
The title is a personal one, recognised in 1886.
Residence. Madras.

ARDESAR DORABJI (of Ahmadabad), Khdn Bahddur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th May 1889.
Residence. Ajmir.

ARJUN SINGH (of Chahal), Sarddr.

Born 1845 > succeeded his father Sardar Joala Singh in 1852. The
title
is hereditary. The Sardar comes of a Chahal Jat family. Its founder,
Katha
Singh, was in the service of the Bhangi Sardars, who had taken
possession of
Lahore in 1764; and his son Karm Singh, on the overthrow of the
Bhangi
chiefs, took service with the Maharaja Ranjit Singh, and ultimately
became
one of his most powerful Sardars. He was killed in the battle of Theri
on
the Yusufzai border ; and his eldest son, Sardar Gurmukh Singh, died
of
cholera at Kohat. Sardar Joala Singh, father of the present Sardar,
was at
this time only four years old ; so the Maharaja Ranjit Singh resumed
many
of the jdgirs of the family.

Residence. Amritsar, Punjab.

ARUMUGAM PILLAI, M., Rao Bahddur.

Born 1860 ; was granted the personal title for good service in the
Madras
Revenue Department.

Residence. Ponneri, Chengalpat, Madras.

ARUR SINGH (of Naushahara Nangal), Sarddr.

Of a Shergil Jat family. The title is hereditary ; the founder of the
family was Sardar Mirza Singh, who joined the Kanahayya confederacy.
His son, Sardar Kanh Singh, and his grandson, Sardar Jassa Singh, were
in
the service of the Majithia Chief.

Residence. Amritsar, Punjab.

ASAD KHAN, C.I.B., Sarddr.

The title is hereditary, as the Sardar is the Chief of the Sarawan
Brahuis.
He was created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian
Empire, ist January 1878.

Residence. Baluchistan.

ASAD-ULLA KHAN, Khan Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 2nd January 1888.
Residence. Meerut, North-Western Provinces.

ASGHAR ALI, SAYYID, C.S.I., Nawdb Bahddur.

Born about the year 1831 ; son of the Nawab Tahwar Jang. The Sayyid
is the descendant and representative of the famous Nawab Muhammad
Reza
Khan Bahadur, otherwise known as Muzaffar Jang, the Naib Subahdar of
Bengal, who rendered very faithful service to Government in the time
of
Lord Clive. The title of Nawab Bahadur was conferred on him in 1862,
as
a personal distinction, "in consideration of his descent from a noble
of
historical reputation, his father's liberal patronage of native
education, and
his unblemished reputation." Has been a Member of the Bengal
Legislative
Council, and a Municipal Commissioner for the town of Calcutta.
Created
C.S.I. in 1866.

Residence. 156 Lower Circular Road, Calcutta, Bengal.

ASGHAR REZA, SAYYID, Khdn Bahddur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the celebration of the Jubilee of Her Majesty's reign. Is
a pro-
minent Zdmindar (landowner) of Krishnaganj in Purniah, Bengal.

Residence. Purniah, Bengal.

ASHRAF-UD-DIN AHMAD, SAYYID, Khdn Bahddur.

Mutawali of the Hughli Imambara. Created a Khan Bahadur, as a
personal distinction, 2nd January 1893.
Residence. Hughli, Bengal.

ASKARAN, SBTH, Rao Saheb.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1889.
Residence. Raipur, Central Provinces.

ASMAN JAH BAHADUR, His Excellency the Nawdb Sir, K.C.LE.
Prime Minister of the Deccan.

Born in 1839. Is great-grandson of Mir Nizam-tid-din Khan, the second
Nizam of the Deccan ; and one of the three Premier Nobles of the
Hydera-
bad State, known as the illustrious Shamsiya family. His Excellency's
family
name is Mohammad Mazahr-ud-din Khan, and his full titles are Rafath
Jang, Bashir-ud-daula, Umdat-ul-Mulk, Azam-ul-Umara, Amir-i-Akbar,
Asman
Jah Bahadur. The Begam Bashir-un-Nissa Sahiba, daughter of the second
Nizam, was married to the Nawab Tej Jang, Shams-ul-Umara, Amir-i-
Kabir ;
and the sons of this royal marriage were the Nawab Muhammad Sultan-
ud-
din Khan Sabkat Jang, Bashir-ul-Mulk (father of His Excellency), and
the
Nawab Muhammad Rafi-ud-din Khan Umdat-ul-Mulk. The former died
before his father. The latter succeeded to the titles of Shams-ul-
Umara,
Amir-i-Kabir; and in 1869, on the death of His Highness the Nizam
Afzul-
ud-daula, became Co-Regent of Hyderabad with the late Sir Salar Jang,
in
consequence of the minority of His Highness the present Nizam. Under
the Regency the present Prime Minister held the important office of
Minister
of Justice, as it was considered essential that at such a time that
post should
be occupied by one of the highest nobles of the State; and in 1875,
when
the late Sir Salar Jang was absent in Europe, His Excellency, in
conjunction
with another nobleman, acted as Prime Minister and Regent, and
received
the thanks of the Government of India for the skill and ability
displayed
in this exalted capacity. On subsequent occasions also he
occasionally
acted for the late Prime Minister during the absence of the latter
from
Hyderabad. With his brother he acted as the representative of his
uncle, the then Co-Regent, on the occasion of the reception of His
Royal
Highness the Prince of Wales at Bombay; and he also accompanied
His Highness the Nizam to the Imperial Assemblage at Delhi in 1877,
and received the Delhi Medal. In 1877 the Amir-i-Kabir died, and
in 1883, on the death of Sir Salar Jang, the Nawab became a member
of the Council of Regency, and acted as administrator of the State
during the visit to Calcutta of His Highness the Nizam and the two
adminis-
trators later in the same year. In 1887 he was deputed by His High-
ness as his representative in London on the auspicious occasion of the
Jubilee
of Her Most Gracious Majesty's reign, and maintained the dignity of
his
illustrious kinsman's position, as First Prince of the Empire, with an
ability
and liberality that left nothing to be desired. His Excellency had the
honour
of being personally presented to Her Majesty the Empress at Windsor
Castle.
Before his return to the Deccan he was chosen by His Highness for the
highest post in the State, that of Prime Minister; and in this great
and
arduous office, his conspicuous success has gained the hearty approval
of His
Highness, and the congratulations of the whole world. With the loyal
and
brotherly co-operation of his distinguished kinsman, His Excellency
the
Vikar-ul-Umara (also one of the three Premier Nobles of the State),
and all
the most able statesmen of Hyderabad, he has raised the government of
His Highness the Nizam's territories to the highest state of
efficiency and
enlightenment. On the auspicious occasion of the celebration of the
Jubilee
of the reign of Her Majesty the Queen Empress in 1887, he was created
a
Knight Commander of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire ; and

the speech of the British Resident, when investing him with the
insignia on
that occasion, bore ample testimony to the appreciation of the
Imperial
Government. Similar sentiments were expressed by the late Viceroy of
India, Lord Dufferin, on the occasion of Sir Asman Jah's visit to
Calcutta
in 1888.

Sir Asman Jah, like his noble kinsman, the Vikar-ul-Umara, is famous
for his unbounded hospitality, for his proficiency as a sportsman, and
in other
accomplishments of social life ; and both these noblemen, like their
kinsman
Sir Khurshid Jah, K.C.I.E., have shared the fortune of their ancestor
the
Nawab Tej Jang, Shams-ul-Umara, Amir-i-Kabir, in allying themselves
by
marriage with Princesses of the Royal House of Hyderabad.

Residences. Bashir Bagh, Hyderabad ; Sarurnagar, Hyderabad ;
Joha"nnuma,
Hyderabad.

ASMAN JAH BAHADUR, MIRZA, Prince.
The title is the courtesy title of the second son of the late King of
Oudh.
Residence. Calcutta, Bengal.

ASOTHAR, Rdjd of. See Lachhman Parshad Singh.

ATA HUSAIN, SAYYID, Nawdb.

Born 1860. The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February
1887, on the occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most
Gracious
Majesty. Married the daughter of His late Highness the Nawab
Muntazim-
ul-Mulk, Mohsin-ud-daula" Faridun Jah Sayyid Mansur Ali Khan Bahadur
Nasrat Jang Nazim of Murshidabad ; and has issue Mahi-ud-din Husain,
born
1885 ; and Main-ud-din Husain, born 1887. Is descended from Sayyid
Khan
Dastur, a Persian follower of the Emperor Humayun, distinguished for
his
bravery, who became Zaminddr of Surjyapur, Purniah, in the Subah of
Bengal.
Succeeded by his son-in-law Sayyid Rai Khan, who obtained &farmdn from
the
great Akbar Shah, Emperor of Delhi ; and Sayyid Rai Khan's son, Raja
Sayyid
Raja, obtained the title of Raja from Shah Shuja, Nazim of Bengal, in
the year
of the Hijrah 1052. After several generations one of his descendants,
Raja
Sayyid Muhammad Jalal of Surjyapur, was defeated by the Nawab Saulat
Jang
at his fort of Jalalgarh, as recorded in the Siyar-ul-Mutakharin. His
grandson,
Raja Sayyid Faqr-ud-din Husain, was a distinguished Zaminddr ; he took
the
decennial settlement from the British Government. Succeeded by his
son,
Raja Sayyid Dedar Husain ; and the latter by his son, Raja Sayyid
Inayat
Husain (father of the present Nawab), who rendered good service to
Govern-
ment both during the Mutinies and in the Bhutan war of 1864. The
Nawab Sayyid Ata Husain is an Honorary Magistrate of the Krishnaganj
subdivision, a Member of the Central Committee of the Imperial
Institute
in India, and a Life-Member of Lady Dufferin's Fund.

Residence. Khagra, Pargana" Surjyapur, Purniah, Bengal.

ATA MUHAMMAD KHAN, KHAGWANI, Nawdb.

Is a descendant of the Khagwani (Afghan) family, and was created a
Nawab in 1875. His father, a distinguished soldier named Gholam
Sarwar
Khan, accompanied Major Lumsden to Kandahar, and on his death the
Nawab Ata Muhammad Khan succeeded to the command of his troop. Was
selected by General Nicholson, who summoned him from Bannu in 1857,
to
join his movable column ; greatly distinguished himself in the
subsequent
campaigns, and on one occasion bravely saved the life of a British
officer,
Lieutenant Humphrey. The Nawab was selected to succeed Nawab Gholam
Hasan Khan as the British representative at the Court of the Amir of
Kabul. He has five sons Ahmad Khan, Muhammad Khan, Muhammad
Nawaz Khan, Mahmud Khan, and Hamid Khan.

Residence. Dera Ismail Khdn, Punjab.

ATA MUHAMMAD, SHAIKH, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th May 1889 for distin-
guished service in the Medical Department.

Residence. Hodeida.

ATAR SINGH (of Bhadaur), Sarddr Sir, K. C.I.E.

Son of Sardar Khark Singh; born 1833; * s Chief of Bhadaur, a branch
of the Phul family, from which descend the Chiefs of Patiala, Jind,
and
Nabha ; educated in Sanskrit at Benares ; rendered good service to
British
Government during Mutiny, 1857 (thanked by Government and exempted
from payment of six months' commutation-tax) ; elected a Member of
Asiatic
Society of Bengal 1869, of Senate of Punjab University (then
University
College) 1870, of Anjuman-i-Punjab 1870, and Vice-President thereof
1880,
and in that year Patron of the Sat-Sabha Punjab, and Member of the
Sri-
Guru-Singh Sabha, Lahore, and of the Bengal Philharmonical Society;
in
1877, on the occasion of the Imperial Assemblage at Delhi, received
the
title of "Malaz-ul-Ulama-ul-Fazila"; removed his Library of English,
Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, and Gurmukhi books from Bhadaur to
Ludhiana,
where it was publicly opened on 24th May 1878; in 1873 translated the
Sakhee Book, or doctrines of the Sikh religion, from Gurmukhi into
English,
in 1876 the Travels of Guru Tej Bahadur and Guru Gobind Singh, and in
1875-76, for the Government, several chapters of the Granth (Sikh
Scriptures)
into Urdu (thanked by Government and Secretary of State) ; appointed
Member of General Committee of Darbar Sahib (Golden Temple),
Amritsar,
1883, and Vice-President and Trustee, Khalsa College Establishment
Committee, 1890; founded Sri-Guru-Singh Sabha at Ludhiana and made
President thereof 1884; granted, 1887, the title of Mahamahopadhyaya
(entitling him to rank in Darbar immediately after titular Rajas) ;
President
of the Khalsa Divan ; Life-Member of the Punjab Branch of the
Countess
of Dufferin's Fund; created C.I.E. 1880, K.C.I.E. 1888; appointed
Member of the Committee of Management of the Aitchison Chiefs'
College,
Lahore.

Residence. Bhadaur House, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

ATHGARH, RAJA SRI KARAN BHAGIRATHI BIWARTA
PATNAIK, Rdjd of.

A Euling Chief.

The Raja, who is a Hindu of Kayasth descent, was born about the year
1844, and succeeded to the gadi on the 8th February 1869. Descended
from the Raja Niladri Deo Barman, who founded this State in very
early
times by conquest ; and twenty-seven generations have intervened
between
him and the present Raja. The State is one of the Orissa Tributary
Mahals,
Bengal ; its area is about 168 square miles, and its population
(chiefly Hindus)
is about 31,000. The Raja maintains a military force of 341 men.

Residence. Athgarh, Orissa, Bengal.

ATHMALIK, MAHARAJA MAHBNDRA DEO SAWANT,

Mahdrdjd of.

A Ruling Chief.

The Maharaja, who is a Hindu of Kshatriya descent, was born about
the year 1848, and succeeded to the gadi on the 4th February 1877.
This
State is said to have been founded by one Pratap Deo, who, with seven
other
brothers of the Raja of Jaipur, came with their families on a
pilgrimage to
Puri. For some reason or other they had a quarrel with the Raja of
Puri, by
whom two of the brothers were put to death. The remaining five
brothers
fled for their lives to the hills, and settled at Bonai, of which they
took
possession, and of which one of the brothers was made Raja. The sister
of
this Raja of Bonai married Balbhadra Bhanj, a brother of the Keunjhar
Raja,
who, having plotted to dethrone his brother, was put to death by him.
Balbhadra's wife fled to Bonai, and although the Raja of Keunjhar
sent
ambassadors there to bring her back, Pratap Deo refused to allow her
to
return, and went with her to Ramganj in Bod, where she gave birth to a
son.
At that time a Brahman named Gobardhan Deo was Raja of Bod, and as
his only son was dead, he adopted Pratap Dec's nephew as his son and
heir.
At this time a Raja who was a Dom by caste was ruling on the north of
the
Mahanadi. Pratap Deo defeated him, and becoming ruler of his
dominions,
founded a village and named it Pratap-pur after himself. The elevated
plain across the Handpagarh is, to the present day, renowned as the
garh of the Dom Raja ; and a village called Pratap-pur still exists
near it.
Pratap Deo found a handa (metal top) in a tank which he was
excavating
there, and gave the place and the State the name of Handpa. In course
of
time one of the Chiefs who ruled after Pratap Deo divided the State
into
eight subdivisions, and placed a Chief over each, with a view of
bringing
the aborigines into subjection. Hence the State changed its name from
Handpa to Athmalik (" eight chiefs "). The State (which is one of the
Orissa Tributary Mahals) has an area of 730 square miles. Its
population,
21,774, is chiefly Hindu; but there are more than 5000 aboriginal hill-
men.
The Maharaja has a military force of 360 men and i gun.

Residence. Athmalik, Orissa, Bengal.

ATMA SINGH (of Padhana), Sarddr.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 2nd January 1888.
Residence. Lahore, Punjab.

ATMARAM BABA (of Gursarai), Rdjd

Born 1831. The title was conferred on 2nd September 1882. The
Raja is a Dakhani Pandit (Maharashtra Brahman) whose family settled
in
Gursarai under the Peshwas. Dinkar Rao Ana was sent from Puna, after
the death of Gobind Rao Bundela, Subahdar of Jalaun, to manage the
Jalaun district and other territories of the Peshwa in Bundelkhand.
His
second son was the Raja Kesho Rao Dinkar, father of the present
Raja ;
who, with his four sons, performed the most eminent military services
to the
Government throughout the Mutiny in every part of the much-disturbed
Jhansi division, and received in acknowledgment the title of Raja
Bahadur
with a khilat and valuable grants. His son succeeded him in 1882.

Residence. Gursarai, Pargana" Garotha, Jhansi, North-Western
Provinces.

ATTAR SINGH (of Maloha), Sarddr.

The title is hereditary; and the Sardar belongs to a Khatri family,
descended from the Sardar Dyal Singh, whose sons were dispossessed of
much of their territory by the Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Lahore.

Residence. Maloha, Ambala, Punjab.

AULAD ALI, MAULAVI SHAIKH, Khan Bahadur.

Was an Assistant Superintendent of Police, Bengal, and in that
capacity
rendered valuable services to the Government. He has subsequently
taken
an active and useful part in the municipal work of Gya, where he has
been
an Honorary Magistrate and Member of the District Board and Municipal
Committee.

Residence. Gya, Bengal.

AULAD HUSAIN, C.I.E., Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877, on the
occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress
of
India. He was created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the
Indian Empire, ist January 1882.

Residence. Raipur, Central Provinces.

AUNDH, SHRINIVAS PARASHURAM, Pant Pratinidhi of.
A Ruling Chief.

The Pant Pratinidhi of Aundh, who is a Hindu Chief of Brahman
descent, was born on the 27th November 1833, and succeeded to the
gadi

on nth June 1848. He was a Member of the Bombay Legislative Council
from 1866 to 1868. He has four sons Parashuram Rao, Gangadhar Rao,
Bhawan Rao, and Bhagwant Rao. The State was formerly a feudatory of
Satara ; and this was indicated by the title Pratinidhi, which meant "
the
likeness or representation of the Raja," and was conferred on the
Pratinidhi
Parashuram Trimbak during the reign of the Raja Rajaram Maharaj of
Satara. The title of Pant was adopted by Parashuram Pratinidhi in
1846,
on which occasion he paid a nazar of Rs. 2 5,000 to the Raja of
Satara.
Residence. Aundh, Sata>a, Bombay.

AUNG- GYI, MAUNG-, Kyet Thaye zaung shwe Salwe ya Min.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist June 1888. It means
" Recipient of the Gold Chain of Honour," and is indicated by the
letters
K.S.M. after the name.

Residence. Ye-u, Burma.

AUTAR SINGH (of Mananali), Sarddr.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Arabella, Punjab.

AVCHAR, NAIK YBSHWANT BADAL, Naik of.
A Ruling Chief.

The Naik, who is a Bhil (of aboriginal descent), was born about the
year 1877. The area of the State (which is one of the Dang States in
Khandesh, Bombay) is about 8 square miles, with a scanty population
of
about 500 Bhils.

Residence. Avchar, Khdndesh, Bombay.

AYODHYANATH MISR SAMAVEDI, PANDIT,

Mahdmahopddhydya.

The title is personal (entitling the holder to take rank in Darbar
immedi-
ately after Rajas), and was conferred on ist January 1890, for
eminence in
oriental scholarship.

Residence. Muzaffarpur, Bengal.

AZAM ALI, SAYYID, Khan Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 2nd September 1853.
Residence. Murshidabad, Bengal.

AZAM GAURISHANKAR UDBSHANKAR, C.S.I.

See Gaurishankar.

AZAM SHAH, Rdjd.
The title is hereditary.

Residence. Ndgpur, Central Provinces.

AZIM HUSAIN KHAN, Khan Bahddur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 3oth July 1*886, for dis-
tinguished military services.

Residence. With 5th Punjab Cavalry.

AZIM KHAN, KUNDI, Khan Bahddur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 2oth May 1890.
Residence. Dera Ismail Kha"n, Punjab.

AZIM -UD- DIN KHAN, General (of Rampur), Khan Bahddur.

Born 1854. The title was conferred on ist January 1885. Is an
Umarkhel Pathan of the Yusufzai tribe of Afghans, descended from the
old
family of the Nawabs of Najibabad. His grandfather, Nawa"b Najib-ud-
daula, held the title of Amir-ul-Umara, and was Prime Minister at the
Mughal
Imperial Court of Delhi. He succeeded his uncle, Nawab AH Asghar,
Khan
Bahadur, C.S.I., as General Commanding the Rampur State troops, and
as
confidential vakil for the Court to the British Government. Is Vice-
President
of the Council of Regency, Rampur State.

Residence. Moradabad, North- Western Provinces.

AZIZ-ULLA, AKHUND (of Matare), Khdn Bahddur.

The title of Khan Bahadur is personal, and was conferred on 25th
January 1865.

Residence. Hyderabad, Sind.

AZMAT ALI KHAN (of Karnal), Nawdb Bahddur.

Born 1833. Is of a Jat family, claiming descent from King Naushirwan,
who are styled Mandul Naushirwani. Muhamdi Khan, great-grandfather of
Nawab Atmat Ali Khan, and his two brothers, were in the service of
the
Mahrattas at the head of 200 horsemen, and were rewarded by a grant
of
extensive lands in Muzaffarnagar and elsewhere. During the Mahratta
war,
Muhamdi Khan aided the British forces ; and at its close exchanged
his
lands in the Doab for the Pargana of Karnal, one-third of which
descended
to the ancestor of Nawab Azmat Ali Khan. During the disturbances of
1857, the Nawab Ahmad Ali Khan, father of the present Nawab, most
loyally aided the Government with all his retainers ; and his services
were
suitably recognised on the restoration of order. The present Nawab
formally
received that title in 1868; and the further addition of Bahadur on
ist
January 1891.

Residences. Karndl, Punjab ; and Jaroda, Muzaffarnagar, North -
Western
Provinces.

BA TU, MAUNG, Kyet Thaye zaung shwe Salwe ya Mm.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of Her Most Gracious Majesty's reign. It
means
" Recipient of the Gold Chaift of Honour," and is indicated by the
letters
K.S.M. after the name.

Residence. Henzada, Burma.

BA U, MAUNG, Thuye-gaung Ngweda ya Min.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of Her Most Gracious Majesty's reign. It
means
" Recipient of the Silver Sword for Bravery," and is indicated by the
letters
T.D.M. after the name.

Residence. Sal win, Burma.

BA WA, MAUNG, Kyet Thaye zaung shwe Salwe y a Min.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 2Qth May 1886. It means
" Recipient of the Gold Chain of Honour," and is indicated by the
letters
K.S.M. after the name.

Residence. Rangoon, Burma.

BABA KHBM SINGH, C.I.E.

Was created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian
Empire, ist January 1879.

BACHAL walad GHULAM NAJAF KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the
Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

BACHITTAR SINGH (of Shahabad), Sarddr.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Ambala, Punjab.

BADAN SINGH (of Malaudh), Sarddr.

The title is hereditary, the Sardars of Malaudh (like those of
Bhadaur)
being descendants of Phul, and therefore of the same stock with the
Phulkian
Chiefs of Patiala, Jind, and Nabha. The family is Jat Sidhu, and
conquered
the district of Malaudh from the Afghans of Maler Kotla in 1754.
Sardar
Badan Singh's father was Sardar Mit Singh, who, with his brother
Fateh
Singh, did good service during the war of 1845-46, supplying fifty
horse-
men, and himself fighting in person at the battles of Mudki and
Firuzshahr.
In 1857 he showed conspicuous loyalty, being always ready with men
and
money to assist the Government ; he received as a reward the remission
of

a year's commutation money, while one-sixteenth of the whole sum was
excused in perpetuity. In 1872, when Malaudh was attacked by the
Kukas,
Sardar Badan Singh was badly wounded by the rebels.
Residence. Malaudh, Ludhia"na, Punjab.

BADAR-I-MUNIB, Shdhzdda.

The title is personal, and was recognised 4th February 1853, the
Shahzada being a descendant of the royal family of Kabul.
Residence. Ludhidna, Punjab.

BADI-UD-DIN, KHWAJA, Khan Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th February 1882.
Residence. Bulddna, Bardr.

BADBI DAS, MUKIM, Rai Bahadur.

Born 1833. The title was conferred on ist January 1877, on the
occasion
of the celebration of the Proclamation of Her Majesty as Empress of
India.
Residence. Calcutta, Bengal.

BADRI DAT TOSHI, PANDIT, Rai Bahadur.

Born 4th October 1830. The title is personal, and was conferred on
1 6th February 1887, on the occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of
Her
Most Gracious Majesty. The Rai Bahadur's ancestor held the office of
Minister of Kumaon in the time of the Chand and Gurkha Raj.

Residence. Kumaon, North-Western Provinces.

BAG-HAL, EAJA DHYAN SINGH, Rdjd of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born about 1841 ; succeeded to the gadi 26th July 1878. Belongs to
a Puar Rajput (Hindu) family, descended from Ujjab De, who came from
Ujjain, and conquered Baghal at an unknown date. The State was
overrun
by the Gurkhas from Nepal between 1803 and 1815 ; but after their
expul-
sion in the latter year, the Puar chief (about twenty-fifth in descent
from
Ujjab De) was recognised by Government. Kishan Singh, who had been
raised to the rank of Raja in 1875, died on 23rd July 1877, and was
suc-
ceeded by his infant son, Raja Moti Singh; but the latter also died on
i2th
October 1877, when the present Raja, a collateral descendant of Ujjab
De,
succeeded. The area of the State (which is one of the Simla Hill
States)
is about 124 square miles; its population 20,633, chiefly Hindus. The
Raja maintains a military force of 150 infantry and i gun.

Residence. Baghal, Punjab.

BAGHAL SINGH, Rai Bahadur.
The title was conferred on 24th May 1883.
Residence. Sialkot, Punjab.

BAGHAT, RANA DALIP SINGH, Rand of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1860; succeeded to^ the gadi on the 3ist January 1862. Belongs
to a Rajput family, the ancestor of whom came from Dorar Nagri in the
Deccan, and acquired possession of the State by conquest. During the
Gurkha wars (1803-15) the conduct of the then chief, Rana Mohindar
Singh, had been unfriendly; so on the expulsion of the Gurkhas,
three-
fourths of the Baghat State was sold to Patiala for Rs. 1,30,000 and
the
remaining fourth was granted to Rana Mohindar Singh and his heirs. He
died without issue on nth July 1839, and the State was at first
treated as
lapsed; but in 1842 Lord Ellenborough restored it to Rana Bije Singh,
brother of Mohindar Singh. He died in January 1849, leaving no direct
heir,
and the State was at first again treated as lapsed; but in 1861 Lord
Canning
restored it, for good and loyal conduct, to Umaid Singh, a cousin of
the late
Rana. But before the sanad conferring the grant could be prepared,
Umaid
Singh died, and his last request was that his son Dalip Singh might
succeed
him. In January 1862 a sanad was granted to Rana Dalip Singh. The
area of the State (which is one of the Simla Hill States) is about 60
square
miles; its population 8339, chiefly Hindus. The Rana maintains a
military
force of 25 soldiers.

Residence. Baghat, Punjab.

BAGLI, THAKUR RAGHUNATH SINGH, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

The Thakur is descended from a Rahtor Rajput family (Hindu). He
was born 1860 ; and succeeded to the gadi in January 1869. The State
is
enclosed within that of Gwalior, so that its exact area is not known.
Its
population is 14,645, chiefly Hindus.

Residence. >Bagli, Indore, Central India.

BAHADUR ALI KHAN, Nawdb Bahadur.

The Nawab Bahadur is the son of the Nawab Amir AH Khan, who was
the grandson of His late Majesty Shuja-ud-daula, King of Oudh.
Residence. Lucknow, Oudh.

BAHADUR SINGH, THAKUR, Rao Saheb.

The title was conferred on ist January 1877, on the occasion of the
Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress of India.
Residence. Masuda, Ajmir.

BAHAR MAL, Rao.

The title was conferred on ist January 1877, on the occasion of the
Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress of India.
Residence. Merwara.

BAHAWALPUR, HIS HIGHNESS RUKN-UD-DAULA NASRAT
JANG HAFIZ-UL-MULK MUKHLIS-UD-DAULA NAWAB
SIR SADIK MUHAMMAD KHAN BAHADUR, G.C.S.I.,
Nawdb of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born in 1862 ; succeeded to ft\t gadi in 1866. Belongs to a Daudputra
(Muhammadan) family, whose ancestor came from Sind about the middle
of the 1 8th century. Muhammad Sadik Khan was Governor of Bahawalpur
under the Sikh Government ; and the chiefs of his clan retained
virtual
independence till his second son, the Nawab Bahawal Khan I., reduced
the
whole tribe, and consolidated his power. By the treaties of Lahore
between
the British Government and the Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the latter was
con-
fined to the right bank of the Satlej ; and thereby Bahawalpur was
protected
from the Sikhs. The Nawab rendered faithful assistance to the
Government
in the first Afghan war; and during the siege of Multan the troops of
Bahawal Khan III. co-operated with Sir Herbert Edwardes. Bahawal Khan
III. was succeeded by his younger son, Saadat Yar Khan ; but the
latter was
subsequently deposed by his elder brother, Haji Khan, who after his
victory
assumed the name of Fateh Muhammad Khan. He died in 1858, and was
succeeded by his son, who assumed the name of Bahawal Khan IV. He
had to face some serious rebellions, and died suddenly in 1866,
leaving his
son, the present Nawab, a boy of only four years old, in a difficult
and
dangerous position. It was resolved, however, by the Paramount Power,
that
the young Nawab should be supported ; and during his minority the
adminis-
tration was placed in British hands, native officers being appointed,
so that
there might be no break in continuity of system on the Nawab's coming
of
age. Since then vast improvements have been made in the irrigation
system
of the country, which depends upon inundation canals for the greater
part of
its cultivation. Existing works have been entirely remodelled, and
new
canals constructed in several parts of the territory, the result of
which is that
the revenues have nearly doubled. Courts of Justice have been
established,
under the general control of a Chief Court, presided over by three
native
gentlemen, and are highly popular. A system of Public Instruction,
com-
prising primary, middle, and superior education, has been set on
foot ; a
central jail has been built, and the prison system greatly improved.
Three
new towns have been founded. A stud farm for improving the breed of
horses has been started, and the extensive jungles have been placed
under
the scientific supervision of a trained Forest Conservator. The area
of the
State is 17,285 square miles; its population is 573,494, chiefly
Muhamma-
dans, with 91,272 Hindus. His Highness the Nawab Bahadur maintains a
military force of 443 cavalry, 1352 infantry, and n guns, and is
entitled to
a salute of 1 7 guns. He was created a Knight Grand Commander of the
Most Exalted Order of the Star of India, i6th November 1880.

Residences. The Palace, Bahawalpur, Punjab ; Bahawalpur House,
Lahore.

BAI (INDORB), THAKUR MANRUP SINGH, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

The Thakur is descended from a Rajput (Hindu) family, and succeeded
to the^zft/z in 1880.

Residence. Bai, Indore, Central India.

BAIDYANATH PANDIT, Rdjd.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1889.
Residence. Cuttack, Bengal.

BAIKANTHA NATH DB, Kumar, Rdjd Bahadur.
The title was conferred on ist January 1889.
Residence. Balasor, Bengal.

BAIKANTHPUR, RAIKAT PANINDRA DBB, Raikat of.

This is one of those customary titles (of which there are many,
especially
in Bengal) which have never been officially recognised by Government,
and
which consequently must, for the present, be regarded as only courtesy
titles.
The family is said to be descended from a brother of the founder of
the
Kuch Behar Raj ; and the title " Raikat," which is of high antiquity,
has
been held to indicate that the early Raikats of Baikanthpur were
Prime
Ministers and Commanders-in-Chief of the Kamrup kingdom, of which
Kuch
Behar was an important part. The present Raikat is stated to be the
twentieth in succession who has inherited the title; and during the
last
Bhutan war the family rendered good service to Government.

Residence. Baikanthpur, Jalpaiguri, Bengal.

BAIKUNTA NARAYAN SINGH, Rdjd.

This is one of the titles that appear never to have been formally
recog-
nised by Government. The Raja is the Zaminddr of Tundi in Manbhum.
The family claims to be of Surya Vansa Rajput descent, and to have
come from
Ajudhya. They have the following system of titles for the various
members
of the family of the Zaminddr or proprietor of the Rdj. For the head
of
the family, Rdjd ; for his wife, Rani.

ist son
2nd son
3rd son
4th son
5th and younger sons .
Tikait.
ist son's ist son
Kumdr.
2nd son
Thdkur.
3rd son
Nunu.
Babu.
Thdkur.
Kumdr.
Nunu.

For a similar system prevailing in the Nawagarh family, see under
Banwari Lai Singh, Raja.

Residence. Tundi, Mdnbhum, Bengal.

BAISNI (of Khimsipur), Thakurani.
The title of Rao is hereditary in this lady's family.
Residence. Farrukhabad, North- Western Provinces.

BAJANA, MALBK NASIB KHANJI DARIYA KHANJI,

Tdlukddr of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1 4th May 1820; succeeded to the gadi 23rd April 1841.
Descended from a family of Jat Musalmans ; is usually styled " Malek
Shri."
His son is named Jiwan Khan. The area of the State is 183 square
miles ;
its population 15,877, partly Hindu, partly Muhammadan. The Malek
Shri
maintains a military force of 60 cavalry and 230 infantry.

Residence. Bajdna, Kdthidwdr, Bombay.

BAKAR ALI KHAN, SAYYID, C.I.E.

Was created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian
Empire, ist January 1883.

Residence.

BAKAR MIRZA, Mirza Bahadur.

The Mirza Bahadur is a son of the Nawab Mumtaz-ud-daula, who was a
grandson of His late Majesty Muhammad AH Shah, King of Oudh.
Residence. Oudh.

BAKASREI, Diwdn, Rao Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 2ist June 1872.
Residence. Hyderabad, SincL

BAKHSHI KHOMAN SINGH (of Indore), C.SJ.

Was created a Companion of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of
India, ist January 1877,. on the occasion of the Proclamation of Her
Most
Gracious Majesty as Empress of India.

Residence. Indore, Central India.

BAKHSHISH SINGH, SINDHANWALIA, Sarddr.

The Sardar succeeded Sardar Shamsher Singh (who had adopted him as
a scion of the same family, with the consent of Government) on the
death
of the latter in 1873. The Sindhanwalia family, Jats of the Sansi
tribe, is
the acknowledged head of all Sikh families between the Bias and the
Indus ;
and is descended from the same stock as the late Maharaja Ranjit Singh
of
Lahore. The common ancestor, Budh Singh, had two sons, Chanda Singh
and Jodh Singh ; the latter was the forefather of the late Royal
family of
Lahore, while from the former descended Sardar Shamsher Singh and the

Sindhanwalia family. On the occasion of the rebellion of Diwan Mul
Raj,
Sardar Shamsher Singh remained faithful to the British Government, and
in
December 1846 he was appointed a member of the Council of Regency.
On the final annexation of the Punjab }\\sjdgirs were continued to him
for
life, and in 1862 he was appointed an Honorary Magistrate, and was
per-
mitted to adopt the present Sardar, a large portion of his jdgirs to
descend
in perpetuity, and the title to be hereditary.
Residence. Rajd Sansi, Amritsar, Punjab.

BAKHSHISH SINGH, Kunwdr.

The title is personal.
Residence. Lahore, Punjab.

BAKHTAWAR SINGH, Rat Bahadur.

Is a Court Official of the Mewar State (Udaipur), Rajputana. Received
the title as a personal distinction on 2th May 1892.
Residence. Udaipur, Rajputdna.

BAKHTGARH (Bhopdwar), THAKUR PARTAB SINGH,

Thdkur of.

A Ruling Chief.

The Thakur was born in 1863, and succeeded to the gadi in 1869. He
is descended from a Rajput (Hindu) family. The population of the State
is
8258, chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Bakhtgarh, Bhopdwar, Central India.



BAKHTIYAR SHAH, Prince.

The title is a courtesy one. His father, Prince Anwar Shah, was a
member of the Tippu family of Mysore, and grandson of Tippu Sultan.
Residence. C alcutta.

BAL MUKAND, RAI, Rai Bahadur.

Born 5th November 1834. The title is personal, and was conferred on
1 6th February 1887, the Rai Bahadur having received a Certificate of
Honour
at the Imperial Assemblage at Delhi in 1877. His ancestors (who were
Khattris) came from the Punjab about 300 years ago, and became mer-
chants at Agra. He did good service in the Mutiny of 1857, by saving
some of the records of the Agra Board of Revenue; and in 1866 was
appointed a permanent Deputy Collector.

Residence. Agra, North- Western Provinces.

BAL PARUSHURAM PANDIT, Rao Saheb.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 3oth March 1870.
Residence. Satara, Bombay.

BALA PARSHAD, PANDIT, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty the
Empress. The Rai Bahadur had done good service in the Rajputana-Malwa
Railway Police, and retired on pension on ist November 1891. He has
no
son ; his brothers are Pandit Manik Parshad of Indore, born 1851; and
Pandit Kalika Parshad of the Bombay Police (retired in 1891), born
1857.

Residence. Rajputa"na-Ma"lwd Railway Police.

BALA SHASTRI AGASB, Mahdmahopddhydya.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty the
Empress, in recognition of eminence in oriental scholarship. It
entitles him
to take rank in Darbar immediately after titular Rajas.

Residence. Ratnagiri, Bombay.

BALAJI KRISHNA BENDIG-ERI, Rao Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 29th May 1886.
Residence. Belgaum, Bombay.

BALASINOR, NAWAB MUNAWAR KHANJI, Bdbi of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1844; succeeded his father, Nawab Jorawar Khanji Babi, in
November 1882. This family is Pathan (Muhammadan), claiming descent
from Sher Khanji Babi, son of Bahadur Khanji Babi, a distinguished
officer
in the Imperial Service of Delhi. The area of the State is 189 square
miles ;
its population 46,328, chiefly Hindus. The Nawab Babi maintains a
military force of 60 cavalry, 177 infantry, and 5 guns, and is
entitled to a
salute of 9 guns.

Residence. Balasinor, Rewa" Ka"ntha, Bombay.

BALAVADRA PRASAD DAS, Rdjkumdr Bairiganjon Bhuyan

Mahdpatra.

This is one of the titles that seem never to have been formally
recognised
by the Government. The family belongs to the Ganga Varna, the ancient
race
of the Gajapati kings of Orissa, from whom the title was derived. The
Raj-
kumar has done good service by providing elephants for Government in
time
of war. His eldest son, whose name is Umakanta Das Mahapatra, bears
the
title of Tikait Bdbu ; the younger sons Bisambhar Das, Nityananda
Das,
Sachidananda Das, Achutananda Das are all styled Bdbu.

Residence. Balason, Orissa.

BALBAHADUB SINGH, Rdjd.

The title is hereditary, and was conferred on ist January 1886.
Residence. Raigarh, Central India.

BALBIR SINGH (of Kattahr), Rdjd.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Kdngra, Punjab.

BALDBO SINGH (of Awa), Rdjd.

Born loth July 1850. .The title is hereditary, the tradition being
that
it was originally conferred by the Maharana of Udaipur. Belongs to a
family
of Jadon Rajputs, descended from Thakur Chatarbhuj, a Zaminddr of
Nari
in the Chhata Pargana, who, in the time of Muhammad Shah (1719-48),
settled at Jalesar. His grandson, Bakht Singh, gave military service
to the
Maharaja of Bharatpur and the Thakur of Amargarh, and gradually
estab-
lished himself as an independent Chief. Finally he obtained a sanad
from
the Mahrattas, authorising him to build a fort at Awa ; and his
successor,
Hira Singh, built the existing fort. In the Mahratta war Hira Singh
was
able to render some service to the British Power; and consequently in
1803
obtained from General Lake a sanad confirming him in possession. He
was
succeeded by his son, Pitambar Singh, who is said to have been
recognised
as a Raja by Lord Auckland in 1838. Pitambar Singh adopted from the
descendants of the younger brother of Bakht Singh, Raja Prithvi
Singh.
The latter did excellent service during the Mutiny ; he raised horse
and foot,
attacked the insurgent villages, restored the whole of the
neighbourhood to
order, collected the revenue, and remitted it to Agra. " In fact," to
quote
the Report of the District Officer, " he held the country till the
taking of
Delhi, and the arrival of our own troops enabled us to resume
possession."
He died in 1876, leaving one son, Raja Chatarpal Singh, a minor. The
latter died in 1884, and was succeeded by his cousin, the present
Raja.

Residence. Awa, Etah, North- Western Provinces.

BALIKRAM, Rao Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist April 1881.
Residence. Bulddna, Berar.

BALKISHAN AMAR SINGH, Rao Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 25th June 1884.
Residence. Nsik, Bombay.

BALLABH DAS, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on $rd February 1883.
Residence. Jabalpur, Central Provinces.

BALSAN, RANA BIR SINGH, Rdnd of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1860; succeeded to the gadi i7th November 1884. Belongs to
a Rajput (Hindu) family, his ancestor, Alak Singh, the founder of the
family,
having been a scion of the ruling House of Sirmur. The Chiefs of
Balsan
were feudatories of Sirmur till 1815, when SLsanadvras granted by the
British
Government. Bhup Singh, the grandfather and predecessor of the
present
Chief, did good service in the Mutiny of 1857, and was rewarded with
the
title of Rana. His son, the Kunwar Govardhan Singh, predeceased him ;
so
he was succeeded by his grandson, the present Rana, The area of the
State
(which is one of the Simla Hill States) is 51 miles; its population is
5190,
chiefly Hindus. The Rana maintains a military force of 50 infantry.

Residence. Balsan, Punjab.

BALUCH KHAN, Sarddr.

The title is hereditary.
Residence. Baluchistan.

BALWANT RAO (of Karwi), Rao.

Born 1828. The title is hereditary. Is a Mahratta Brahman, the grand-
son by adoption of Venaik Rao, who was the son of Amrit Rao, brother
of
the last Peshwa, Baji Rao. His two uncles joined in the rebellion of
1857,
and their estates were confiscated, and themselves deported. But
Balwant
Rao proved his loyalty, and is now the head of the family at Karwi.
He
has adopted a son, Moreshwar Rao, born i7th August 1872.

Residence. Karwi, North- Western Provinces.

BALWANT RAO BHUSKUTB, Rao Saheb.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 2oth May 1890.
Residence. Nimar, Central Provinces.

BALWANT RAO GOPAL JAVDEKAR, Rao Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 3ist January 1883.
Residence. Poona, Bombay.

BALWANT SINGH (of Bir Chima), Sarddr.

The title is hereditary, the Sarddr being the head of the younger
branch
of the Phulkian family of Malaudh (see Badan Singh, Sarddr), descended
from
Phul, the common ancestor of the Houses of Patidla, Jind, Nabha, and
Bhadaur. He is the son of the late Sarddr Hakikat Singh of Bir. On
the
death of his brother, Ranjit Singh, he succeeded to the Bir estate,
having
before held that of Chima only. He is an Honorary Magistrate, and did
excellent service in the troubled times of 1857.

Residence. Ludhiana, Punjab.

BALWANT SINGH (of Botala), Sarddr.

The title is hereditary, the Sardar being a descendant of Dhanna
Singh,
who was an associate of Sardar Jodh Singh, great-grandfather of
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh.

Residence. Gujra"nwa"la, Punjab.

BALWANT SINGH (of Rangarh Nangal), Sarddr.

The title is hereditary, the Sardar being descended from a Rajput
family
whose ancestor came originally from Bikanir, and founded Rangarh
Nangal
in the Gurdaspur district, Punjab. Sardar Karam Singh was the head of
the
family in the time of the Maharaja Ranjit Singh ; and when the latter
seized
Lahore and Amritsar, Karam Singh gave in his allegiance. His
grandson,
Sardar Argan Singh, served in the battle of Sobraon. During the
rebellion
of 1848 he joined the rebels, and his estates were confiscated. A
consider-
able pension was subsequently granted to him. The late Raja of Nabha
was
a second cousin of Sardar Balwant Singh, as Sardar Argan Singh's
sister
married Raja Devindra Singh, Chief of Nabha.

Residence. Gurddspur, Punjab.

BALWANT SINGH (of Barehta), Thdkur.

Born 1836. The title is hereditary, the ancestors of the Thakur
having
been in the Narsinghpur district from time immemorial, and long known
for
their loyalty ; it was originally conferred by one of the ancient Gond
Rajas
of Mandla. Belongs to a Raj Gond family; his son is named Barilol
Singh.

Residence. Barehta, Narsinghpur, Central Provinces.

BALWANT SINGH (of Piprasur), Rdjd.

The title is hereditary, the Raja being the son of the Raja Anrudh
Singh,
and descended from Debi Singh, Raja of Orchha.

Residence. Sa"gar, Central Provinces.

BAMANBOB, The Chief of .
A Ruling Chief.

The area of the State is 12 square miles, with a population of 987.
Residence. Bamanbor, Ka"thia"wa"r, Bombay.

BAMBO KHAN, Jam. See Bhambo Khan, Jam.

BAMRA, RAJA SUDHAL DEO, C.I.E., Rdjd of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born about 1849; succeeded to the gadi on i2th May 1869. I s
descended from a Gangabansi Rajput family, from the same stock as that
of
the Gajpati Rajas of Puri in Orissa, which acquired the Bamra
territory by
conquest in early times. He was created a Companion of the Most
Eminent
Order of the Indian Empire, ist January 1889. The Raja's son,
Sachidan-
and, bears the courtesy title of Tikait Babu. The area of the State is
1988
square miles; and its population is 81,286, many Hindus, but with
over
50,000 belonging to Abor (aboriginal) tribes.

Residence. Bamra, Central Provinces.

BANGANAPALE, NAWAB SAYYID FATH ALI KHAN

BAHADUR, C.S.I., Nawdb of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born loth July 1848; succeeded to the gadi in 1868. Is a Shiah
Muhammadan, and a Sayyid (or descendant of the Prophet). He was
created a Companion of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India,
ist
January 1877, on the occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most
Gracious
Majesty as Empress of India. The family held an ancient title,
Jagirdar of
Banganapale; the title of Nawab was conferred in 1876. His son is
named
Sayyid Gulam AH Khan. The area of the State is 166 square miles; its
population 30,754, chiefly Hindus, the Muhammadans being 5952. The
Chief has a salute of 6 guns.

Residence. Banganapale, Madras.

BANSDA, MAHARAWAL SHRI PRATAPSINGHJI
GULABSINGHJI, Rdjd of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 6th December 1863; succeeded to the gadi on the 6th March
1876. The family is Solanki Rajput (Hindu), and is styled "Vansdia";
it
is descended from a chieftain of ancient times named Muldeoji. The
area of
the State is 215 square miles ; its population is 34,908, chiefly
Hindus. The
Maharawal maintains a military force of 24 cavalry, in infantry, and
i
gun, and is entitled to a salute of 9 guns.

Residence. Bansda, Surat, Bombay.

BANSPAT SINGH (of Barah), Rdjd.

Born 1834. The title was conferred as a personal distinction on 3th
November 1858, for eminent services rendered during the Mutiny, the
Raja
having loyally supported the police, escorted the revenue-collections
during
the disturbances, and proceeded in December 1857 with 1000 followers
to
rid Pargana Khairagarh of a formidable band of rebels who had
gathered
there. Is descended from the same ancestry as His Highness the
Maharaja
of Rewah, and belongs to a Baghel Rajput family.

Residence. Barah, Allahabad, North-Western Provinces.

BANSWARA, HIS HIGHNESS RAI-I-RAYAN MAHARAWAL
SRI LACHMAN SINGH BAHADUR, Mahdrdwal of.

Born 3oth January 1838; succeeded to the gadi in 1842. Is a
descendant (through the Maharawal Udai Singh of Dungarpur, q.v.} of
the
Maharanas of Udaipur (" Children of the Sun "), and consequently a
Sisodiya
Rajput. Udai Singh, Maharawal of Dungarpur, gave the territory of
Banswara to his younger son Jagmal Singh, with the title of
Maharawal.
The area of the State (including that of its feudatory Kusalgarh) is
about
1500 square miles ; its population 175,145, chiefly Hindus, but with
about
50,000 Bhils (aboriginal). The Maharawal maintains a military force
of
640 cavalry, 783 infantry, and 14 guns. His Highness is entitled to a
salute of 1 5 guns. His son is the Maharaj-Kunwar Sambhu Singh
Bahadur.
Residence. Bdnswdra, Rajputa"na.

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BANTWA (GIDAR), SAMAT KHAN BABI, Khdn of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1854; descended from a Pathan (Muhammadan) family.
Residence. Gidar, Kdthidwdr, Bombay.

BANTWA (MANAWADAR), KHAN SHRI FATHEH-UD-DIN

KHANJI, Khdn of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1835 > succeeded to the gadi 28th March 1888. There are now
four divisions of the Bantwa State ; the united area is 221 square
miles, the
united population 38,517, chiefly Hindus. The Chief of Bantwa has the
title of Khan Shri ; his family name is Babi.

Residence. Manawadar, Kdthidwdr, Bombay.

BANWARI ANANDA DEB, Mahdrdj Kumar.

The title is personal, and was conferred on the Maharaj Kumar as the
adopted son of the late Maharaja Jagatindra Banwari Govinda Bahadur
of
Banwaribad, who rendered good service during the famine of 1866-67.
The
Maharaja Jagatindra's father, Nityananda, received from the old
Mughal
Government the title of " Azimat-ullah Amir-ul-Mulk Jagatindra
Danishnanda
Sipahdar Jang Bahadur."

Residence. Murshidabad, Bengal.

BANWARI LAL SINGH, Rdjd.

This is one of the titles that appear never to have been formally
recognised by Government. The family claims that its ancestor came
from
Baghelkhand, and set up the Raj of Palganj in Hazaribagh; and that a
branch of this family obtained the Zaminddri of Nawagarh in Manbhum,

part of which is held by the present Raja, part by Thakur Giridhari
Singh,
and part by the Thakurani, widow of Thakur Bhola Prasad Singh. In
Raja
Banwari Lai Singh's branch of the family the following titles are
held : by
the head, Rdjd ; by his wife, Rani; by the eldest son, Tikait ; by
the
second son, Kumar ; by the third son, Thakur ; by the fourth son,
Nunu ;
by the fifth and younger sons, Bdbu.

Residence. Nawa*garh, Manbhum, Bengal.

BANYIN, KUN SAW, Myoza of.
A Ruling Chief.

The Myoza is one of the Shan Chiefs, and rules over a State of about
230 square miles.

Residence. Banyin, Shan States, Burma.

BAONI, His Highness the Nawdb Bahadur of.
A Ruling Chief.

The Nawab was born in 1863 ; and succeeded to the gadi on the 5th
October 1883. He is descended from a Pathan (Muhammadan) family of
Bundelkhand ; and his full titles are " His Highness Azam-ul-Umara,
Fakhr-ud-daula, Main-ul-Mulk, Saheb-i-Jah, Mihin Sardar, Nawab
Muhammad
Hasan Khan Bahadur, Zafar Jang." His ancestor, the Nawab Ghazi-ud-din
Khan, at one time Minister at the Imperial Court of the Mughals, was
grandson of Asaf Jah, Nizam of Hyderabad, and was also connected with
the
family of the Nawab Vazir of Oudh. He obtained a grant of fifty-two
villages
from the Peshwa in Bundelkhand. His son, the Nawab Vazir-ud-daula
Khan, was recognised as Chief by the British Government. The grandson
of the latter was the Nawab Muhammad Mehdi Hasan Khan, the father of
the present Nawab.

The family banner was displayed at the Imperial Assemblage at Delhi
in
1877, with the motto, "The authority is God's, and the country is
God's."
The area of the State is about 117 square miles; its population is
17,055,
chiefly Hindus, but with 2342 Muhammadans. The Nawab Bahadur
maintains a military force of 9 cavalry, 185 infantry, and 2 guns. He
is
entitled to a salute of 1 1 guns.

Residence. Baoni, Bundelkhand, Central India.

BAPU DBVA SHASTRI, C.I.B., Mahdmahopddhydya.

Born ist November 1821. The title is personal. It was conferred on
1 6th February 1887, on the occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of
Her Most Gracious Majesty the Empress, in consideration of emin-
ence as an oriental scholar ; and it entitles him to take rank in
Darbar
immediately after titular Rajas. Belongs to a Mahratta Brahman
family,
long settled, in a good position as bankers and men learned in Hindi
theology, at Tonka on the Godavari in the Ahmadabad district.
Educated

at Nagpur ; became Professor of Mathematics in the Benares College in
1842. In 1852, received a reward of Rs.2Ooo from Government for a
Hindi treatise on algebra, and in 1869 a khilat of Rs. 1000 and two
shawls.
Is a Fellow of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, of the Royal Asiatic
Society,
and of the Calcutta and Allahabad Universities. Is the author of many
works on Sanskrit literature and mathematics ; and in 1878 was created
a
Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire.
Residence. Benares, North-Western Provinces.

BAPU RAO PATWARDHAN, PANDIT, Rao Saheb.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist June 1888.
Residence. Ndgpur, Central Provinces.

BAPUBHAI DAYASHANKAR, Rao Saheb.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i;th July 1867.
Residence. Ahmadabad, Bombay.

BARAMBA, RAJA BISAMBHAR BIRBAR MANGRAJ
MAHAP ATTAR, Rdjd of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1880; succeeded to the gadi i5th July 1881, and is still a
minor.
The Raja is descended from a Kshatriya (Hindu) family. The history of
the Baramba State commences from the year 1305 A.D., with Hatakeshwar
Raut, a famous wrestler, who served Kishori Narsingh, the ruler of
Orissa,
and in recognition of his valour was presented with two villages (by
name
Sonkha and Mohuri) on the north bank of the Mahanadi river, three
miles
south of the present Baramba headquarters. These two villages were
then
owned and inhabited by Kandhs. Hatakeshwar drove them away to about
four miles north and settled in Baramba, which has since been the
residence
of all his successors up to the present time. The two villages, Sonkha
and
Mohuri, which were close to one another, have since been amalgamated
into
one, and are known by the name of Sonkhameri. It is difficult to
ascertain
what was the area of the two villages when they were presented by the
Orissa ruler, but in all probability it never exceeded four square
miles. The
founder, however, extended the limit of his possession to about eight
square
miles before he died, leaving his younger brother, Malakeshwar Raut,
to
succeed him.

The second Chief, Malakeshwar Raut, who reigned eighteen years, ex-
tended the limit of the State to Ogalpore, about three miles west of
Sonk-
hameri, and five miles south-west of Baramba. He discovered the
temple
of the goddess Votaika or Bruhadamba or Bodama at Ogalpore, and out
of
respect for this goddess named the State after her. Jambeshwar Raut,
the
fourth Chief, who reigned from 1375 A.D. to 1416, conquered the Kandh
Chief of Kharod, eight miles north-west of Baramba, and annexed his
posses-
sion (about twenty square miles), thus raising the area of the State
to about
thirty-six square miles. The fifth Chief, Bholeshwar Raut, conquered
the
Khandayat or Chief of Amatia, six miles west of Baramba, and extended
the
limit of the State to Ratapat, eight miles west of the headquarters,
and the
present boundary between the Baramba and Narsinghpur States. It was
during the reign of this Chief, who reigned for forty-three years
(from
1416 A.D. to 1459), that the farthest western limit of the State was
reached.
His successors increased their possessions to the east of the
headquarters,
but made no attempt to extend the State farther on the west. Kanhu
Raut,
the sixth Chief, reigned for fifty-five years (from 1459 A.D. to
1514), and
extended the limit of the State to Mohulia, about five miles east of
Baramba.
Nabin Raut, the ninth Chief, reigned for twenty-three years (from 1537
A.D.
to 1560). During his reign the State attained its largest limit, from
Ratapat
in the west to Bidharpur in the east, eighteen miles, and from the
range of
hills separating Hindol from Baramba to the banks of the Mahanadi,
about
eight and a half miles, and this is the present limit of the State. In
the
reign of the twelfth Chief, Krishna Chandra Mangraj, who ruled from
1635 A ' D - t I ^5j tne Mahrattas invaded the country, but the Chief
acknow-
ledged their supremacy, and was required to pay a tribute of 6335
kahans of
cowries per annum. Padmanava Birbar Mangraj Mahapatra, the
seventeenth
Chief of the State, was a very weak ruler, who reigned from 1748 A.D.
to
1793. During the first part of his reign the Raja of Khandpara invaded
the

State, drove out the Chief, and remained in possession of it for
nearly
thirteen months. Raja Padmanava sought for and obtained the
assistance
of the Raja of Khurda, and recovered possession of the State. During
the
latter part of his reign, in the year 1775, the Raja of Narsinghpur
invaded the
State, and took possession of two of its important forts, Kharad and
Ratapat.
The Raja was powerless to expel the invaders, so he appealed to the
Mah-
rattas, and with their assistance and intercession was able to regain
possession
of the forts. It seems that the Mughals never exercised direct
supremacy
over the Chiefs of this State. The Mahrattas, however, did so, and
there are letters extant which show that they fixed the annual
tribute
of the State from the year 1183 to 1185 Amli, and collected the same
directly from the Chiefs. There are also three other old letters of
interest in the records. In one of these the Mahrattas intimate their
having recovered the Ratapat Gur from the Narsinghpur Raja ; in
another
they required the presence of the Baramba Raja to settle a boundary
dispute between Baramba and Narsinghpur ; the third is addressed to
the
Raja of Narsinghpur, and contains the decision of the Mahratta Govern
ment regarding the possession of Kharad and Ratapat. The area of the
State (which is one of the Orissa Tributary Mahals) is about 134
square
miles; its population 29,772, chiefly Hindus, but with over 3000
belonging
to aboriginal tribes. The Raja maintains a military force of 709
infantry
and 3 guns. The family emblem is a leopard.

Residence. Baramba, Orissa.

BARAUNDHA, RAJA THAKUR PRASAD SINGH, Rdjd

Bahadur of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born in 1847 > succeeded to the gadi on the i8th August 1886. Is a
Raghubansi Rajput, descended from a family of the highest antiquity
in
Central India. Thirty-four generations are said to have ruled at Rusin
in
the Banda district ; then four more at Birgarh in the territory still
belonging
to the family ; four more at Murfa, partly in Banda and partly in this
terri-
tory. Then the Raja Mohan Singh came to Baraundha, and ruled there,
and obtained a sanad from the British Government in 1807. His son
ruled
at Paturkuchar, and two more generations. Then the Raja Ragbirdayal,
father of the present Raja, ruled partly at Paturkuchar, partly at
Baraundha,
and received the additional title of "Bahadur" on the occasion of the
Imperial Assemblage at Delhi in 1877. The area of the State is 239
square miles; its population is 17,283, chiefly Hindus. The Raja
Bahadur
maintains a military force of 15 cavalry, 75 infantry, and 6 guns, and
is
entitled to a salute of 9 guns.

Residence. Baraundha, Bundelkhand, Central India.

BARDIA, Rao of. See Barra.

BARIYA, MAHARAWAL SHRI MANSINGHJI, Rdjd of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 4th October 1855; succeeded to the gadi 5th March 1864.
Descended (like the Chiefs of Chhota Udaipur) from a Chauhan Rajput
(Hindu)
family, sprung from Patai Rawal, the last Chauhan Chief of Champanir.
The
area of the State is 873 square miles ; its population is 66,822,
chiefly Hindus.
The Maharawal maintains a military force of 38 cavalry, 250 infantry,
and
3 guns, and is entitled to a salute of 9 guns.

Residence. Bariya, Rewa" Kdntha, Bombay.

BARJORJI DORABJI PATEL, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th May 1889.
Residence. Quetta, Baluchistan.

BARJORJI RUSTAMJI, MISTRY, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 2oth May 1890,
Residence. B ombay .

BARODA, HIS HIGHNESS MAHARAJA SAYAJI RAO III.,
G. C.S.I., Maharaja Gaekwdr of.

A Ruling Chief, and one of the Premier Princes of the Empire.

Born 1 7th March 1863 ; succeeded to the gadi on the 2yth May 1875.
The Gaekwar's full titles are His Highness Farzand-i-Khas-i-Daulat-i-
Inglishia
Maharaja Sayaji Rao Gaekwar Sena Khas Khel Shamsher Bahadur,
Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of
India.
He is the descendant of the famous Mahratta leader, Damaji Gaekwar,
who
obtained from the Shahu Raja of Satara the title of Shamsher Bahadur
for
his bravery at the battle of Ballapur, fought against the Imperial
forces of
Delhi at the close of the i7th century. Damaji Gaekwar died in 1721,
and
was succeeded by his nephew and adopted son Pilaji Gaekwar, who
obtained
from the Shahu Raja the additional title of Send Khas Khel (see
Introduction,
1 1) on the conclusion of the wars with the Peshwa. Pilaji was
assassinated in
1731, and was succeeded by his son Damaji II. ; who, during a period
of about
forty years of almost incessant warfare, played a most prominent part
in the
history of India, and firmly established the Gaekwari power
throughout
Gujarat and the neighbouring districts of Western India. In 1732, the
same
year in which his father was murdered by a Mughal emissary, he
reconquered
the capital of Gujarat, Baroda, from the Mughal Viceroy ; and that
city has
been the capital of the Gaekwars ever since. He commanded a division
at
the great and decisive battle of Panipat in 1761. He invaded
Kathiawar,
and forced many of its princes to pay him tribute ; he conquered the
ancient
city of Anhalwara Patan, and also Ahmadabad, the old capital of
Gujarat.
After his death, . his two sons Govind Rao and Fatheh Singh became
Gaekwars in succession ; and the latter was succeeded by Ananda Rao,
a
son of Govind Rao Gaekwar. In 1803 a Treaty was concluded with the
British Power, under which a British Resident was appointed to the
Court of
Baroda, and provision was made for the maintenance of a strong
subsidiary
force. Ananda Rao was succeeded by Sayaji Rao I., whose reign was
long
and on the whole prosperous ; and he was followed by three of his sons
in
turn, Ganpat Rao Gaekwar, Khande Rao Gaekwar, and Mulhar Rao
Gaekwar. His Highness Khande Rao Gaekwar rendered loyal service to
the Government at the time of the Mutiny. But the rule of his
successor
was disgraced by misgovernment ; and it terminated in his deposition
under
painful circumstances. After these misfortunes, the Paramount Power
exer-
cised the greatest care and diligence in seeking out, from among the
scions of the Gaekwari family and the descendants of Pilaji, a
successor
to the gadi, who should be in every way well fitted to discharge the
duties
of that exalted station. Their care has been amply rewarded ; for, by
the
consent of the whole world, it would be impossible to find a ruler
more
devoted to the welfare of his subjects, or one better qualified to do
credit
to the Imperial choice, than His Highness the present Maharaja Gaek-
war, who was adopted by Her Highness the Maharani Jamna Bai, the
widowed consort of Khande Rao Gaekwar and installed by the Agent of
the Governor -General, who invested him with a State Dress of Honour
on
the 27th May 1875.

The reign of the Maharaja Gaekwar Sayaji III. has been one of amazing
progress and prosperity. For His Highness himself, it has not been
without

the deep shadows of domestic bereavement; for in April 1885 he lost
his first wife, Her Highness the Maharani Chimnabai, niece of the
Princess
of Tanjore, whom he had married in 1880, and who had borne him three
children two daughters, who had died during the lifetime of their
mother,
and a son and heir named Fatheh Singh Rao, who has happily survived.
In
December 1885 His Highness took as his second wife a Princess of the
House of Dewas in Central India, Her Highness Chimnabai, the present
Maharani, who was invested by Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen
Empress with the insignia of the Imperial Order of the Crown of India
in
1892. Of this marriage there has been issue two sons, named Jaisingh
Rao and Sivaji Rao respectively, and a Princess named Indira Raja.

The young Gaekwar had for several years the advantage of the co-
opera-
tion, as Minister of Baroda, of one of the ablest Indian statesmen of
modern
times, the Raja Sir Madhava Rao, K. C.S.I. The colleagues and
successors
of Sir Madhava the Khan Bahadur Kazi Shahab-ud-din, C.I.E., the Diwan
Bahadur Laxuman Jagannath, the Khan Bahadur Pestanji Jahangirji,
C.I.E.,
the Rao Bahadur Vinayak Janardhan Kirtane, the Khan Bahadur
Khurshidji
Rustamji, and the present Prime Minister, His Excellency the Diwan
Bahadur
Manibhai Jasbhai have also been statesmen of great ability and
devotion.
And many other names might be mentioned of distinguished officers of
the
Baroda Government during the present reign. The early years of His
Highness were guided by the judicious care of an extremely able and
sympathetic English gentleman, Mr. F. A. H. Elliot, C.I.E., who still
retains
high office in the Baroda State. In 1875 tne Gaekwar, attended by Sir
Madhava Rao and the chief officers of the State, went to Bombay to
meet
His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales ; and shortly afterwards was
honoured by a visit of His Royal Highness to the capital of Baroda,
where
the auspicious event was celebrated by the most magnificent
hospitalities.
On the ist of January 1877 His Highness, on the invitation of H.E.
the
Viceroy, attended the Imperial Assembly at Delhi to celebrate the
Proclama-
tion of Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen as Empress of India, and
on that occasion was invested with the title of Farzand-i-Khds-i-
Daulat-i-
Inglishia (see Introduction, n) by Lord Lytton as the representative
of the
Empress.

In May 1887 His Highness, accompanied by the Maharani, set out on
an extended tour to the continent of Europe. After passing several
months
in Italy, Switzerland, and France, His Highness arrived in England in
the
following November. On the 5th of December the Maharaja proceeded to
Windsor, and had the honour of being most cordially received by Her
Most
Gracious Majesty the Queen Empress. His Highness, having previously
received the honour of Knighthood, was on this occasion invested by
the
Queen Empress with the insignia of a Grand Commander of the Most
Exalted Order of the Star of India. A second visit was paid to Europe
by
His Highness in 1889, which also greatly restored his health and
vigour.
But the hot climate of Gujarat, and excessive mental exertion, made it
im-
perative on him in the spring of 1892 to visit Europe once more; and
accordingly His Highness left India a third time on 7th May 1892.
With
the Maharani he has again been graciously received by Her Majesty,
who
honoured the Maharani by personally conferring on her the insignia of
the
Imperial Order of the Crown of India. These visits of His Highness to
England have been fruitful of the most valuable results to the Baroda
State,

and are in themselves evidence of the interest he takes in the social
and
material progress of his people. Both in 1887 and again in 1892, he
has
been attended by one of his ablest officials, the Rajashri Vasudeo
Madhava
Samarth, who now holds the position of Chief Officer with His
Highness.

By the direction of His Highness scientific land-revenue survey has
been
introduced throughout the State, the existing revenue laws have been
revised,
new ones framed, and various restrictions and petty imposts, as well
as
transit duties, which entailed much hardship on the ryots, have been
gradu-
ally abolished. By these and various other means, the cultivators have
been
greatly encouraged to increase their holdings and improve their
condition.
The existing local regulations are being codified for securing a
speedy and
efficient administration of civil and criminal justice, in which work
he has
allowed the people to take part. His Highness has issued certain rules
for
the better working of the Police, and has brought up the military
forces
to a state of efficiency. But the greatest attention of the Maharaja
Gaekwar
has been given to matters of education. He has given a strong impetus
to
primary and higher education, as well as to technical training in
industrial
arts and handicrafts. There is an Arts College at Baroda, which is
affiliated
to the Bombay University, and teaches up to the B.A. and B.Sc.
standards.
The vernacular schools have received a large accession to their
number, and
are still to be further multiplied by the establishment of thirty new
schools
every year. A recent rule to recognise by Government grants-in-aid
every
school which 'has not less than sixteen scholars on its roll has
called into exist-
ence hundreds of village schools for the instruction of the masses,
hitherto
untouched. Schools have also been opened for people of low castes,
and
boarding schools for the lowest and hitherto utterly neglected
classes.

Classes for teaching native music and scientific agriculture have
been
opened, whilst the establishment of a technical school for imparting a
know-
ledge of modern industries, and for improving the various handicrafts
of the
people, testifies to the anxiety His Highness entertains for the
industrial
progress of his State. Nor has the Maharaja Gaekwar forgotten the
claims
of female education, for in the various schools in his dominions not
only are
girls given a sound mental training, but the physical training and the
homely
arts of sewing, embroidery, and cookery are not neglected. Hospitals
and
dispensaries have been provided in almost all the principal towns of
the State ;
and it has been lately decided to appoint a lady-doctor for
administering to
the medical needs of the female population. The magnificent new
Palace,
and various handsome buildings for schools, colleges, and hospitals,
evince
the keen desire of His Highness for the promotion of public works.
Rail-
ways have been extended in the territory of Baroda, and at present the
State
owns no less than 178 miles of railway. One of the most important
recent
engineering undertakings is the construction of extensive works at
Ajwa for
supplying the city of Baroda with pure water at the cost of about
thirty lacs
of rupees.

The effects of the good and enlightened government of the present
Gaekwar, and the consequent progress and prosperity of his State and
people,
were well summed up in a speech made by the late Viceroy of India,
Lord
Dufferin, on the occasion of His Excellency's visit to Baroda in
November
1886, from which may be quoted the following words :

"Although your Highness, with characteristic modesty, has passed very
lightly over the many excellent works of a like nature which have been
con-

structed under your auspices, all who are inhabitants of this place
know that,
thanks to the intelligent energy which has been exhibited by their
ruler, few
cities and few States have ever made greater progress in everything
which tends
to improve the social condition of their inhabitants than the State
and city over
which your Highness so auspiciously and benevolently rules. The air
of
universal prosperity which characterises your capital and district
which surrounds it,
the happy and contented appearance of your people, are all marks of
conscientious
and intelligent administration, which have met my eye on every side ;
the noble
buildings which are rising in all directions under your Highness's
auspices, and
amply generous provision which you have made both for the needs and
gratifica-
tion of your people, have confirmed me in the opinion which I had
already reason
to entertain, that in your Highness India possesses one of the most
promising,
high-minded, and wise rulers with which she has been ever blessed. It
is diffi-
cult to convey in words the satisfaction which a Viceroy experiences
at being able
to arrive at such a conclusion in regard to one of the most
influential and import-
ant of Her Majesty's feudatory Princes. In your Highness I feel the
Queen
Empress possesses indeed the noble arkan-i-dawlut, a firm and trusted
pillar of
State, and that the Indian Government is entitled to regard you as a
sympathetic
and worthy coadjutor in its great work of advancing the general
happiness and
prosperity of the inhabitants of Hindustan. Believe me, Mahd.rd.jd,
there is no
object dearer to my heart than to acquire the confidence and goodwill
of the
Princes of India, to make them feel with what kindly feelings I regard
them, how
anxious I am in respect to their rights, to maintain their dignity, to
add to their
consideration and izzat ; but it becomes ten times easier to do this,
and is a
more perfect labour of love, when the conduct of a' native ruler is so
worthy of
praise and admiration as your own."

The State is one of the largest, richest, most populous, and most
advanced
in India. It contains an area of 8570 square miles. Its population is
about 2,185,005, chiefly Hindus; but there are 174,980 Muhammadans,
46,718 Jains, and 8118 Parsis. The revenue of the State is about
Rs. i, 53,00,000 per annum (at par ,1,530,000). In area the State of
Baroda is considerably larger than either Saxony or Wiirtemberg ; its
population is greater than that of Greece, and not much less than that
of
Switzerland. The Maharaja Gaekwar maintains a military force of 3562
cavalry and 4988 infantry, with 38 guns. His Highness is entitled to
a
salute of 2 1 guns. The family colour is that red which is called
Bhagwd,
the colour of the red earth of the Mahabaleshwar hills.

Residence. Baroda, Western India.

BARODA or SHBOPUR (GWALIOR), RAJA BIJAI SINGH,

Rdjd of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1862 ; succeeded to the gadi 271)1 September 1865. Is a Kshatri
Gaur (Hindu). The area of the State is 150 square miles; its
population
9000, chiefly Hindus. The Raja maintains a military force of 50
cavalry,
400 infantry, and 5 guns.

Residence. Baroda, Gwalior, Central India.

BARRA or BARDIA, RAO DAUKAL SINGH, Rao of.
A Ruling Chief.

The Rao was born in 1850; and succeeded to the gadi on the 25th
August 1865. Is of a Rajput (Hindu) family. The population of the
State
is about 650, chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Barra, Western Malwa", Central India.

BARWANI (BHOPAWAR), RANA INDARJIT SINGH, Rdnd of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1840; 'succeeded to the gadi on the i5th August 1880. Is a
Sisodiya Rajput, akin to the ruling House of Udaipur. The area of the
State is 1362 square miles; its population 56,445, chiefly Hindus,
with
8605 belonging to aboriginal tribes. The Rana maintains a miltary
force of
17 cavalry, 225 infantry, and 9 guns. He is entitled to a salute of 9
guns.

Residence. Barwdni, Central India.

BASANTA SINGH, CHAUDHRI, Rai Bahddur.

Granted the title, as a personal distinction, 2nd January 1893. I s a
landholder in the Bijnor district, North-Western Provinces.
Residence. Bijnor, North-Western Provinces.

BASAWA SINGH (of Laroa), Sarddr.

The title is hereditary.
Residence. Jdlandhar, Punjab.

BASHAHR, RAJA SHAMSHER, SINGH, Rdjd of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1839; succeeded to the gadi in 1849. Belongs to a Rajput
(Hindu) family claiming descent, through 120 generations, from Sri
Krishna. It is said that Parduman Singh, grandson of Sri Krishna, came
to
Bashahr from Benares to marry the daughter of the Raja Bavasa Deo ;
and
that he ultimately slew Bavasa Deo, and obtained possession of the
Raj.
Between 1803 and 1815 Bashahr was overrun by the Gurkhas; but on
their expulsion in the latter year, the British Government granted a
sanad to
the Raja, confirming him in the possession of all his territories,
except

Rawani, which was given to Keonthal. The area of the State (which is
one
of the Simla Hill States) is 3257 square miles; its population is
64,345,
chiefly Hindus. The Raja has a son named Tika Raghunath Singh. He
maintains a military force of 100 infantry and 2 guns.
Residence. Bashahr, Punjab.

BASHIR AHMAD, Khan Bahadur.

Born 1860. Is the son-in-law of His late Highness Prince Intizam-ul-
Mulk, third Prince of Arcot. Granted the title as a personal
distinction in
1887.

Residence. Madras.

BASHIYAM AIYANGAR, V., Rai Bahadur.

Is a B.A. and B.L. of the University of Madras; appointed a Fellow of
the University in 1880; Member of the Legislative Council of Fort St.
George in 1888; granted the title as a personal' distinction in 1887.
An
advocate of the Madras Bar.

Residence. Madras.

BASITNAGAR, AMANAT PATIMA, Begum of.

Born 1832. Is the widow of the Nawab Dost Ali Khan of Basitnagar,
who was succeeded on his death in 1864 by the Nawab Husain Ali Khan.
On the death of the latter in 1871 the Begum succeeded to the title
and
estates. The family is of Pathan origin, and is descended from Dildar
Khan,
third son of the Nawab Diler Khan of Shahabad. The latter was a dis-
tinguished Afghan officer under the Emperor Aurangzeb, who sent him
to
Shahabad to punish the Pande Panwar Brahmans, who had plundered a
convoy of Imperial treasure on its way from Khairabad to Delhi. He
slew
all the bandits, and was granted their extensive possessions mjdgir,
with the
titles of Nawab and Haft Hazdri or commander of seven thousand. He
founded the city of Shahabad, and built the great fort known as the
Bari
Deohri ; and his descendants held the grants rent free till Saadat Ali
Khan
resumed them. The title of Nawab was recognised by Government as
hereditary in 1864.

Residence. Shdhabad, Hardoi, Oudh.

BASODA (BHOPAL), NAWAB AMAR ALI KHAN, Nawab of.

A Ruling Chief.

The Nawab was born about 1830; and succeeded to the gadi on the
6th February 1864. He is a Pathan (Muhammadan) descended from the
Nawab Dalel Khan, founder of the Kurwai State (q.v.) The area of the
State is about 22 square miles; its population 7772, chiefly Hindus,
but
with 1454 Muhammadans. His sons are Mian Haidar Ali Khan and
Yusuf Ali Khan.

Residence. Basoda, Bhopal, Central India.

BASTAR, RAJA BHAIRAM DEO, Rdjd of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 2ist May 1839 ; succeeded to the gadi 27th August 1853. Belongs
to an ancient Rajput family of high caste ; whose founder, Kakati
Partabrudra,
came from Warangal in the Deccan, and settled at Bastar about the
beginning
of the 1 4th century. The area of the State is 13,062 square miles;
its
population 196,248, of whom over 36,000 belong to Gond, Bhil, and
other
aboriginal tribes, the rest being chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Jagdalpur, Bastar, Central Provinces.

BASTI, Rdjd of. See Mahesh Sitla Bakhsh Singh.

BAW, MAUNG HLAING, Ngwegunhmu of.
A Ruling Chief.

The Ngwegunhmu is one of the Shan Chiefs, and rules over a State of
about 350 square miles.

Residence. Baw, Shan States, Burma.

*BAWNIN, SAW KIN, Myoza of.
A Ruling Chief.

The Myoza is one of the Shan Chiefs, and rules over a State of 30
square
miles.

Residence. Bawnin, Shan States, Burma.

BAWZAING-, MAUNG KYA YWBT, Ngwegunhmu of.
A Ruling Chief.

The Ngwegunhmu is one of the Shan Chiefs, and rules over a State of
20 square miles.

Residence. Bawzaing, Shan States, Burma.

BECHARDAS VEHARIDAS, DESAI, Sarddr, Rao Bahadur.

Born 26th February 1844. Third son of the Rao Bahadur Desai
Veharidas Ajubhai, whose eldest son, Desai Haridas Veharidas, is now
Diwdn
(Prime Minister) of the Junagarh State in Kathiawar. Educated at
Nadiad
and Ahmadabad. Appointed Member of the Local Board of Taluka Anand,
Zilla Kaira in 1867. Was the chief promoter of the "Agricultural Com-
mittee" appointed at Nadiad in 1878, and of the exhibitions of
agricultural
products of the district held at Nadiad since the year 1883. President
of
the Municipal Committee, Nadiad, from 1886 to 1889; received the title
of
"Rao Bahadur" from Government in 1887; elected a Member of the
Legislative Council, Bombay, in 1888 ; and granted the title of
"Sardar" in
the same year. The family claims descent from the Kshatriya family
reigning
in the Punjab in the time of Alexander the Great ; subsequently
migrating to
Malwa, its leading member is said to have been appointed there Diwan.

Twelve hundred years later part of the family is said to have migrated
to
Adalaj, near Ahmadabad, in the time of Siddhraj Jayasingh, and a
branch
ultimately settled at Nadiad. The founder of this branch having
rendered
good service to the then Mughal Emperor, was invited to the Imperial
presence, and received the title of Desdi with estates and pdlkhi from
the
Emperor. Vaghjibhai, the fourth in lineal descent from the founder,
rendered
valuable services both to the Peshwa and to the Gaekwar ; and also
played
an important part in bringing about a compromise after the battle of
Adas
in 1775. For this he received in indm the village of Bilodra, which
the
family enjoyed up to 1816. Prabhudas, the grandson of Vaghjibhai,
assisted
Colonel Walker in settling the terms of the treaties made by the
British
Government with the Mehwasi Thakurs in the Mahi Kantha, and received
a
pdlkhi in indm from the British Government in 1806. Desai Prabhudas's
grandson was Desai Veharidas Ajubhai (the first mentioned above), who
was a
member of the Vatan Commission, and Honorary Second Class Magistrate.
He was invited by Government to the Imperial Delhi Assemblage in
1877,
where he received the title of " Rao Bahadur."

Residence. Kaira, Bombay.

BED SARAN KUN WAR (of Agori Barhar), Rdm.

Born 1851. The title is hereditary, the Chandel Rajas of Barhar being
descended, it is said, from Pari Mai and Bari Mai of Mahoba in
Bundelkhand,
who some hundreds of years ago took service with Raja Madan of the
Baland
family of the Kharwar tribe, and after killing him, divided his
country and
founded the three principalities of Barhar, Bijaigarh, and Bardi, in
Rewah.
About a century later, near the year 1290, the exiled Balands
collected a
force, surprised the fort and palace of Agori, and killed every male
of the
Chandel race. But one of the queens of the fallen Chandel Raja, who
had
fled to the forest, shortly afterwards gave birth to a prince, who was
named
Orandeo, from the shield (oran) on which he was cradled. When he grew
up, his merits attracted the notice of the Raja of Kantit ; who gave
him his
daughter in marriage, and helped him to recover the Barhar Raj, about
the
year 1310. In 1745 Sjambhu Sah was Raja, and he was conquered and
expelled by Raja Balwant Singh ; but in 1781 Warren Hastings, as
Governor-
General, ordered the restoration of Adil Sah, the grandson of Raja
Sambhu
Sah. The estates continued in the possession of the family till 1852,
when
Raja Raghunath Sah died, and they came under the Court of Wards. His
son, Raja Kesho Saran Sah, attained his majority in 1868 ; but died
without
issue in 1871, leaving his widow, the present Rani, in possession of
the
estates for her life. Her heir is Babu Jagannath Prasad Singh of
Jamgaon,
who is descended from Babu Rachpal Singh (brother of Raja Adil Sah,
mentioned above), and is about 35 years of age.

Residence. Rajpur, Mirzapur, North- Western Provinces.

BBHRAMJI DADABHAI, Khan Bahddur.

Born 23rd October 1831. The Khan Bahadur's name is also sometimes
spelt Byramjee Dadabhoy. The title was conferred on 3rd April 1880, as
a
personal distinction, in recognition of highly meritorious service in
many

important and responsible public offices. The Khan Bahadur is the
eldest
son of the late Khan Saheb Dadabhai Shapurji, an eminent public
servant,
who had received a sherpao (or " Dress of Honour ") from the Bombay
Government in 1837, and the title of Khan Saheb in 1847. Educated at
Thanna, and Surat, and Elphinstone College, Bombay. Entered the
Govern-
ment Service in 1853; and having distinguished himself in various
civil
capacities, was specially selected in 1865 to succeed Colonel
Dunsterville as
Deputy Registrar-General and Registrar of Bombay being the first
gentle-
man of Indian birth ever appointed to fill that high office. Appointed
J.P.
in 1869; in 1872 a Delegate of the Parsi Chief Matrimonial Court in
Bombay; in 1879 acted as Inspector-General of Registration ; in 1878,
and
again in 1880, elected a Member of the Municipal Corporation of the
City
of Bombay ; and served in many other public orifices " with credit to
himself
and advantage to the public," as testified by the Bombay Government
when
in 1880 he was recommended for the title of Khan Bahadur. He was
married, 28th February 1848, to Baie Sonabaie, eldest daughter of
Khan
Saheb Cowashaw Sorabshaw Taleiyarkhan of Surat and has issue. His
sons are (i) Jehangeer Byramjee Dadabhoy, born 1864, married 1885 to
Khorsetbanu Hormusjee Pestonjee Cama ; and (2) Manikji Behramji
Dadabhai, born 1865, barrister-at-law of the Middle Temple 1887, J.P.
for
Bombay 1888, Municipal Councillor for Bombay 1889; married 1884 to
Jerbanu Dadabhai Palanji Bhedwar. His daughters are (i) Awabaie,
born 1851, married 1865 to Ardasir Cursetji Ghandie, who died in
1874;

(2) Dhanbaiji, born 1859, married 1877 to Dhanjibhoy Nasirwanji
Ghista ;

(3) Pherozebaie, born 1861, married 1877 to Framji Cursetji Rustamji
Thanawala. His brothers are (i) Cowashaw Dadabhoy, born 1845, married
1865 to Jerbaie Bargorji Hadda ; (2) Cursetjee Dadabhoy, born 1850,
married 1886 to Gulbaie Jamsetjee Seenawala.

Residence. Foras Road, Byculla, Bombay.

BEHRAMJI JEHANGIRJI RAJ KOTWALA, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred 24th May 1889, in
recognition
of his public services. The Khan Bahadur's name is also sometimes
spelt
Byramjee (or Byramji) Jehanghirji Rajkotwala. Is o a Delegate of the
Parsi
Matrimonial Court at Karachi, and Member of the Sindh Sabha ; was
Honorary Special Magistrate at Nasik and Karachi from 1869 to 1890;
acted as Chairman of the Nasik Municipality in 1880 and 1883.

Residence. Karachi, Sind.

BBLASAR PARIDA, Sdmant Rai.

This is one of the titles that appear not to have been formally
recognised
by Government. It was originally obtained from one of the old Rajas
of
Kujung.

Residence. Cuttack, Orissa.

BBLI RAM, Rai Bahddur.

Granted the title, as a personal distinction, 2nd January 1893, for
emi-
nent services in the Lahore Medical College. Is an Assistant Surgeon.
Residence. Lahore, Punjab.

BENARES, HIS HIGHNESS SIR PRABHU NARAYAN SINGH,
K.C.I.E., Maharaja Bahadur of.

Born 26th November 1855; succeeded i3th June 1889; has issue
Kunwar Aditya Narayan Singh, born 6th November 1875. The family are
Brahmans of the Bhuinhar clan ; and their traditions go back to the
year
1000, when a Brahman ascetic of Utaria, a village near Benares,
foretold the
.succession of his posterity to the dominions then governed by a Hindu
Raja.
Some centuries later, in the decay of the Mughal Empire, some of the
family
who attempted to assert a turbulent independence were severely
chastised by
one of the lieutenants of the Emperor Farrukhsiyar. In the succeeding
reign Mausa Ram, the eldest brother of the branch occupying the
ancient
seat of the family in Utaria, rose to great favour with the Governor
of
Benares under the Nawab Vazir of Oudh. On the death of Mausa Ram in
1739 his son Balwant Singh sent an offering to Delhi, and received
from the
Emperor his confirmation in the government of the Jaunpur, Benares,
and
Chunar districts, with the possession in his own right of four
Parganas, and
the title of Raja Bahadur, which the family has held as an hereditary
title
ever since. In 1763, when the Emperor and the Nawab Vazir of Oudh
marched eastward to expel the British from Bengal, Raja Balwant Singh
was
compelled to join them, but his troops took no part in the battle of
Baksar,
being stationed on the other side of the Ganges, and when he fled to
one of
his hill fortresses he was called back to receive confirmation of his
posses-
sions under the British Power. On the death of Balwant Singh in 1770
the
Nawab Vazir of Oudh desired to seize the Benares territory, but the
British
Government compelled him to recognise Chait Singh, the son of Balwant
Singh, as Raja under the British suzerainty, and by the treaty of 1775
tne
territory was finally declared British. The differences between Raja
Chait
Singh and the Calcutta Government under Warren Hastings are
historically
famous, as they became the subject of one of the articles of the
impeachment
that was framed against the great Governor-General. The Raja was
deprived
of his government, which was given on conditions to his nephew, Raja
Mahip Narayan, son of Balwant Singh's daughter, and he died in exile
at
Gwalior under the protection of the Maharaja Sindhia. Raja Mahip
Narayan
died in 1795, and was succeeded by his son Udit Narayan Singh; and
the
latter in 1835 by n ^ s nephew and adopted son, Raja Ishri Parshad
Narayan
Singh Bahadur, who, for his loyal services at the time of the Mutiny,
received
in 1859 the title of Maharaja Bahadur as a personal distinction. On
the
ist January 1877, on the occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most
Gracious
Majesty as Empress of India, the Maharaja Bahadur was created a
Knight
Grand Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India ; and
on
his death in 1889 he was succeeded by his nephew and adopted son, the
present Raja. On the 8th February 1889 the late Maharaja Bahadur had
been granted the privilege, as a personal distinction, of being
addressed as
" His Highness," and in September of that year the present Raja was
granted
the same privilege, with the title of Maharaja Bahadur, also as
personal dis-
tinctions. The Maharaja has been exempted from personal appearance in
the Civil Courts, and has been assured by sanad that, in the case of
failure of
natural heirs, the Government will permit and confirm any adoption of
a suc-
cessor made by himself or any future Raja that may be in accordance
with
Hindu law and the customs of his family. He is entitled to a salute of
T 3 guns.

Residences. Rdmnagar, Benares ; Chakya, Mirzapur.

BBNKAT RAO. See Vyankat Rao

BBRI (BUNDBLKHAND), RAO BIJAI SINGH, Jdgirddr of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1 4th February 1848 ; succeeded to the gadi i8th March 1862. Is
a Puar Rajput, descended from Acharjya, who married a daughter of the
Maharaja Jagat Raj, son of the Maharaja Chhatarsal of Jaitpur, and
received
the jdgir of Beri. He was succeeded by his son, Khuman Singh, whose
son, Jugal Prasad, received a sanad from the British Government. His
grandson, Bishnath Singh, adopted the present Jagirdar, who is a
descendant
from the Maharaja Jagat Raj by a collateral line. The title is
hereditary ;
the Jagirdars have sometimes been styled Sawai Rao, from their
ancestor
Jagat Raj. The present Rao's son is Kunwar Bahadur Noni Raghuraj
Singh. The State has an area of about 28 square miles, and a
population of
about 5000, chiefly Hindus. The Rao maintains a military force of 10
cavalry, 66 infantry, and 2 guns.

Residence. Beri, Bundelkhand, Central India.

BBTTIAH, MAHARAJA SIR HARBNDRA KISHOR SINGH,
K.O.I.B., Maharaja Bahadur of.

Born in March 1854; succeeded his father, the late Maharaja Rajendra
Kishor Singh Bahadur, in 1883, and in 1884 received the title of
Maharaja
Bahadur as a personal distinction, with a khilat and sanad from the
hands of
the Lieutenant-Go vernor of Bengal. Created a Knight Commander of the
Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire on ist March 1889. Belongs to
a Jaitharia Brahman (Hindu) family, descended from Gangeshwar Deo,
who
settled at Jaithar in Saran, Bengal, about the year 1244 A.D. One of
his
descendants, Agar Sen, having possessed himself by force of arms
(during
the later years of the reign of the Emperor Jahangir) of a
considerable terri-
tory in Champaran, declared himself a Raja, and ultimately obtained a
confirmation of that title from the Emperor Shah Jahan. In 1659 he
was
succeeded by his son, Raja Guj Singh, who built the palace of the
family at
Bettiah. He incurred the anger of the Emperor of Delhi by the
annexation
of many surrounding districts, and after successfully resisting one
party of
Imperial troops sent against him, was captured by a second party, and
carried
a prisoner to Delhi. He was subsequently released, and confirmed in
his
possession, on his undertaking to send an annual offering of jungle
and other
produce to Delhi. He died in 1694 A.D., leaving six sons, of whom
three
died without issue. The eldest, Raja Dalip Singh, succeeded his father
at
Bettiah, the second was the ancestor of Raja Sheoraj Nandan Singh of
Seohar in Muzaffarpur (q.v.\ and the third was the ancestor of the
Zamindars
of Madhubani in Darbhanga. Dalip Singh's son and successor, Raja
Dhrup
Singh, received a. firman from the Emperor Farrukhsiyar. In 1760 he
was
summoned to help the Emperor Shah Alam in his expedition to Bengal ;
and
subsequently, to escape the exactions of the Nawab Mir Kasim of Patna,
he
poisoned himself, and was succeeded by his daughter's son, Raja
Jugalkishor
Singh. The latter, after many vicissitudes of fortune, seems to have
been

68 THE GOLDEN BOOK OF INDIA

recognised by the British Government ; and his grandson, Raja
Anandakishor,
received the title of Maharaja Bahadur, with a khilat, as a personal
distinction
from Lord William Bentinck for good services rendered during the
Nepalese
war. He was followed by his brother and his nephew successively ; and
the
latter, the Maharaja Rajendrakishor Singh, who succeeded in 1855,
rendered
good service in the time of the Mutiny, and also during the great
famine. He
was succeeded in 1883 by his only son, the present head of the family,
who
was appointed a Member of the Legislative Council of Bengal in
January
1891. The Maharaja was created a Knight Commander of the Most
Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, 28th June 1888.
Residence. Bettiah, Champdran, Bengal.

BEYPORB, Valiya Rdjd of. See Rama Varma Raja, Rdjd.

BEZANJI SOHRABJI, Khan Bahddur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on i8th August 1881.
Residence. B ombay.

BHABAR, The Chief of.

A Ruling Chief.

The area of the State is 80 square miles; its population is 7222.
Residence. Bhabar, Pdlanpur, Bombay.

BHADARVA, RANA PATEH SINGH SARDAR SINGH, Rand of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born about 1850 ; succeeded to \hzgadi 26th January 1888. The area
of the State is 27 square miles; its population 9185.
Residence. Bhadarva, Rewa" Ka"ntha, Bombay.

BHADAUR. See Atar Singh, Sardar, Sir, K.C.I.E.

BHADAURA (GUN A), RAJA MADHO SINGH, Rdjd of.
A Ruling Chief.

The Raja is descended from a Sisodhiya Rajput (Hindu) family; was
born
in the year 1876, and succeeded to the gadi on the loth May 1883. The
State has a population of about 4000, chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Bhadaura, Guna, Central India.

BHADAWAR, Mahdrdid of. See Mahendra Mahendra Singh.

BHADVA, JARBJA BHAV SINGH JI, Chief of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born about 1826 ; succeeded to the gadi in 1843. The area of the
State
is 7 square miles; its population 1231, chiefly Hindus.
Residence. Bhadva, Ka'thia'war, Bombay.

BHAG RAM, PANDIT (of Jalandhar), Rai Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on nth August 1885.
Residence. Kashmir.

BHAG SINGH (of Sikandra), Sarddr.

Descended from Dargaha Singh, who acquired a considerable territory
by
conquest in 1759 A.D. His possessions were subsequently reduced by
other
Sikh Sardars. He had four sons, of whom the third, Sardar Agar Singh,
was the father of Sardar Bhag Singh. The Sardar has a son, named
Jowahir
Singh. The title is hereditary.

Residence. Ambala, Punjab.

BHAGAT SINGH, Sarddr Bahadur.

Born 1846. The title is personal; and was conferred on i9th April
1886, in recognition of eminent services in the Department of Public
Works,
Rajputana. Claims descent from an ancient Kshatriya family of Sikh
Sardars, of the " Party of Raja Sahibsingh," settled in the district
of Gujrat,
Punjab. The Sardar Bahadur has four sons living Sardar Krishna Singh
Kapur (barrister-at-law of the Middle Temple, 1887), Lahore ; Sardar
Vishnu
Singh Kapur (of the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester, and of
the
Middle Temple) ; Govind Singh ; Hari Singh.

Residence. Kapur Mahil, Gujrat, Punjab.

BHAGAT SINGH (of Kapurthala), Sarddr, CJ.E.

The Sardar was created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the
Indian Empire, ist January 1890.
Residence. Kapurth ala.

BHAGWAN BAKHSH (of Pokhra Ansari), Rdjd.

Born ist September 1872. The title is hereditary, and was recognised
as such, 4th December 1877, when the Raja succeeded his father, Raja
Umrao Singh, as a minor. The family is a younger branch of the
Amethia
Chattris (see Rameshwar Bakhsh Singh, Raja of Amethi), descended from
Prithvi Chand, Raja of Kalinjar. His descendant, Jamdhor Singh, had
three sons, of whom the third was Ram Singh, who, on the division of
the
estates, took Pokhra Ansari, with the title of Rao. It is said that
his great-
grandson, Rao Kalian Singh, saluted a celebrated fakir with the
respectful

address of Bandagi Mian, and the grateful saint responded with a
blessing on
the " Raja," whence the title was ever afterwards borne by this
branch, who
are known as the "Bandagi Mian Amethias." A descendant, Rao Amar
Singh, endeavoured to assert his independence in the time of Shuja-ud-
daula,
after the latter had been defeated by the English ; but he was
subsequently
defeated and slain by the Nawab's forces. His son, Madho Singh,
ultimately regained most of his possessions. After his death, the
property
saw many changes, and at last fell into the hands of Raja Sahajram
Bakhsh. He was followed by Raja Umrao Singh, the father of the
present
Raja.

Residence. Rowni, Haidargarh, Bara Banki, Oudh.

BHAGWAN DAS, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 2Qth May 1886.
Residence. Rangoon, Burma.

BHAGWAN SINGH, Sarddr Bahadur.

Born 1834. Belongs to a Jat family, whose founder, Sardar Ram Singh,
acquired the territory of Buner and other districts in 1751 A.D. The
family
appear to have done good service during the Gurkha Campaign, the
first
Sikh war, and lastly during the Mutiny in 1857. For the latter
service
they received as a reward the remission of a year's commutation tax,
and
one-sixteenth of the whole has been excused in perpetuity. The Sardar
Bhagwan Singh, whose title of Sardar is hereditary, is an Honorary
Magistrate in the Ambala district; and on ist January 1890 received
the
title of Sardar Bahadur as a personal distinction. His son is named
Brijandar Singh.

Residence. Sohana Bedwan, Ambala, Punjab.

BHAGWANT D AYAL, THAKURAI, Rai Bahadur.

Granted the title of Rai Bahadur, as a personal distinction, 2nd
January 1893. The present Thakurai, who has done good service on
several occasions, received the thanks of Government for his measures
of famine relief. He claims descent from Raja Dushasan Singh of
Dadand, of a very old Rajput family in Rajputana. One of his
ancestors
took service under Raja Mansingh, Raja of Palamau, whose throne
after-
wards he contrived to seize. Thakurai Ramban Singh, an ancestor of
the
present Thakurai, rendered good service when the English first took
Palamau ;
and Thakurai Chhatardhari Singh, great-grandfather of the present
Thakurai,
obtained from Government many rewards, including a jdgir, the title of
Rai
Bahadur, a khilat and sarpech, etc., for his services at the time of
the Kol
rebellion. The father also of the present Thakurai did good service at
the
time of the famine in 1873, and received a sanad at the Imperial
Assemblage
at Delhi in 1877.

Residence. Chainpur, Pa"la~mau, Lohdrdaga, Bengal.

BHAGWAT MAHANTI, Rat Bahadur.

Born 3rd March 1821 ; son of Jugal Mahanti, belonging to a family of
Karan or Utkal Kayasthas. Entered the service of the Government of
Bengal in the year 1839, an d served for more than fifty years in a
large
number of offices with ability and fidelity, retiring on pension in
1891. In
1870 he received a gold watch and chain from the Bengal Government,
in
recognition of " his long and valuable services," as well as in
consideration of
"his successful exertions during the famine of 1866 " ; and in 1886
the title
of Rai Bahadur was conferred upon him as a personal distinction. The
Rai
Bahadur has seven sons Ramkrishna Mahanti, Jaikrishna Mahanti,
Bhuvaneshwar Mahanti, Nandakishor Mahanti, Govindacharan Mahanti,
Paramanand Mahanti, and Sadanand Mahanti.

Residence. Pompalo, Kothdesh, Puri, Orissa.

BHAIRON SINGH (of Maslai), Rao.

Born 22nd March 1855. The title is hereditary; and is said to have
been originally received from Gori Shah, Badshah. In 1820 the then
Rao
received a sanad from Sir John Malcolm. The Rao has a son, named
Omar Singh.

Residence. Nimdr, Central Provinces.

BHAISAKHO, Bhumia of. See Ghari.

BHAISAUNDA (Bundelkhand), CHAUBE CHHATARSAL
PRASAD, Jdgirddr of.

A Ruling Chief.

The Jagirdar is of a Chaube Brahman (Hindu) family, descended from
Ram Krishna Chaube, Killadar of Kalinjar (see Paldeo), and was born
about
the year 1878. He succeeded to the gadi on the i6th January 1886. The
area of the State is 12 square miles ; its population over 4000,
chiefly
Hindus. The Jagirdar's great-grandfather, Newal Kisor, was third son
of
Ram Krishna Chaube, referred to above ; and received a sanad from the
British Government. The Jagirdar maintains a force of 52 soldiers.

Residence. Bhaisaunda, Bundelkhand, Central India.

BHAISOLA or DOTRIA (BHOPAWAR), THAKUR BHIM

SINGH, Thdkur of.

A Ruling Chief.

The Thakur is descended from a Rajput (Hindu) family ; and was born
about the year 1821. Succeeded to the gadi in the year 1842. The
population of the State is nearly 3000.

Residence. Bhaisola, Bhopdwar, Central India.

BHAJJI, RANA DURGA SINGH, Rand of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1842; succeeded to the gadi on the i8th November 1875.
Belongs to a Rajput family, whose founder in early times came from
Kangra,
and acquired the State (which is one of the Simla Hill States) by
conquest. It was overrun by the Gurkhas between 1803 and 1815; and
after their expulsion was confirmed in the possession of the Rana by a
sanad
from the British Government, dated 4th September 1815. Its area is 94
square miles; population 12,106, chiefly Hindus. The Chief maintains
a
military force of 60 infantry and i gun.

Residence. Bhajji, Punjab.

BHALUSNA, THAKUR MULSINGHJI, Thdkur of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born about 1852 ; is descended from a Koli (Hindu) family.
Residence. Bhalusna, Mahi Kantha, Bombay.

BHAMBO KHAN, Jam.

Born 1835. The title is hereditary, having been originally conferred
on
the Jam's ancestor, Saispal, when converted to Muhammadanism by
Sayyid
Jalal-ud-din. The Jam has two sons Khan Muhammad Alam Khan and
Gulam Ali Khan ; they bear the titles of Mian and Khan respectively.
The
Jam is a considerable Jagirdar in the district of Shikarpur.

Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

BHAN PARTAB (of Imjhira), Rdjd Bahadur.

The title is hereditary; and was conferred on i8th July 1858 on Raja
Surat Singh Bahadur (cousin of the present Raja), who was conspicuous
for
his loyalty, and for the brave resistance he and his followers offered
to the
rebels, in the Mutiny of 1857. Belongs to a Lodhi family, whose
ancestors
had in early times the title of Thakur, and have been settled in the
Narsinghpur district from time immemorial. In 1835 the title of Rao
was
conferred on Surat Singh (afterwards Raja Bahadur) by the Raja of
Delehri.
When Raja Surat Singh died in 1870, the succession of his uncle, Raja
Manbodh Singh Bahadur, was recognised by the Government. He was
appointed an Honorary Magistrate ; and on his death was succeeded by
his
only son, the present Raja Bahadur.

Residence. Narsinghpur, Central Provinces.

BHAO MUNSARAM, Rao Bahadur.

Granted the title, as a personal distinction, 2nd January 1893, for
eminent
services in municipal work. Is a Commissioner of the Poona
Municipality.
Residence. Poona, Bombay.

BHAO SINGH (of Piparia), Thdkur.

Bom 1858. The title is hereditary. The Thakur succeeded his father,
Thakur Bhagwan Singh.

Residence. Piparia, Jabalpur, Central Provinces.

BHABADPURA (BHOPAWAR), BHUMIA UDAI SINGH,

Chief of.

A Ruling Chief.

The Chief is a Bhilala, born about 1848 ; succeeded to the gadi'vn.
1858.
The population of the State is 1724, chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Bharadpura, Bhopawar, Central India.

BHARAT SINGH, Manki.

This is one of the titles that appear never to have been formally
recog-
nised by the Government. The Manki has a son named Jagannath Singh,
who bears the title of Babu.

Residence. M a" nbhum, B engal.

BHARTPUR, HIS HIGHNESS MAHARAJA BIRJINDAR
SAWAI SIR JASWANT SINGH BAHADUR, BAHADUR
JANG, G.C.S.I., Maharaja of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1851 ; succeeded to the gadi as a minor in 1853 : invested with
full
powers 4th March 1871. Is of a Jat (Hindu) family, descended from
Bal-
chand, who founded the Bhartpur State about the beginning of the i8th
century. The fifteenth in descent from Balchand was the Maharaja Brig
Singh, and seven generations further comes His Highness the present
Maha-
raja. The banner of this Chief is coloured red ; its motto is, Sri
Lachmanji
Sahai. His son is the Kunwarji Ram Singh Bahadur. The area of the
State is about 1974 square miles; its population 645,540, chiefly
Hindus,
but with 105,666 Muhammadans and 4499 Jains. His Highness maintains
a military force of 1647 cavalry, 8207 infantry, and 54 guns. He is
entitled
to a salute of 15 guns, and 2 guns more as a personal distinction.

Residence. Bhartpur, Rajputana.

BHASKARA, Rdjd. See Ramnad.

BHATKHBRI, RAWAT SHBO SINGH, Rdwat of.
A Ruling Chief.

The Rawat is a Chandrawat Rajput (Hindu), born about the year 1842 ;
succeeded to the gadi in 1861. The population of the State is 2234,
chiefly
Hindus.

Residence. Bhatkheri, Western Mdlwa", Central India.

BHAUNAGAR, HIS HIGHNESS MAHARAJA SIR TAKHT-

SINGHJI JASWATSINGHJI, G.C.S.I., Maharaja of.

A. Ruling Chief.

Born 6th January 1858 ; succeeded to the gadi on the death of his
father,
Jaswatsinghji, K.C.S.I., in April 1870. Educated first at Bhaunagar,
he was

one of the first Princes who joined
the Keatinge Rajkumar College at
Rajkot, where he studied for three
years, and was distinguished for his
diligence and docile and amiable
disposition a favourite with both
schoolfellows and masters. On
leaving the Rajkumar College in
1874 his studies were continued
under a specially selected tutor,
Captain (now Colonel) H. L. Nutt,
of the Bombay Staff Corps. During
his minority the State was jointly
administered by an European officer
of Government associated with a
native Minister of State ; but in
March 1877 His Highness took the place of the native Minister, and
so continued until within nine months of attaining his majority, when
(5th April 1878) he was placed in sole charge. On the 24th May 1881
Her Majesty the Empress of India conferred the honour of a Knight
Commander of the Star of India on His Highness, in which exalted
Order
he was advanced to Grand Commander on the ist January 1886; and His
Excellency the Viceroy five years later conferred as a personal
distinction
the high title of Maharaja. His Highness has married six wives, five
of
whom are alive their Highnesses Rani Shri Nahniba, Rani Shri Hariba,
and Rani Shri Bajirajba, married 1874; Rani Shri Bairajba, married
1879;
and Rani Shri Keserba, married 1888, and has issue. His sons are

Kuma"r Shri Bhausinghji, born 26th April 1875.
Kuma"r Shri Mangalsinghji, born 3rd June 1881.

His Highness's daughters are

Kumdri Shri Ra'mbcl.
Kumari Shri Kesa'ba'.
Kumdri Shri Rupaliba*.

Any account of the predecessors of His Highness would cover the
history
of the illustrious tribe or clan of the Gohel Rajputs of Ka'thia'wa'r,
of whom he is
the Chief, and after whom the eastern part of the province of
Ka'thia'wa'r is called
Gohelwad. The Gohels claim to be descended from the celebrated
Pa"ndavs,
who belonged to the lunar or Chandravansi race, and so trace their
line from the
celebrated Shalivahan, the founder of the Shaka era, while Colonel Tod
and
others assert that the Gohels belong to the Solar race. The old family
title of
"Ra"wal" was earned (as appears at page 258 of Tod's Western India) at
the
memorable battle of Chitor, fought with Ald-ud-din Khilji in 1303 A.D.
There
are evidences going as far back as 812 A.D. which show that the Gohels
ruled in

Saurashtra (Kdthia'wdr) from a very remote period. On the fall of the
Delhi
Empire, when the Mahratta power gradually rose into importance, the
capital of
the State was at Sihor, with Bhausingji as ruler, at which time
(1722-23 A.D.) an
encounter with the Mahratta army took place near Sihor, and resulted
in the
defeat of the Mahrattas. The struggle showed the weakness of the
position of
the capital, and Bhausingji chose the present site and founded the
city of Bhau-
nagar, which he considered more secure. He died in 1764 A.D., and was
suc-
ceeded by his son Akherajji. Akherajji assisted the Mahrattas against
the
Mughal Viceroy Mominkhan, and in 1771 assisted the British Government
in re-
ducing the pirate stronghold of Talaji. It was this ruler, too, who,
at the request
of the Resident at Baroda, gave shelter to Raghundth Rao Peshwa", then
a
refugee, sending him to Bombay in one of his own vessels. Akherajji
died in
1772, and was succeeded by his son Wakhatsinghji. Wakhatsinghji
largely ex-
tended his dominions, was a wise ruler and intrepid soldier, and
during his life-
time cultivated the friendship of the British then trading in Surat.
He died in
1 8 1 6, and was succeeded by his son Wajesinghji, who after a
prosperous reign,
extending over a period of thirty-six years, died in 1852, and was
succeeded by
his grandson Akherajji III., his son Bhausingji having died during his
lifetime.
Akherajji III. died in 1854, and having no male issue was succeeded by
his
brother Jaswatsinghji, who died in 1870, and was succeeded by his son
Takhtsinghji, the present ruler. The latter has effected great and
rapid improve-
ments in his dominions. Liberal in his charities, generous in his
grants for the
public good, he has constructed over 120 miles of railway at an
expense of over
eighty lacs of rupees, intersected his State with roads, studded the
country with
important public works, beautified his capital with permanent
buildings of a most
ornamental character, instituted a State Council, and revised the
State laws, civil
and criminal. At his capital he has from time to time received special
visits
from their Excellencies the Governors of Bombay ; and in 1 890 was
honoured by
a visit of His Royal Highness the late Duke of Clarence and Avondale,
who,
journeying to a new port founded by His Highness in the South Coast,
and now
known as Port Albert Victor, there laid the foundation-stone of the
new harbour
works. His loyalty to the British Crown is second to none in India,
and he has
recently, at a cost of over five lacs of rupees, formed for Imperial
service a regi-
ment of Lancers 350 strong of men chiefly of his own clan, of which
corps he
is Honorary Colonel.

The area of his State is 2860 square miles ; the population 464,671,
and
the annual gross revenue Rs.4 1,00,000.

Arms. Gules, an eagle or displayed ; in chief on a canton of the
second, a
lion statant of the first. Crest. An Eastern galley argent profile in
full sail.
Supporters. Two bulls argent rampant, service with bezant. Motto.
JS^TEI sji^f i^sgnC wm (" Man proposes but God disposes ") on a label
azure.

Residence. The Motibagh Palace, Bhaunagar. Club. The Indian North-
brook, 3 Whitehall Gardens, London.

BHAWAL, RAM SINGH, Seim of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born about 1864, succeeded to the gadi 25th September 1889. The
Seim is a Khasi, and his State is situated in the Khasi and Jaintia
Hills. Its
population is about 555, chiefly Khasis and Christians.

Residence. Bhawal, Khasi and Jaintia Hills, Assam.

BHAWANI GHULAM PAL (of Mahuli), Rdjd.

Born 1844. The title is hereditary, the Raja being a Surajbans
Rajput,
descended from the family of Alakdeo and Tilakdeo, who killed Kaulbil
the
Rajbhar about the year 1580, and seized his domains situated in the
Pargana
of Mahuli, Basti district. Subsequently the family obtained the title
of Pal
from the Emperor of Delhi. The Raja has a son named Lai Narendra
Bahadur Pal.

Residence. Mahson, Basti, North-Western Provinces.

BHAWANI PRIYA BARNANI (of Gauripur), Rani.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1890.
Residence. Godlpdra, Assam.

BHIKAM NARAYAN SINGH (of Deo), Rdjd Bahadur.

See Deo.

BHIKAN KHAN, Khdn Bahadur.

Born 1 22 1, Fasli era. The title is personal, and was conferred on
ist
January 1877, for eminent services during the famine of 1873-74. Has
a
son, named Golam Dastgir Khan.

Residence. Muzaffarpur, Bengal.

BHIKHAJI AMUT CHAUBB, Rao Saheb.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist June 1888 for eminent
services in the Medical Department
Residence. Baroda, Bombay.

BHIMACHARYA BIN RAMBHAT LALKIKAR,

Mahdmahopddhydya.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 2nd January 1888, for
eminent scholarship and oriental learning. It entitles him to take
rank in
Darbar immediately after titular Rajas.

Residence. B ombay .

BHINGA, Rdjd of. See Udai Partab Singh.

BHOJAKHERI, RAO BHAWANI SINGH, Rao of.

A Ruling Chief.

The Rao is descended from a Rajput (Hindu) family, and was born
about the year 1858 \ succeeded to the gadi on the 9th December 1879.
The population of his State is about 250, chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Bhojakheri, Western MaTwa", Central India.

BHOLA RAM, Rai Saheb.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 2oth May 1890.
Residence.

BHOLANATH BISWAS, Rai Bahddur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877.
Residence. Calcutta, Bengal.

BHOPAL, HER HIGHNESS NAWAB SHAH JAHAN

BEGUM, G.C.S.L, O.I., Begum of.

A Ruling Princess.

Her Highness the Nawab Shah Jahan Begum is the seventh in lineal
descent from the famous Dost Muhammad Khan, founder of the Bhopal

dynasty; was born 3rd July 1838, and
succeeded to the gadi on the 1 6th November
1868. Dost Muhammad was an Afghan
officer in the service of Aurangzeb, who took
advantage of the weakness of the Mughals
after the death of that Emperor to establish
his independent authority in Bhopal and the
neighbouring districts. The State of Bhopal
has usually been on the friendliest terms
with the British authorities. In 1778, on
the occasion of General Goddard's march
across India; in 1809, at the time of General
Close's expedition ; and again in 1817, at the
commencement of the Pindari war, Bhopal
did good service to the British Power. An
interesting feature in Bhopal history has been
the fact that the Princesses of the ruling family have verp
frequently
taken the most prominent part in the administration of the State.
Kudsia Begum was succeeded in 1837 by her son-in-law, the Nawab
Jahangir Muhammad; and the latter, on his death in 1844, was
succeeded
by his widow, Her late Highness Sikandar Begum, mother of the ruling
Princess, who was succeeded by the latter in 1868. The first husband
of Her Highness the Nawab Shah Jahan Begum died in 1867, leaving one
daughter, the Nawab Sultan Jahan Begum ; the latter has been
acknowledged
as Her Highness's heir-apparent. Her Highness was created in 1872, in
recognition of her high administrative qualities, a Grand Commander of
the
Most Exalted Order of the Star of India; and has subsequently been
appointed by Her Most Gracious Majesty the Empress to the Order of
the
Crown of India. In 1871 she contracted a second marriage with the
Maulavi Muhammad Sadik Husain, Nawab Consort, a descendant of a noble
family of Bokhara. The heir-apparent, the Nawab Sultan Jahan Begum,
was
married in 1874 to Ahmad Ali Khan, a member of the Afghan clan, the
Mirazai Khel, from which the Bhopal family is descended.

The area of the State is 6872 square miles ; its population is nearly
a
million, chiefly Hindus, but including over 80,000 Muhammadans, 6000
Jains, and about 120,000 belonging to aboriginal tribes. Her Highness
the
Nawab Begum maintains a military force of 803 cavalry, 2030 infantry,
and
69 guns; and is entitled to a salute of 19 guns, with 2 guns more
within
the limits of the Bhopal territory.

Arms. Vert, a tower or within twelve musk blossoms proper in bordure.
Crest. A sheaf of arrows charged with a lily argent. Supporters.
Mahsir
(fish), proper. Motto. Nasr Minullah.

Residence. Bhopal, Central India.

BHOPAL SINGH (of Urni Piparia), Thakur.

Born 1827. The title is hereditary, having been originally derived
from
the Gond Rajas of Mandla. Is descended from a Rajput family of the
Kshatriya tribe, clan Chandra -Bansi-Tomar (or Tomar of the Lunar
race).
This family claims to be descended from Raja Anang Pal, who reigned
at
Delhi in 1193 A.D. After the subversion of the Tomar dynasty, the
family
is said to have migrated to the Gwalior and Jhansi territories, where
some of
its branches remain. Two brothers of this family, Bisram Singh and
Narwar
Singh, were called in by the Gond Raja of Mandla, and provided with
military
appointments. They captured the fort of Ajaigarh and subdued the
country
round Mandla and Kurai ; and were rewarded with the tdluka Sainkhera.
In 1842 the Thakur Bhopal Singh, with his father and brother, captured
a
rebel, and were rewarded by Government with the village of Pat Ras.
Rendered good service in the time of the Mutiny, and was rewarded
with
a money grant and a parwdna. In 1867 the Thakur was made an Honorary
Magistrate.

Residence. Piparia, Narsinghpur, Central Provinces.

BHOR, SANKAR RAO CHIMNAJI, Pant Sachiv of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1854. Succeeded to the gadi i2th February 1871. Is a Brahman
(Hindu) ; the Pant Sachiv was one of the eight hereditary Ministers of
the
old Mahratta* Empire. The present Pant Sachiv is the natural heir of
Chimnaji Pandit, the late Pant Sachiv ; who was adopted by
Raghunathrao
on payment of nazars to the Raja of Satara and to the British
Government.
The area of the State is 1491 square miles, and its population
145,876,
chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Bhor, Poona, Bombay.

BHOTE KHAN LALKHAN, Khan Saheb.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist June 1888.
Residence. KMmgaon, Berar.

BHUBAN MOHAN, Kumar.

The title is personal, and was conferred i8th July 1861. The Kumar is
the son and successor of the late Raja Haris Chandra, who was the
Chief of
the Chakma clan in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, and who rendered good
service in the Lushai Expedition of 1871-72, by supplying coolies,
boats, etc.

Residence. Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bengal.

BHUGANGA BHUSAN RAI, Rdjd Rai.

This is one of the titles that appear never to have been formally
recog-
nised by Government. It was conferred by the Emperor of Delhi for
approved service, the earliest Rajas being Raja Pratapaditya Rai and
Raid
Basanta Kumar Rai.

Residence. Khulna, Bengal.

BHUP INDRA BAHADUR SINGH (of Kantit), Rdjd.
See Kantit.

BHUP INDRA BIKRAMA SINGH (of Piyagpur), Rdjd.
See Piyagpur.

Listed Alphabetically. More to follow...

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BHUP SINGH, Rao.

Born 1851. The title is hereditary. Is descended from Dalip Singh,
Bais Thakur; who, 300 years ago, came at the head of his tribe, and
took possession of the Pargana of Kot Salbahan. Dalip Singh had two
sons, Rao Singh and Karam Singh ; and the descendants of Rao Singh,
one
of whom was Baldeo Singh, father of Bhup Singh, have always borne the
title of Rao. Rao Baldeo Singh did excellent service in the time of
the
Mutiny, and received a commendatory parwdna in reward. He also
received a Certificate of Honour at the Imperial Assemblage of Delhi
in
1877; and was appointed an Honorary Magistrate.

Residence. Bhanpur, Budaon, North- Western Provinces.

BHUP SINGH, BAGGA (of Dabanwala), Sarddr.

Born 1836. The title is hereditary. Belongs to the Bagga (Jat)
family,
formerly of great wealth and power in the Gurdaspur district,
Descended
from Sardar Amar Singh, who overran the greater part of the district.
His
son and successor, Sardar Bhag Singh, survived his father only three
years ;
and on his death his cousin Budh Singh took possession of the estates,
to
the exclusion of Bhag Singh's son, Hari Singh. But Budh Singh was
deprived of his possessions by the Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
Subsequently
the Lahore Darbar assigned a jdgir to Hari Singh, who was the father
of the
present Sardar.

Residence. Gurddspur, Punjab.

BHUPBNDRA NARAYAN RAI (of Madhavapassa), Rdjd.

This is one of the titles that appear not to have been formally
recognised
by Government. The family at one time possessed three farmdns of the
time of the Emperor Muhammad Shah, bearing the seal of the Nawab
Murshid Kuli Khan, confirming Udai Narayan Rai in the Zaminddri of
Chandradip, Bakarganj.

Residence. Madhavapassa, Bdkarganj, Bengal.

BHUPBNDRADEB RAI, Rdjd Rai and Mahdsai.

This is a title that appears not to have been formally recognised by
Government. The family claims to have received it from the Emperor
Aurangzeb in the year 1090 Hijrah ; and states that the original sanad
was
in their possession up to the time of the Imperial Assemblage at
Delhi,
in 1877.

Residence. Bansberia", Hooghly, Bengal.

BHUTAN, HIS HIGHNESS SANGAY DORJI, Deb Rdjd of.

A Ruling Chief.

His Highness the Deb Raja is a Buddhist by religion, and a Thibetan
by race. He succeeded to the gadi on the 23rd August 1885. The area
of
the State is about 20,000 square miles; its population is estimated
at
200,000, chiefly Buddhists.

Residence. Bhutan.

BHUTNATH DE, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist June 1888.
Residence. Raipur, Central Provinces.

BHUVAN MOHAN VIDYARATNA, Mahdmahopddhydya.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty the
Empress. It entitles him to take rank in Darbar immediately after
titular
Rajas, and was given for eminent oriental learning, especially in
Sanskrit.
Is a professor in the Nadiya tols, the ancient Sanskrit University of
Bengal.

Residence. Nadiy, Bengal.

BHYSONDA. See Bhaisaunda.

BICHHROD I., THAKUR RATAN SINGH, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

The Thakur is descended from a Rajput (Hindu) family ; was born
about the year 1860, and succeeded to the gadi on iyth April 1874.
The
population of his State is about 366, chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Bichhrod, Western Malwa, Central India.

BICHHROD II., THAKUR MADHO SINGH, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

The Thakur is descended from a Rajput (Hindu) family ; was born about
the year 1847, an d succeeded to the gadi in 1878.
Residence. Bichhrod, Western Malwa", Central India.

BIHARI LAL KHAZANCHI, Rao Saheb.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist June 1888.
Jh.^ Residence. Jabalpur, Central Provinces.

BIHAT, RAO MAHUM SINGH, Jdgirddr of.
A Ruling Chief.

The Rao is descended from an ancient Bundela Rajput (Hindu) family, a
collateral branch of that which rules at Orchha. He was born on i6th
November 1858, and succeeded to the gadi on the 9th April 1872. Arjun
Pal, who ruled at Mahoni, was the common ancestor of the Orchha and
Bihat
families his third son, Dya Pal, settling at Etaura, and subsequent
genera-
tions occupying Gurha in Bihat State, and finally Bihat itself.
Aperbal Singh,
Chief of Bihat, obtained a sanad from the British Government in 1807.
The area of the State is about 13 square miles; its population 4704,
chiefly
Hindus. The Rao maintains a military force of 5 cavalry, 75 infantry,
and
i gun.

Residence. Bihat, Bundelkhand, Central India.

BIHORA, THAKUR SARDARBAWA, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1854. Area of State is rather under i square mile; its popula-
tion is chiefly Bhil (aboriginal). The Thakur belongs to a Rajput
(Muham-
madan) family.

Residence. Bihora, Rewd Kdntha, Bombay.

BIJA, THAKUR UDB CHAND, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1829. Succeeded to the gadi 1841. Belongs to a Rajput family
(Hindu), whose founder, Garab Chand, came from Ujjain in early times
and
conquered this territory. It was overrun by the Gurkhas between 1803
and
1815 ; but when they were expelled by the British in the latter year,
the
Thakur was confirmed in possession by a sanad, on conditions of
feudal
service. The State (which is one of the Simla Hill States) has an area
of
4 square miles, and a population of 1158, chiefly Hindus. The Thakur
maintains a military force of 10 men.

Residence. Bija, Punjab.

BIJAI BAHADUR (of Chichli), Rdjd.

Born 1849. Succeeded his father, Raja Nizam Singh, in 1871. The
title is hereditary ; and was originally conferred by the Gond Raja of
Mandla,
dating so far back, it is said, as 921 A.D. The sanad has been
destroyed by
age. In 1808 a flag, a, staff, a belt, and a drum were bestowed on
Raja
Sangram Shah by the late Nawab Sidak Ali, Subahdar of the Nagpur
Raja,
for the capture of a famous rebel named Mir Khan. The family were
settled
at Fatehpur in Hoshangabad until 1227; when Pahar Singh, the younger
son of Raja Bariya Singh of Fatehpur, came to Chichli and Sangal. The
present Raja's father, Raja Nizam Singh, rendered good service to
Govern-

ment in the time of the Mutiny in 1857; and received, in
consideration
thereof, a sanad si loyalty, dated igth September 1859, together with
a sword
of honour and a money grant. He was also made an Honorary Magistrate.
The Raja Bijai Bahadur has a son whose name is Lai Saheb. The family
banner is a yellow flag or pitambar, with chauri and staff ; the motto
on the
Raja's seal is Sado Sahai Narsingh, Nizam Singh Sut Bijai Bahadur
Singh,
which is " May the god Narsingh always help Bijai Bahadur Singh, son
of
Nizam Singh."

Residence. Narsinghpur, Central Provinces.

BIJAI CHAND MAHTAB, Mahdrdj- Kumar. See Burdwan.

BIJAI SINGH MBHTA, Rai Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1878.
Residence. Jodhpur, Rajputdna.

BIJAWAR, HIS HIGHNESS MAHARAJA SAWAI BHAN

PARTAB SINGH BAHADUR, Maharaja of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 24th December 1842. Succeeded to the gadi 23rd November
1847. His Highness the Chief of Bijawar, like those of Charkhari and
Ajaigarh, is descended from Jagat Raj, the second son of the Maharaja
Chhatarsal ; and the Bijawar territory is a portion of that which was
ruled by
his great ancestor. The second son of Jagat Raj was Birsinghdeo of
Bijawar ;
and the son of the latter, named Kesri Singh, obtained a sanad from
the
British Government in 1811. The great-grandson of the last-named is
the
present Maharaja Bahadur. The area of the State is about 974 square
miles ;
its population 113,285, chiefly Hindus, but with 2405 Muhammadans and
2506 Jains. His Highness maintains a military force of 100 cavalry,
1000
infantry, and 1 3 guns ; and is entitled to a salute of 1 1 guns. The
family
is Bundela Rajput (Hindu) ; its motto is Agni pratdp Vishwesha
(Hindi,
meaning " As fire resplendent, the Lord of the World ") ; and its
banner was
unfurled at the Delhi Imperial Assemblage in 1877.

Residence. Bijdwar, Bundelkhand, Central India.

BUNA, DIWAN MAKUND SINGH, Jdgirddr of.
A Ruling Chief.

Is a member of the Hashtbhaiya family (see Dhurwai), who are Bundela
Rajputs, the State being an offshoot of that of Orchha (q.v.) Born
January
1838 succeeded to the gadi in 1850. Diwan Sawant Singh of Bijna was
the second son of Diwan Rai Singh, the common ancestor of the
Hashtbhaiya.
Sawant Singh's grandson, Surjun Singh, obtained a sanad from the
British
Government in 1823 ; and his grandson is the present Chief. The area
of
the State is 27 square miles; its population 2084, chiefly Hindus.
The
Chief maintains a military force of 4 cavalry, 30 infantry, and 2
guns.

Residence. Bijna, Bundelkhand, Central India.

BUNT, Rani of.

Is the widow of the late Raja Kumud Narayan Bhup of Bijni, and is in
possession of the Bijni estates. The Bijni family is descended from a
younger son of one of the Rajas of Kuch Behar (q.v.)

Residence. Bijni, Godlpdra, Assam.

BIKANIR, HIS HIGHNESS MAHARAJA RAJ RAJBSHWAR
SIROMAN SRI GANGA SINGH BAHADUR, Maharaja of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1879. Succeeded to the gadi iQth August 1887. Is a Rahtor
Rajput, descended from Bika Singh, the founder of Bikanir, who was
the
sixth son of Rao Jodha, Chief of Jodhpur (q.v.}, claiming descent
from
Umalrai, fifty-sixth in descent from Rama. The title was confirmed to
the
family, in the person of the Maharaja Guj Singh, by the Emperor Ahmad
Shah of Delhi in 1752 A.D. The Bikanir flag is yellow and red the
former
representing Lakshmindrdyan, and the latter Devi. The area of the
State is
22,340 square miles; its population 509,021, chiefly Hindus, but with
over
50,000 Muhammadans and 21,000 Jains. His Highness (who is still a
minor) maintains a military force of 400 cavalry, 564 infantry, and 91
guns.
He is entitled to a salute of 1 7 guns.

Residence. Bikanir, Rajputdna.

BILASPUR, Rdjd of. See Kahlur.

BILAUDA, THAKUR SAMRAT SINGH, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born about 1872 ; succeeded to the gadi as a minor in 1878. Is
descended from a Rajput (Hindu) family. The population of the State
is
about 276, chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Bilauda, Western Mdlwa", Central India.

BILBARI, MHOSHA walad VAGHU, Chief of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born about 1860. Is descended from a Puar family. The State is one
of the numerous Dang States in Khandesh ; its area is under 2 square
miles,
and its population about 1418, chiefly Bhils (aborigines).

Residence. Bilbari, KMndesh, Bombay.

BILOD, The Khan of.
A Ruling Chief.

This State is in Western Malwa, Central India, and the succession to
the
gadi was undecided at the time when information was obtained in 1891.
The population is about 600, partly Hindus, partly Muhammadan ; the
ruling
family is Muhammadan.

Residence. Bilod, Central India.

BIPIN BIHARI DATT, Rai Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 6th July 1888.
Residence. Hugli, Bengal.

BIPIN KRISHNA BASU (BOSS), Rai Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist June 1888.
Residence. Ndgpur, Central Provinces.

BIR SHAMSHBR JANG, K.C.I.E., Maharaja Sir.
Prime Minister of Nepal.

His Excellency the Prime Minister of Nepal was, on 25th May 1892,
created a Knight Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of
India.

Residence. Khatmandu, Nepal

BIR SINGH DEO (of Kuarpur), Thdkur.

Born 1816. The title is hereditary, and was originally conferred on
an
ancestor of the present Thakur by one of the Gond Rajas of Mandla. Is
uncle of Thakur Kirat Singh, and a sharer in the tdluka of Kuarpur.
His
sons are (i) Kunwar Himalchal Singh, (2) Kunwar Surat Singh, (3) Kun-
war Himat Singh.

Residence. Jabalpur, Central Provinces.

BIRA SINGHA NARAYAN RAI (of Madhavapassa), Raja.

This is one of the titles that appear not to have been formally
recognised
by Government. The family at one time possessed three farmdns of the
time of the Emperor Muhammad Shah, bearing the seal of the Nawab
Murshid Kuli Khan, confirming Udai Narayan Rai in the Zaminddri of
Chandradip, Bakarganj.

Residence. Madhavapassa, Bakarganj, Bengal.

BIRESHWAR DATT, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887.
Residence. Jabalpur, Central Provinces.

BISHAN CHAND DUDHURIA, Rai Bahadur.

Born loth June 1852. The title is personal, and was conferred on 2nd
January 1888 for his liberal philanthropy and public services. Owns
lands in
the districts of Maimansingh, Murshidabad, Birbhum, Burdwan,
Bhagalpur,
Faridpur, and Rajshahi, and has always contributed to charitable and
other
funds, opening annachatras (or poor-houses) in times of famine, etc.
His
son is named Bijai Singh Dudhuria, born November 1879. His brother is
Rai Budh Singh Dudhuria Bahadur (q.v.)

Residence. Azimganj, Murshidabad, Bengal.

BISHAN DATT (of Barwara), Thdkur.

Born 1831. The title is hereditary. The tdluka was given to the
family
of Anrudh Singh Baldeo Sahai by Raja Nizam Shah of Mandla about 1743.
Residence. Barwara, Jabalpur, Central Provinces.

BISHAN SABUP, MUNSHI, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th May 1889.
Residence. Kekri, Ajmir.

BISHAN SINGH (of Bheri), Sarddr.

The title is hereditary. The Sardar belongs to a Jat family,
descended
from Sardar Mahtab Singh, Miran Kotia, a Sikh Chief famous for his
prowess,
who lived in 1761 A.D. His son, Sardar Rai Singh, acquired by
conquest
some villages in the Ambala district more than a century ago.

Residence. Bheri, Ludhidna, Punjab.

BISHAN SINGH (of Nabha), Diwdn, C.I.E.

The Diwan was created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the
Indian Empire on ist January 1890, for distinguished services to the
State
of Nabha in the Punjab.

Residence. Ndbha, Punjab.

BISHEN LAL SINGH (of Kendi), Rdjd.

This is one of the titles that have not been formally recognised by
Govern-
ment. The family is descended from Raja Nabir Singh, who was Zaminddr
of Kendi, in the Hazaribagh district, at the commencement of the i8th
century. The Raja has a son, named Iswar Prasad Singh, who bears the
courtesy title of Tikait.

Residence. Hazdribagh, Bengal.

BISHESHWAR BAKHSH SINGH, Ral
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Jaunpur, North-Western Provinces.

BISHESHWAR BAKHSH SINGH, Rai.

The title is hereditary.
Residence. Partdbgarh, Oudh.

BISHNATH SINGH (of Katra Balkhera), Thdkur,

The title is hereditary, having been originally conferred by Raja
Nizam
Shah, Gond Raja of Mandla.

Residence. Jabalpur, Central Provinces.

BISHNU CHANDRA DATTA, Rai Bahadur.

Has rendered good service as Deputy Postmaster - General, Eastern
Bengal, and received the title as a personal distinction on 25th May
1892.

Residence. Dacca, Bengal.

BISHUN NARAYAN (of Sidli), Rdjd.

The title is hereditary, and was conferred on i4th August 1868. Is
the
son of the late Raja Gauri Narayan, descended from a family said to
be
descended from the ancestors of the Maharaja of Kuch Behar. The
founder
received a jdgir from the Raja of Kuch Behar ; his descendants
subsequently
became subjects of the Mughal Empire, and in 1765 came under British
rule.
They were under Bhutiya control for some time, and reverted to British
control
after the Bhutan war in 1865.

Residence. Godlpdra, Assam.

BISHUNATH SINGH, Rao.

Born 1 5th September 1870; succeeded his father on ist October 1888.
The title is hereditary, and is said to have been conferred originally
on
Raghubar Singh, Thakur, father of Rao Bishunath Singh, by Raja Gyan
Chand.

Residence. Cawnpur, North- Western Provinces.

BOBBILI, Rdjd of.
See Venkatasveta Chala-pathi Ranga Rao, Ravu, Rdjd.

BOD, RAJA JOGINDRA DEO, Rdjd of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born about 1857 ; succeeded to the gadi on 5th October 1879. Belongs
to a Kshatriya (Hindu) family, founded by Ganda Mardan Deo, seventy
generations back. The title of Raja has been enjoyed since the time of
the
Mahratta rule; it was formally recognised by the British Government
on
2ist May 1874, in the lifetime of the late Raja Pitambar Deo, father
of the
present Raja. The eldest son of the ruling Raja is called the
Jubaraj ;
the younger sons Babus. It is said that the Rajas of Bod have always
been famous for their loyalty to the Emperors of India who were in
power
from time to time. Formerly there was a main route through this State
to
the Central and Western Provinces, and whenever any persons duly
credited
by the Muhammadan or Mahratta rulers passed over it the Rajas of Bod
used to render them every assistance, and thus earned their favour.
When
Raja Pratap Deb was the ruler, certain officers of the Muhammadan
Emperor
were passing through this State with troops en route to Puri. Some of
the
troops having caught fever it was necessary for them to halt there for
about
a month, during which time the Raja treated them very hospitably, and
gained their good opinion. On their reporting the facts to the
Emperor, the
title of " Swasti Sri Derlakhya Dumbadhipati Jharkhund Mandaleswar "
was
conferred upon the then Raja. This title continued till the time of
Raja
Banamali Deb, when certain Mahratta officers went to Sonpur to
realise
peshkash) and committed much violence. The people of Sonpur formed a
conspiracy to kill the officers, who fled to Bod for refuge. The
Sonpur
people continued their pursuit up to Bod, where the Raja took them
prisoners and sent them to Nagpur. This conduct of the Chief very
much
pleased the Mahratta ruler, who conferred the title of " Swasti Sri
Prabala-
pratapaditya Parutapa Danasampanna Jharkhand Badshah" on the Raja.
This title was subsequently abbreviated to " Jharkhand Paichha " ; and
in
consideration of the above, the Raja was once for all exempted from
paying
peshkash to the Mughal and Mahratta rulers. The area of the State
(which
is one of those known as the Orissa Tributary Mahals) is about 2064
square
miles; its population 130,103, chiefly Hindus, but over 37,000
belonging to
aboriginal tribes. The Raja maintains a military force of 592 infantry
and
2 guns.

Residence. Bod, Orissa.

BOLANDBA, THAKUR SALAMSINGHJI, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born about 1865. Is descended from a Rajput (Hindu) family. The
area of the State is about 14 square miles; its population about 873,
chiefly
Hindus.

Residence. Bolandra, Ma"hi Kdntha, Bombay.

BOMANJI SOHRABJI, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877, on the
occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress
of
India.

Residence. Poona, Bombay.

BONAI, RAJA INDAR DEO BAHADUR, Rdjd of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born about 1836; succeeded to the gadi on the i2th September 1876.
Rendered good service to the Government during the Keonjhar
disturbances
in 1867-68. Is descended from a Kshatriya (Hindu) family, who call
them-
selves Kodam Bangsa, because the progenitor of the race was born under
a
kodam tree. The infant, it is said, was abandoned, and was in danger
of falling
into the hands of an enemy, when a peacock swallowed it, and kept it
in his
craw until the danger was over ; and in gratitude the family adopted
the
peacock as its crest. The title of Tikait is the courtesy title of the
heir-
apparent ; that of Potait is borne by the second son, that of Ldl by
the third
son, and Bdbu by the younger sons, if any. The Raja Bahadur has the
following sons Tikait Nilambar Deo, Potait Bishambar Deo, Lai Hari
Krishna Deo. The area of the State (which is one of the Chota Nagpur
Tributary Mahals) is about 1297 square miles ; its population 24,026,
chiefly
Hindus.

Residence. Bonai, Chota Ndgpur, Bengal.

BORKHBRA, THAKUR AMAR SINGH, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

The Thakur is descended from a Rajput (Hindu) family.
Residence. Borkhera, Indore, Central India.

BORKHERA (WESTERN MALWA), THAKUR BHAIRON

SINGH, Thdkur oj.

A Ruling Chief.

Born about the year 1858 ; succeeded to the gadt in 1873. The popula-
tion of the State is about 1000, partly Hindus, partly Muhammadans.
Residence. Borkhera, Western Malwa", Central India.

BRAHMA NARAYAN SINGH, Thdkur.

This is one of the titles that appear not to have been officially
recognised.
The Thakur's sons all bear the courtesy title of Bdbu.
Residence. Manbhum, Bengal.

BRAJA GOPAL SINGH, Rdjd.

This is one of the titles that have never been formally recognised by
Government. The Raja's elder son is styled Tikait, his name is Madan
Mohan Singh ; and the younger, whose name is Sarat Chandra Singh, has
the title of Hikim.

Residence. Mdnbhum, Bengal.

BRAJA KISHOR SINGH, Rdjd.

This is one of the titles that appear never to have been officially
recog-
nised by Government. The family claims to be of Rajput descent. The
Raja's eldest son, named Ramakanai Singh, bears the courtesy title of
Jubardj ; the second, named Syamsundar Singh, bears that of Hikim ;
the
third is styled Kumdr. In this family no name is given to a son till
he
attains the age of twelve years. The younger sons of the Raja, below
the
third, are styled Bdbu, except the fourth, who sometimes has the
courtesy
title of Bara Thdkur.

Residence. Bdrabhum, Mdnbhum, Bengal.

BRAMHA NAND MAL, Paik-Rai.

This is one of the titles that appear not to have been formally
recognised
by Government. It was originally conferred by one of the old Rajas of
Kujung.

Residence. Cuttack, Orissa.

BRIJ BHUKAN LAL, Rai Bahadur.

Born 1820. The title is personal; and was conferred on 24th May
1882, the Rai Bahadur having held many important public offices,
having
retired on pension in 1872, and having been granted a medal by
Govern-
ment at the Imperial Assemblage of Delhi on ist January 1877, on the
occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress
of
India. Is an Honorary Magistrate of Lucknow ; one of the founders of
the
Jubilee High School, Lucknow ; President of the Kayastha Sadar Sabha
of
India, 1888 ; and Secretary to the Trustees of the Husainabad
Endowment.
Has borne for many years a high character for loyalty and
benevolence.
His son is named Ananda Prasad, born 1846; his grandson, Bansi Dhar,
born 1874; his great-grandson, Manohar Ldl, born 1891.

Residence. Lucknow, Oudh.

BRIJ LAL GHOSH, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 8th October 1879.
Residence. Lahore, Punjab.

BRIJ RAJ SINGH (of Bhaddu), Rdjd.

The title is hereditary. The family is Rajput, and claims descent
from
the Pandus, being of the same stock as the families of Kulu, Bisauli,
and
Bahadurwah. Its founder, Raja Jai Singh, was a tributary of the
Kanahya
Sardar, Jaimal Singh. His grandson, Raja Umaid Singh, on the grant of
the
hill territories by the British Government to the Maharaja Ghulab
Singh of
Kashmir and Jammu, was dispossessed of his territories, but received
a
pension from the British Government from the territories ceded by the
Maha-
raja to meet this and similar claims. He settled in Nurpur, Kangra
district.

Residence. Ka"ngra, Punjab.

BUDDHA KHAN, Khan.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877, on the
occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress
of
India.

Residence. Hathan, Merwara.

BUDH SINGH DUDHURIA, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 2nd January 1888. Is a
brother of the Rai Bishan Chand Dudhuria Bahadur (q.v.)
Residence. Murshidabad, Bengal.

BUDHO KHAN walad MUHAMMAD ALI KHAN, Mir.
The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the Mirs
or
Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Hyderabad, Sind.

BULAKA SINGH, Sardar.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 2nd January 1888.
Residence. Lahore, Punjab.

BUN BBHARI KAPUR (of Burdwan), Rdjd.

Title of Raja conferred, as a personal distinction, 2nd January 1893.
Born nth November 1853 ; adopted by the third brother of the late
Maharaja Adhiraj Mahtab Chand Bahadur of Burdwan on 3 ist August
1856. Appointed Diwan-i-Rdj of Burdwan in 1877, and Vice-President
of the Burdwan Raj touncil in 1879. At the Imperial Assemblage
of Delhi on ist January 1877, on the occasion of the Proclama-
tion of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress of India, received a
Certificate of Honour, was appointed Honorary Magistrate, and Member
of the District Board of Burdwan; and on 23rd January 1885 a Member
of the Bengal Legislative Council. Appointed Joint Manager, Burdwan
Raj estate, 1885, and sole Manager in 1891 ; and has rendered
admirable
services to the Burdwan Raj and to the country for many years past. He
is
the natural father of the present Maharaj-Kumar of Burdwan (who is
still a
minor) ; a brother-in-law of the late Maharaja Aftab Chand Bahadur,
and a
nephew of His Highness the late Maharaja Mahtab Chand Bahadur of
Burdwan.

Crest. A horse's head, erased, proper.

Residence. The Bonabas, Burdwan.

BUNDI, HIS HIGHNESS MAHARAO RAJA RAGHUBIR
SINGH BAHADUR, Mahdrao Rdjd of.

Born about 1868; succeeded to the gadi 28th March 1889. Is a
Chauhan (Kara) Rajput (Hindu), descended from Rao Deo Singh, son of
Rao Bakht Singh Deoji, who founded the State of Bundi about the year
1242 A.D. The flag of the family is coloured yellow, with the motto
Sri
Rangesh Bhagt Bundesh Ram Singhe^ meaning " Raja Ram Singh, ruler
of Bundi, is a believer in Raghunathji." The State is situated in that
part
of Rajputana known as the Haraoti and Tonk Agency. Its area is 2300
square miles; its population about 254,701, chiefly Hindus, but with
9477
Muhammadans and 3101 Jains. His Highness maintains a military force
of 446 cavalry, 1835 infantry, and 144 guns; and is entitled to a
salute of
17 guns.

Residence. Bundi, Rajputana.

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BUR SINGH (of Mukerian), Sardar, Sarddr Bahadur.

The first title is hereditary, the second is personal, and was
conferred on
ist June 1888. The Sardar and his brothers were important Sardars
during
the reign of the Mahajara Sher Singh of Lahore. When Sher Singh was
assassinated, Sardar Budh Singh (brother of Sardar Bur Singh) was
killed on
the spot, and his cousin severely wounded. Sardar Bur Singh was
deputed
to Fatehgarh to remain in attendance on Shdhzada Shahdeo Singh, son
of
Maharaja Sher Singh, who accompanied the Maharaja Dalip Singh to that
place.

Residence. Mukerian, HoshiaVpur, Punjab.

BURDWAN, MAHARAJ-KUMAR BIJAI CHAND MAHTAB,

Mahdrdj-Kumdr of.

Born 1 9th October 1881. Succeeded the late Maharaja Aftab Chan d
Mahtab Bahadur, Maharaja of Burdwan. Belongs to a Kapur Kshatriya

family of Kotli in Lahore, Punjab,
whence Abu Rai, the founder of
the Burdwan Raj family, migrated
to Bengal. Was adopted by the
late Maharaja, and is the son of
Raja Bun Behari Kapur of Burd-
wan (q.v.\ a scion of the same
family, who is also the guardian
and manager of the large estates
of the young Maharaj - Kumar.
Abu Rai Kapur settled in district
Burdwan; and in 1657 A.D. was
appointed Chaudhri and Kotwal
of Rekabi Bazar, etc., under the
Fauzdar of Chakld Burdwan. He
was succeeded by Babu Rai, who owned Pargand Burdwan and three
other estates, and also succeeded his father as Chaudhri. Then
followed in
succession his son Gyaneshyam Rai, and his grandson Krishna Rama
Rai ;
the latter received a far man from the Emperor Aurangzeb, dated 24th

Rabiwal Akhir, in the thirty-eighth year of his reign (1695 A -D.),
confirming
him as Zamindar and Chaudhri of Burdwan. Succeeded by his son Jagat
Rama Rai, who received a similar farmdn from the Emperor Aurangzeb,
dated 5th Jamadiwal Awol, in the forty-third year of his reign (1700
A.D.) ;
and again his son, Kirti Chandra Rai, who succeeded, received a
similar
farmdn from the same Emperor, dated 2oth Sawab, in the forty-eighth
year
of his reign (1705 A.D.), mentioning him as Zamindar and Chaudhri of
forty-nine Mahals in Pargand Burdwan. Kirti Chandra Rai received a
second farmdn from the Emperor Muhammad Shah, adding some Mahals^
in the year 1736 A.D. He was succeeded by his son Chitra Sen Rai;
who, in the twenty-first year of the reign of the Emperor Muhammad
Shah (1740 A.D.), received a farmdn recognising him as Zamindar of
Chakld Burdwan, and giving him the title of Raja. He was succeeded by
his cousin, the nephew of Kirti Chandra, Raja Tilak Chandra Rai ; who
received a sanad from the Emperor Ahmad Shah, dated 7th Rajab, in the
seventh year of his reign (1753 A.D.), confirming him as Raja of
Burdwan,
etc. In 1765 he received another sanad from the Emperor Shah
Alam, granting an increase of the Zaminddri, and the additional title
of
Bahadur ; and about the same time the same Emperor wrote him a
friendly
letter, intimating his creation as Raja Bahadur, and also as a
Commander of
4000 infantry. To this, in the official farmdn that followed, was
added also
the command of 2000 cavalry; and lastly, in the ninth year of the
Emperor
Shah Alam (1768 A.D.), he received from the Commander-in-Chief, by
order
of the Emperor, a sanad conferring the title of Maharaja Adhiraj, and
making
him a Commander of 5000 infantry and 3000 cavalry, with authority for
guns, bands, nakara, etc. He was succeeded by his son, the Maharaja
Tej Chandra Rai, who, in 1771 A.D., received a similar sanad to the
last-
named. He was succeeded by his adopted son, Maharaja Mahtab Chand,
who, in 1833 A.D., received a farmdn from Lord William Bentinck,
Governor-General, confirming him in the title of Maharaja Adhiraj
Bahadur.
In 1868 he obtained for himself and his descendants the license of
Her
Majesty to bear the arms and supporters described below; and at the
Imperial Assemblage at Delhi on ist January 1877, on the occasion of
the
Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress of India, he was
granted, as a personal distinction, the right to receive a salute of
13 guns.
He managed his great estates with so much success that they became
some
of the most prosperous in Bengal ; and at the time of the Santal
Rebellion
in 1855, an d again during the troubles of the Mutiny, the Maharaja
did
everything in his power to strengthen the hands of the Government, by
placing elephants and bullock-carts at the disposal of the
authorities, and by
keeping open the communications in the neighbouring districts. On his
death in 1879 he was succeeded by his adopted son, the late Maharaja
Aftab Chand Mahtab, who, on attaining his majority in 1881, was
installed
at the Palace, Burdwan, in all his father's honours and possessions.
He
died prematurely in 1888, and was succeeded by his adopted son, the
present Maharaj-Kumar, who is still a minor. The family colour is
dark-
blue with scarlet facings. The arms are azure, an ancient Hindustani
shield
proper, between in chief a crescent argent and in base two swords in
saltire,
points downwards, also proper. The crest is an iron-gray horse's
head,
couped, around the neck a riband azure, and pendent therefrom an
escutcheon of the last, charged with a lotus-flower proper. The
supporters

are, on either side an iron-gray horse regardant, around the neck a
riband
gules, and pendent therefrom an escutcheon of the last, charged with a
lotus-
flower proper.

Residences. The Palace, Burdwan, Bengal ; Mahtab Manzil, and Dilaram,
and Dar-ul-Bahr (Dilkusha Gardens), Burdwan ; The Rajbdti, Chinsurah,
Bengal ;
The Rajbti, Kalna, Bengal ; The Aftab House, Alipur, Calcutta ; The
Rosebank,
Darjiling ; The Retreat, Kurseong, Bengal ; and other residences at
Bhdgalpur,
Benares, Cawnpur, and Agra.

BURHAN-UD-DIN-KHAN, FAKIR SAYYID (of Lahore),

Khan Bahadur.

The title-is personal, and was conferred on 2nd January 1888.
Residence. Bhopdl, Central India.

BYA GALE, MAUNG, Ahmtidan gaung Tazeik-ya Min.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1889. It
means
"Recipient of the Medal of Honour for Good Service," and is indicated
by the letters A.T.M. after the name.

Residence. Pegu, Burma.

BYRAMJBE DADABHOY, Khan Bahadur.
See Behramji Dadabhai, Khan Bahadur.

CALICUT, MAHARAJA SIR MANA VIKRAMA BAHADUR,

K. C.S.I., Zamorin of.

Born i Qth March 1820 ; succeeded to the gadi 26th March 1868. The
present Zamorin is believed to be the 1 1 9th in descent from the
founder of
the family, who derived his title from Cheraman Perumal, the last
Emperor
of Malabar. The tradition is that there were two youths of the Eradi
caste
from Pumthura, near Erode, who rendered Cheraman Perumal, the last
Emperor of Malabar, signal service in subduing the stronghold of an
eastern
invader, the Chola King of Choladesh. When Cheraman Perumal became a
Buddhist in 352 A.D., and retired from political life, dividing his
empire of
Malabar among his eighteen feudatories, it chanced that these two
youths were
absent on a pilgrimage to Benares, so they were overlooked in the
distribution
of territory. At the last moment they returned, and were presented by
the
Emperor with his Imperial sword, and a small piece of land called
Kokorikot
whence the modern Calicut Cheraman Perumal bidding them win what
more they wanted with the sword. Accordingly, when Vasco da Gama
arrived at Calicut in 1498, he found the descendant of one of these
youths,
the Zamorin of Calicut, ruling over the greater part of South Malabar.
From
that time the Zamorins were mainly engaged in wars with the Rajas of
Cochin
and their allies, the Portuguese. The family follows the well-known
Maru-
makkatayam law of inheritance, by which the succession is always to
the
offspring of its female members only ; among these the next eldest
male to the
Zamorin is the heir-apparent. In 1766 the then Zamorin, being
beleaguered
by Haidar Ali of Mysore, set fire to his palace, and voluntarily
perished in
the flames. Thenceforward the Zamorins were (with short intervals of
attempts at rebellion) the subjects of Haidar and Tippu, until the
Calicut
territory was ceded to the English by the treaty with Tippu in 1792.
The

present Zamorin was appointed a Fellow of the Madras University in
1882,
created a Maharaja Bahadur in 1878, and a Knight Commander of the
Most
Exalted Order of the Star of India on 25th May 1892. His heir-
apparent
under the Marumakkatayam law is Mana Vikrama Raja, born 1832, who
bears the courtesy title of " The Eralpad."

Residence. Calicut, Malabar District, Madras.

CAMBAY, HIS HIGHNESS NAWAB JAPAR ALI KHAN
SAHBB BAHADUR, Nawdb of.

A Ruling Chief.

Bora in the year 1848 ; succeeded to the gadi nth June 1880. Belongs
to a Mughal (Shiah Muhammadan) family, descended from Mirza Jafar
Nizam-ud-daula, who married the daughter of Momin Khan Dehlami, agent
for Surat and Cambay. The Nawab at the time of the Treaty of Bassein
in
1802 was Fateh AH Khan, who was succeeded by his brother Bandeh Ali
Khan, and the latter by his nephew, the Nawab Husain Yar Khan, father
of
the present Nawab. The full title of His Highness is Sardar Nawab
Najib-
ud-daula, Mumtaz-ul-Mulk, Munim Khan Bahadur, Dilawar Jang Dawe
Ekbalu, His Highness Jafar Ali Khan Saheb Bahadur, Nawab of Cambay.
His Highness married in 1876 the Bibi Gauhar Khanum Saheb, and in
1882
the Bibi Khurshid Jahan Begum. The area of the State is about 350
square
miles; its population about 86,000, chiefly Hindus, with about 12,000
Muhammadans. The Nawab maintains a military force of 36 cavalry, 496
infantry, and 1 2 guns, and is entitled to a salute of 1 1 guns.

Residence. Cambay, Kaira, Bombay.

CASHMERE, His Highness the Maharaja Bahadur of.
See Jammu and Kashmir.

CHADCHAT, Thdkur of. See Santalpur and Chadchat, Thdkur of.

CHAMBA, HIS HIGHNESS RAJA SHAM SINGH, Rdjd of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born in 1866 ; succeeded to the gadi as a minor in 1873. Belongs to a
Rajput (Hindu) family, descended from the Raja Sail, who in very early
times
came from Marwar to Chamba. In 1846 the State came into the possession
of
the British Government after the first Sikh war, and a part of it was
made
over to the Maharaja Golab Singh of Jammu and Kashmir. Subsequently,
however, by an arrangement made with the latter in 1847, Chamba came
again entirely under British control, and it was assigned to the then
Raja,
Raja Sri Singh, and his heirs. On his death in- 1870 he was succeeded
by
his brother, Raja Gopal Singh, who abdicated in 1873, an d was
succeeded
by the present Raja. In 1854 the sanitarium of Dalhousie was
surrendered
to the Government by the Raja of Chamba, in consideration of the
remission
of part of the yearly tribute, and in 1867 the cantonments of Bakloh
and
Balun. The area of the State, which is very mountainous, being
situated in
the Himalayas, on the frontiers of Kashmir, is about 3092 square
miles; its

population 115,773, chiefly Hindus, but including 6859 Muhammadans.
The Raja maintains a military force of 12 cavalry, 200 infantry, and 3
guns,
and is entitled to a salute of 1 1 guns.
Residence. Chamba, Punjab.

CHAND MAL, SETH, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877, on the
occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress
of
India.

Residence. Ajmir, Rajputana.

CHANDAR SHIKHAR (of Sissaindi), Rdjd.

Born 2 Qth October 1860; succeeded the Raja Kashi Prasad in 1873.
Belongs to a Tiwari Brahman family, on whom the title of Raja was
con-
ferred by King Amjad Ali Shah of Oudh, and it was recognised as
hereditary
by the British Government in 1877. Raja Kashi Prasad was consistently
loyal during the Mutiny, and gave great assistance to British
officers. He
was specially mentioned in Lord Canning's Proclamation of March 1858
as
one of the six loyal Oudh Talukdars, and was granted large estates as
a
reward.

Residence. Sissaindi, Lucknow, Oudh.

CHANDASINGH EANSINGH SHAHANI, Rao Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 20th May 1890.
Residence. Sind, Bombay.

CHANDRA KANTA TARKALANKAR, Mahdmahopddhydya.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty, in
recog-
nition of eminence in oriental learning. It entitles the holder to
take rank
in Darbar immediately after titular Rajas.

Residence. Mymensingh, Bengal.

CHANG BHAKAR, BHAYA BALBHADRA SINGH, Bhaya of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born about the year 1825 ; succeeded to the gadi ist December 1865.
Belongs to a Rajput (Hindu) family, that is a collateral branch of the
Korea
Chauhan Rajputs, descended from Jorawal Singh, a younger step-brother
of
Raja Garib Singh of Korea. The Bhaya's brother is named Lai Ran
Bahadur Singh. The State is one of those known as the Chota Nagpur
Tributary Mahals. Its area is about 906 square miles ; and its
population
about 13,466, chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Chang Bhakar, Chota Na~gpur, Bengal, India.

CHARKHARI, HIS HIGHNESS MAHARAJ-ADHIRAJ
SIPADAR-UL-MULK MULKHAN SINGH BAHADUR,

Maharaja of.

A Ruling Chief.

Bom January 1872 ; succeeded to the gadi loth July 1880. Belongs to
the famous Bundela Rajput family founded by Bir Singh in the 1 3th
century,
who first took the clan name of Bundela, and from whom are descended
a
very large number of celebrities in Central Indian history, including
the royal
families of Orchha, Panna, Dattia, Ajaigarh, Charkhari, Bijawar,
Sarila, Jigni,
Jaso, Lughasi. One of these descendants, the Maharaja Chhatarsal,
acquired
the sovereignty of Eastern and Northern Bundelkhand. Being hard
pressed
by the Mahrattas, he adopted the Peshwa as one of his sons, who thus
obtained one-third of his dominions, including Sagar, Kalpi, etc. His
eldest
son inherited Panna, while from the second son, Jagat Raj, descended
the
Chiefs of Ajaigarh, Charkhari, Bijawar, and Sarila. The son of Jagat
Raj
was Kirat Singh ; and the grandson of the latter, the Maharaja
Vikramaditya
of Charkhari, received a sanad from the British Government in 1 804.
His
grandson was the Maharaja Jai Singh, who attended the Imperial
Assemblage
at Delhi in January 1877, and in celebration of the Proclamation of
Her
Gracious Majesty as Empress of India received the additional title of
Sipadar-ul-Mulk. His son is the present Maharaja, who succeeded as a
minor in 1880, attained his majority in January 1892, and assumed the
Government of his State at a grand Darbar held at Charkhari on loth
November 1892. At this Darbar were present, besides the Maharaja and
the
young Raja of Sarila, all the principal jagirdars, thakurs, and
officials of the
State, numbering more than a hundred. The area of the State is 788
square
miles; its population about 143,000, chiefly Hindus, with 6000 Muham-
madans. The motto of the family is Singhasanesho ran Vijayi ("The
Master of the Throne is the Victorious in War "). The Maharaja
maintains
a military force of 188 cavalry, 1552 infantry, and 42 guns, and is
entitled
to a salute of 1 1 guns.

Residence, Charkhdri, Central India.

CHBNTSAL RAO, P., C.I.E.

Born 1832 ; Sarishtadar of the Madras Revenue Board, 1872; Fellow
of the Madras University, 1875; Superintendent of Stamps and
Stationery,
1882 ; Member of the Legislative Council of Fort St. George, 1887, and
of
the Governor-General's Council, 1892 ; cr. C.I.E. , 1887.

Residence. Madras.

CHEPPADIRA TBIMMIAH, Rat Bahddur.

Is the Subahdar of the Yedenalknad, Kurg, and received the title as a
per-
sonal distinction on 25th May 1892.

Residence. Mercara, Kurg.

CHBRRA, HAJAN MANIK, Seim of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born about 1833; succeeded to the gadi 24th May 1875. The Chief
and his people (said to number about 9000) are Khasis. This is one of
the
Khasi and Jaintia Hill States.

Residence. Cherra, Khasi Hills, Assam.

CHET SINGH (of Bhikra), Rao.

Born 1 5th April 1851. The title is hereditary, and has long been
recog-
nised. The family are Sengar Rajputs, descended from the Rajas of
Rura
in Etawah. The Rao has a son and heir, named Lala Tej Singh, born 8th
October 1866.

Residence. Bhikra, Etdwah, North- Western Provinces.

CHETAN SHAH, Khan Bahddur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877, on the
occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress
of
India.

Residence. Shdhpur, Punjab.

CHHALIAR, RAWAL CHHATRASINGHJI, Rdwal of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born about the year 1863; succeeded to the gadi 2ist June 1888.
Belongs to a Rajput (Hindu) family, which pays a tribute to the
Gaekwar of
Baroda, as well as to the Paramount Power. The area of the State is
about
9 square miles.

Residence. Chhalia"r, Rewd Ka"ntha, Bombay.

CHHATARPUR, HIS HIGHNESS RAJA VISHWANATH
SINGH BAHADUR, Rdjd of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 2 Qth August 1866; succeeded to the gadi i4th November 1866.
Belongs to a Puar Rajput (Hindu) family ; descended from the Sardar
Soneh
Sah, a Sardar of the Panna Raj, who was in military possession of the
Chhatarpur jdgir when the British acquired Bundelkhand. He was
granted
a sanad by the British Government in 1806, and was succeeded by his
son,
the Raja Partab Singh. The grand-nephew of the latter was the Raja
Jagat
Raj, the father of the present Raja. The family motto is Agni pratdp
Vishweshah (" As fire resplendent, Lord of the World "). The area of
the
State is 1169 square miles; its population about 167,700, chiefly
Hindus,
with about 5500 Muhammadans and 749 Jains. The Raja maintains a
military force of 39 cavalry, 814 infantry, and 39 guns, and is
entitled to a
salute of 1 1 guns.

Residence. Chhatarpur, Bundelkhand, Central India.

CHHATRA KUNWAI (of Amgaon), Rdjd.

The title is hereditary, and was originally derived from Raja Hindi
Shah
of Garha-Mandla. The family is Lodhi.

Residence. Jabalpur, Central Provinces.

CHHATRA SINGH, Subahddr-Major, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th June 1887 for
eminent
military service.

Residence. Burma.

CHHBDI LAL, LALA, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was bestowed on ist June 1888. The Rai
Bahadur's grandfather, Lala Sadasukh, was a wealthy grain and cotton
merchant in Cawnpur.

Residence. Cawnpur, North-Western Provinces.

CHHOTA BARKHBRA, BHUMIA MUGAT SINGH, Bhumia of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1865 ; succ|eded to the gadi i4th September 1889. Is descended
from a Bhilala family. The population of the State is about 125,
chiefly
Hindus.

Residence. Chhota Barkhera, Bhopdwar, Central India.

CHHOTA UDAIPUR, MAHARAWAL SHRI MOTISINGHJI,

Raj a of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1859; succeeded to the gadi yth July 1881. Belongs to a
Chauhan Rajput (Hindu) family, descended from the famous Patai Rawal,
the last Chauhan Chief of Champaner, from whom
also descend the Chiefs of Baria. When Cham-
paner was captured by the Muhammadans under
Muhammad Begar in 1484, the Chauhans moved
to Chhota Udaipur and to ' Baria. The Raja
Jitsinghji, father of the present Raja, bravely
resisted Tantia Topi during the Mutiny of 1857 ;
and the latter was defeated by General Parke
when encamped before the town of Chhota Udaipur.
The family at one time occupied a fort at Mohan ;
it pays tribute to the Gaekwar of Baroda. The
area of the State is about 873 square miles; its
population about 71,000, chiefly Bhils or Kolis
or other aboriginal tribes. The Maharawal main-
tains a military force of 50 cavalry, 256 infantry,
and 4 guns ; and is entitled to a salute of 9 guns.

Residence. Chhota Udaipur, Rewd Kantha, Bombay.

The Santak of the Chauhan
Rajputs, called Ckakra, used
in the seal and for signature.

(A circle with four Trisulas or
Tridents as radii at the car-
dinal points*)

CHIKLI, GUMAN SINGH, Chief of .
A Ruling Chief.

Born about the year 1864; succeeded to the gadi ist November
1888. Is a Muhammadan, but descended from a Wasava Bhil (aboriginal)
family. The area of the State is about 200 square miles; its
population
about 1444, chiefly (aboriginal) Bhils.

Residence. Chikli, Khandesh, Bombay.

CHIKTIABAR, BHUMIA UMBD SINGH, Bhumia of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born about 1845; succeeded to the gadi in 1864. The population of
the State is about 415, chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Chiktiabar, Bhopawar, Central India.

CHINCHLI, NAIK JINMYA walad GUDAD BHAVAN, Chief of

A Ruling Chief.

The State is also called Dang Chinchligadad, being one of the
numerous
Dang States in Khandesh ; and the Chief or Naik, sometimes called
Zimna
walad Bhawan, is a minor and unmarried ; belongs to an aboriginal
Bhil
tribe. The area of the State is about, 2 7 square miles ; and its
population
about 1668.

Residence. Chinchli, Khdndesh, Bombay.

CHIRAKAL, KERALA VARMA RAJA, Valiya Rdjd of.

Born 1849. I s tne head of one of the branches of the Kolattiri
House,
the Raja of Kolattiri having been one of those chieftains among whom
Chera-
man Perumal, Emperor of Malabar, divided his dominions when he became
a Buddhist and retired from the world in 352 A.D. In 1734 the
Chirakal
Raja was acknowledged by all the members of the Kolattiri House as
the
head of the family, and was entrusted with the administration. The
Raja at
the time of Tippu's invasion in 1789 was named Rama Varma, and he
committed suicide 1 to avoid falling into the hands of the conqueror.
A
prince, who took refuge in the jungles until the English obtained
possession
of the country, was recognised by them in 1795 as Raja. The family,
like
that of the Zamorin of Calicut and other Chiefs of Malabar, follows
the
Marumakkatayam law of inheritance ; by which the succession is to the
off-
spring of its female members, among whom the next eldest male after
the
Raja is his heir-apparent. The late Valiya Raja of Chirakal was
called
Rajaha Raja ; and he was succeeded by the present Valiya Raja under
the
Marumakkatayam law. He receives an allowance from Government, in
compensation for the estate that belonged to his ancestors.

Residence. Malabar, Madras.

CHIRODA, DEVI SINGH, Chief of.

A Ruling Chief.

This Chief is of a Rajput (Hindu) family. His State contains an area
of
about i square mile; with a population of 241, chiefly Hindus.
Residence. Chiroda, Ka'thiclwa'r, Bombay.

CHITPAL SINGH (of Nurpur Chitpalgarh), Rdjd.

Born 7th August 1847; succeeded his father as Raja in 1852. The
title is hereditary, and was so recognised on 9th May 1866. The Raja
represents one of the chief families of the ancient Sombansi race, and
is the
most direct descendant of the great Rajas of Partabgarh. The Raja
Duniapat,
who possessed Partabgarh, was succeeded by his widow, the Thakurain
Kusal
Kunwar, who adopted Shiuratan Singh of Karain and Tarwal. His son was
the Raja Dhir Singh of Chitpalgarh ; and the grandson of the latter is
the
present Raja, who was educated at the Partabgarh High School, was
appointed
to the Statutory Civil Service in 1881, and is now an Assistant
Commissioner
in Oudh.

Residence. Partdbgarh, Oudh.

CHORANGLA, RAWAL RAMSINGHJI, Rdwal of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born about the year 1846, of a Rajput (Hindu) family. His State
contains an area of nearly 4 square miles, and a population of about
1300,
chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Chorangla, Rewa" Kdntha, Bombay.

CHOTA LAL SIJWAR, CJ.E.

Was created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian
Empire, ist January 1884.

CHOTA NAGPUR, Maharaja of.
See Pratap Udit Nath Sahai Deo, Mahdrdjd.

CHUIKADAN, Mahant of. See Kondka.

CHUMILAL, VENILAL, Rao Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887.
Residence. Broach, Bombay.

CHURA, THAKUR BBCHARSINGHJI RAISINGHJI, Thdkur of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born Qth February 1840; succeeded to the gadi ist January 1844; is
a scion of the Wadhwan family, being a Jhala Rajput, and thus
connected in
race with the ruling Houses of Wankaner and Dhrangadra. The present
Thakur has a son and heir, named Kumar Madhavasinghji.

Residence. Chura, Kdthidwdr, Bombay.

COCHIN, HIS HIGHNESS RAJA SIR VIRA KERALA
VARMA, K.C.I.E., Rdjd of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1846 ; succeeded to the gadi in 1888. Belongs to a Hindu family
of pure Kshatriya blood, claiming descent (with the Royal House of
Travan-
core) from the ancient Chiefs who ruled from Gokura in North Kanara to
the
southernmost point of India. In the time of Haidar AH in Maisur, the
Raja
of Cochin was tributary to that potentate; but in 1798 he signed a
treaty,
acknowledging himself tributary to the British Power. The father of
the
present Raja was His Highness the Raja Rama Varma, who was created a
Knight Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India in
1871.
The armorial bearings of the family are a palanquin with umbrella,
lamp, and
conch or chank-shell. The heir of His Highness the Raja is the Prince
Rama Varma, Elaya Raja, born 1852. The area of the State is 1361
square
miles ; its population about 600,000, chiefly Hindus, with about
33,000
Muhammadans and 136,000 Christians. His Highness maintains a military
force of 1 6 cavalry, 327 infantry, and 4 guns; and is entitled to a
salute
(hereditary) of 17 guns.

Residence. Tripuntora, Ernakolam, Southern India.

COOCH BEHAR, Mahdrdjd of. See Kuch Behar.
CUTCH, His Highness the Rao of. See Kutch.

DABHA, MIAN GULAB MIYAN, Mian of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 5th November 1837 ; succeeded to the gadi 27th July 1854. Is
one of the Gaekwar's tributaries. Belongs to a family claiming descent
from
the Jhala Rajputs of Halwar in Kathiawar ; his ancestor, Hari Singhji,
who
was in the service of Shah Mahmud Begara of Gujarat, became a
Musalman
in 1483. His son and heir is Kunwar Motamiyan. The area of the State
is about 99 square miles; its population is 1922, chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Da"bha, Ma"hi Kdntha, Bombay.

DABIR, Bhumia of. See Jamnia.

DABRI, THAKUR PARBAT SINGH, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1878; succeeded to the gadi as a minor in 1885. Belongs to a
Rajput (Hindu) family.

Residence. Dabri, Western Mdlwa", Central India.

DAD MUHAMMAD KHAN, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877, on the
occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress
of
India.

Residence. Dadu Dero, Sind.

DADABHAI HORMUSJI DUBA, Khan Bahadur.

The Khan Bahadur received the title, as a personal distinction, on
2th
May 1892 in recognition of great public services.
Residence. B ombay .

DADABHAI PALANJI, Khan Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 2ist April 1882.
Residence. Poona, Bombay.

DADHALYA, THAKUR JASWANT SINGHJI, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1830. Belongs to a Rajput (Hindu) family that came originally
from Udaipur. His ancestor Vikaji was in the service of Kalyan Mai,
Rao
of Idar, from whom he obtained the grant of Dadhalya in 1674 ; is
tributary
to the Gaekwar and to Idar. The area of the State is 7 2 square
miles ; its
population 3877, chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Dadhalya, Ma"hi Kdntha, Bombay.

DAFLAPUR, Chief of. See Jath.

DAJI GANGAJI RANG, Rao Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on loth April 1873.
Residence. B ombay.

DAJI GOVIND GUPTB, Rai Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 28th February 1883.
Residence. Thana, Bombay.

DAJI NILKANTH NAGARKAR, Rai Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877.
Residence. Poona, Bombay.

DAL CHAND (of Sahanpur), Rai.

Born October 1827. The title is hereditary. Is the representative of
a
Jat family of ancient origin, who came from Jind in the middle of the
1 6th century. A scion of this family, named Muchh Padarath, founded
the town of Nagal on the Ganges ; and rising to high favour with
Prince
Salim (afterwards the Emperor Jahangir) in the Court of the Emperor
Akbar,
obtained a Dress of Honour, the title of Rai, and the grant of the
territory
between Nagal and Barhapura. The Rai Tapraj Singh, grandfather of the
present Rai, was a man of great influence. The Rai has four sons
Partab
Singh, Harbans Singh, Jagat Singh, and Bharat Singh.

Residence. Sahanpur, Bijnaur, North-Western Provinces.

DAL SINGH (of Nahil), Rao.

Born 1842; succeeded his father, Rao Jetsingh, in 1884. The title is
hereditary. Belongs to a family of Katehria Rajputs, claiming descent
from
Rao Hari Singh, who, in the i6th century, settled in Gola Raipur on
the
river Khanant. A farmdn of the Emperor Shah Jahan, dated 1645, con-
ferred the Zaminddri of Gola on Vikrama Singh, a descendant of Rao
Hari
Singh, and subsequently the family removed to Nahil. They had many
struggles with the Pathans during the i7th and i8th centuries, in the
course of which, on one occasion, the Rao Gopal Singh, Katehria
Thakur
of Nahil, was slain in an engagement, leaving only# widow and two
infant
sons as the sole representatives of the family. Rao Jetsingh, father
of the
present Rao, did good service in the Mutiny, defending the town of
Pawayan
when the Maulavi Ahmadullah Shah besieged it in 1857 ; and he also
supplied
provisions to the British forces on their arrival in the district. The
Rao Dal
Singh has three sons Bechu Singh, Jagannath Singh, and Sardan Singh.

Residence. Ndhil, Shdhjahdnpur, North-Western Provinces.

DALIP SINGH, G.C.S.I., His Highness the Maharaja.

The title is personal. His Highness the Maharaja, who lives in
Europe,
is the representative of the " Lion of the Punjab," the famous
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh of Lahore, under whom the Sikh power rose to its highest
point.

Residence. Europe.

DALIP SINGH (of Kulu), Rai.

Born 1862. The title is hereditary. Belongs to a family whose
founder,
Sudh Singh, emigrated from Mayapuri to Kulu in the beginning of the
1 4th century, and established himself there, assuming the title of
Raja.
His son, Raja Bahadur Singh, succeeded him, and greatly extended his
dominions by conquest. The family enjoyed independence up to the time
of the Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Lahore, who wrested the country from
the
Rai Jitsingh, the last independent Raja of Kulu, but bestowed the
Wazir-i-
Rupi estate in Kulu on Rai Thakur Singh, a relative of Jitsingh's.
This
grant, with the hereditary title of Rai, was confirmed by the British
Govern-
ment by a sanad dated 24th October 1846. On his death Rai Thakur
Singh was succeeded by his son, Rai Gayan Singh, who was the father
of
the present Rai.

Residence. Ka"ngra, Punjab.

DALISNA, THAKUR DAULAT SINGH, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1857. Belongs to a Rajput (Hindu) family. The population of
the State is 765.

Residence. Dalisna, Ma"hi Kdntha, Bombay.

DALPATRAM DAYABHAI, C.I.E.

Was created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian
Empire, 6th June 1885.

Residence. B ombay .

DALPATRAM PRANJIVAN KHAKAR, Rao Saheb.

Born at Diu on ist November 1835. The title is personal, and was
conferred on i6th February 1887. Was educated at the Elphinstone
College,
Bombay, where he took*high honours. Appointed to the Bombay Education
Service, 1859; greatly distinguished himself as Educational Inspector
of Kutch,
as tutor to His Highness the Rao of Kutch, and in other ways. Has
written
and edited many important works. Retired on pension in 1866; and in
1887 received the title in honour of the Jubilee of Her Most Gracious
Majesty's reign. Is a Member of the Managing Committee of the Seth
Gokuldas Tejpal Charities, and a Trustee of the same ; also a Member
of the

Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, and other learned
Societies. The
Rao Saheb married, 1859, Devkorbai, daughter of Meghji Jadavji,
physician
of Bhaunagar, and has a son, Mazaulal, born nth November 1870. He is
a Brahma-Kshatriya by caste, and belongs to a family long settled in
the
Portuguese dominions in Western India.

Residence. 10 Cowasji Patel's Tank Road, Bombay.

DAMARA KUMARA MADDU VBNKATAPPA NAYUDU
BAHADUR GARU (of Kalahasti), Rdjd. See Kalahasti.

DAMODAR DAS, Rai Bahadur.

An Honorary Magistrate of Bareilly. Granted the title, as a personal
distinction, 2nd January 1893.

Residence. Bareilly, North- Western Provinces.

DAMODAR NARAYAN, Rao Saheb.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 2oth May 1890.
Residence. B ombay .

DANAKOTI MUDALIYAR, A., Rai Bahadur.

Born 1852. A landowner in Madras, and Member of the Madras
Municipal Commission, 1885. Granted the personal title of Rai
Bahadur,
1887.

Residence. Madras.

DANAKOTI RAJU, W. B., Rao Bahadur.

Born 1839. M.D. of Madras; appointed a Fellow of the Madras
University, 1875. Granted the personal title of Rao Bahadur, 1889.
Residence. Madras.

DANTA, MAHARANA JASWANTSINGHJI HARISINGHJI,

Mahdrdnd of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1 4th October 1850; succeeded to the gadi ist December 1876.
Is tributary to the Gaekwar and to Idar. Belongs *to a very ancient
family
of Pramara Rajputs, who are said to have come from Ujjain, and to
have
settled in Sind in the year 809 A.D. The area of the State is 2300
square
miles; its population about 18,000. The Maharana maintains a military
force of 70 cavalry and 67 infantry.

Residence. Danta, Mahi Kdntha, Bombay.

DARBHANGA, MAHARAJA SIR LACHHMBSWAR SINGH
BAHADUR, K.C.I.B., Maharaja of.

One of the Premier Nobles of British India.

Born 1856; succeeded to the gadi as a minor 2oth October 1860.
In the great Bengal famine of 1873-74, the Maharaja expended nearly

.300,000 in charitable relief; and has
since then always taken the foremost
part in every public philanthropic work
in Bengal, and indeed in every part of
the Empire to which his vast revenues
have been largely devoted.

Belongs to an ancient Rajput
family, whose ancestor, Mahesh Thakur,
obtained the title of Raja, and the grant
of the Darbhanga Raj, from the Mughal
Emperor of Delhi, Akbar the Great,
early in the i6th century. Mahesh
Thakur died in the year 1558 A.D.,
leaving five sons Ram Chandra Thakur,
Gopal Thakur, Achit Thakur, Parmanand Thakur, and Subhankar Thakur.
Some of the elder sons succeeded in turn to the Raj, but they all died
without
issue, and the family was continued in the line of the youngest son,
the
Raja Subhankar Thakur. He died in 1607, leaving six sons. Of these
the eldest, Purushottam, succeeded to the Raj ; and on his death in
1642 was succeeded by his brother, Sundar Thakur. He held the Raj for
twenty years, and dying in 1662 was succeeded by his eldest son,
Mahinath
Thakur. The latter died in 1684 without issue, and was succeeded by
his
brother, Nirpat Thakur, who ruled till 1700 A.D., when he died, and
was
succeeded by his son, the great Raja Raghu Singh. He obtained the
con-
firmation of the hereditary title of Raja through the Nawab Mahabat
Jang,
who was at that time Mughal Subahddr of Behar. He also obtained from
the Mughal Government the grant of the lease of the whole of the
Sarkdr
Tirhut including the modern districts of Muzaffarpur and Darbhanga on
the payment to Government of an annual revenue of Rs. 1,00,000. The
enormous value, in those early times, of this grant may be gathered
from the
fact that in 1685 A - D - tne revenue of Sarkdr Tirhut was officially
returned
at Rs. 7, 6 9, 2 8 7. At one time, during the administration of the
Raja Raghu
Singh, the Nawab Subahdar, jealous of the vast wealth accumulated by
the
Raja, seized his property and carried off his family as prisoners to
Patna, the
Raja himself only preserving his liberty by prompt flight.
Subsequently,
however, he was restored to favour, and received large grants from
the
Mughal Government, on condition that he should "do justice, relieve
distress, and put the country in a flourishing condition." These
stipulations
have been liberally fulfilled by Raja Raghu's descendants and
successors in
the Raj. This Raja built a large mud fort at Bhawara, near Madhubani,
the
ruins of which still remain there, and the family resided there for
the next
half-century. He died in 1736, and was succeeded by his son, the Raja
Bishnu Singh. The latter died without issue in 1740, and was succeeded
by
his brother, the Raja Narendra Singh, who received large grants from
the
Nawab Subahdar AH Vardi Khan, on condition of his engaging for the

revenue, and supporting the interests of the Mughal Government. The
Raja
Narendra Singh died without issue in 1760; but he adopted Pratap
Singh,
the great-great-grandson of Narayan Thakur, younger brother of the
Raja
Sundar Thakur, and son of the Raja Subhankar Thakur mentioned above.
Raja Pratap Singh determed to remove the family residence from the
fort of
Bhawara ; and he built a new Rajbari at Darbhanga, to which he
removed
in 1762, and it has been the seat of the family ever since. Raja
Pratap
Singh died in 1776, and was succeeded by his brother, the Raja Madhu
Singh. In that year the Raja received from Shah Alam, the Mughal
Emperor of Delhi, the grant of Dharmpur, in the district of Purniah.
The
Raja Madhu Singh, during a long administration of thirty-two years,
had
frequent disputes with the Calcutta Government in regard to the
revenue
payments and the extent of his rights over the land. These disputes at
one
time became so acute that the settlement was made with others ; but
ulti-
mately he obtained from the Board of Revenue the restoration of his
estates.
'The Raja Madhu Singh died in 1808, leaving five sons Kishan Singh,
who
died without issue ; Chhatar Singh, who succeeded him, and three
others.
Chhatar Singh is the first of the Darbhanga Rajas who is recorded to
have
held the higher title of Maharaja Bahadur, though it is probable that
it had
also been held by some at least of his ancestors. The Maharaja
Chhatar
Singh, who succeeded to the gadi in 1808, lived till 1839; when, on
the
ground of old age, he made over his estates and the title to his elder
son,
Rudra Singh giving to his younger son, Bisdeo Singh, for maintenance,
the
Raj villages in Jarail, four Bouses, two elephants, and apartments in
the
Darbhanga Palace. He asked to have Rudra Singh's name entered in the
Bengal Revenue Roll, and died a few days afterwards. These
arrangements
led to extensive litigation, as the younger son claimed a larger share
of the
estates. Ultimately the High Court decided that the law of inheritance
in
this family must follow the family custom, and not the ordinary Hindu
law ;
and by the family custom (or Kuldchdr) the eldest son succeeds to the
Raj,
the younger obtaining sufficient properties in land for their
maintenance,
which lands (as under feudal tenure) revert to the Raj on failure of
male
issue. The Maharaja Rudra Singh died in 1850, leaving four sons
Mahesh-
war Singh (who succeeded him), Ganeshwar Singh, Nitreshwar Singh, and
Gopeshwar Singh. For ten years the Maharaja Maheshwar Singh held the
Raj. He died on 2oth October 1860, leaving two sons Lachhmeswar Singh
(who succeeded him, and is the present Maharaja Bahadur) and
Rameshwar
Singh (who is now the Raja Rameshwar Singh Bahadur, q.v.)

The Maharaja Lachhmeswar Singh Bahadur of Darbhanga was under the
guardianship of the Court of Wards during his minority ; and had the
great
advantage of having, as tutor, a very able and sympathetic English
gentle-
man, Mr. Chester Macnaghten, whose capacity for this work was so
marked
that he was afterwards selected by the Government for the
Principalship of
the Rajkumar College at Rajkot, in Kathiawar, for the Princes and
Chiefs of
Western India. Since the Maharaja attained his majority he has
entirely
devoted himself to the public duties of his position as one of the
greatest
Nobles of British India. He has long served as a Member of the
Legislative
Council of the Viceroy, and taken a leading part in the debates of
that body.
During the lengthened discussions on the important Bengal Tenancy
Bill, he
acted (in conjunction at first with the lamented patriot, Kristodas
Pal, and
subsequently with the Raja Piari Mohan Mukharji, C.S.I.) as the
repre-

sentative of the landowners of Bengal and Behar ; and received the
warm
recognition of the ability and moderation he brought to bear on this
and
other questions from successive Viceroys. To the public at large he is
best
known as one of the most munificent of living philanthropists. In
addition
to the ^300,000 expended in charitable relief during the Bengal famine
of
1873-74, in every time of scarcity the Maharaja's arrangements for
meeting
it have been on a splendid scale, and have been in many cases the
models
for the Government measures. He has built, and entirely supports, a
first-
class Dispensary at Darbhanga, which cost ^"3400 ; a similar one at
Kharakpur, which cost ^3500; and largely contributes to many others.
He has built an Anglo-vernacular school at a cost of ^1490, which he
maintains, as well as nearly thirty vernacular schools of different
grades ; and
subsidises a much larger number of educational institutions. He has
con-
structed hundreds of miles of roads in various parts of the Raj,
planting
them with tens of thousands of trees for the comfort of travellers. He
has
constructed iron bridges over all the navigable rivers of the Raj, and
completed
an elaborate system of irrigation-works, for prevention of famine. In
carrying
out his duties as one of the largest landowners of India he has had
the
advantage of the assistance of several very able English managers in
succession,
specially selected with the approval of the Government including
Colonel
Money of the Staff Corps, Mr. G. W. Llewhellin and Mr. Henry Bell,
formerly
of the Bengal Civil Service. With the aid of these gentlemen and
others,
the Darbhanga Raj has attained the proud position of being regarded as
the
model for good and benevolent management. The Maharaja has devoted
special attention to all agricultural improvements, and especially to
improve-
ments in the breeds of horses and cattle in Behar. He is a liberal
patron of
the turf, and has been the owner of the largest and most valuable
racing-stud
in India, under experienced English trainers ; and he is also a keen
sportsman
and a first-rate whip, his jungles on the Nepal frontier affording
some of the
best sport in the country. The new Palace at Darbhanga, with its
immense
stables, its botanical and zoological gardens, and its many beautiful
surround-
ings, is well known in England by the sketches that have appeared in
the
London illustrated papers.

Most of the Maharaja of Darbhanga's munificence has been devoted to
objects of charity pure and simple, such as famine-relief medical aid,
and
the like. But he has also contributed very largely to objects of
general
public utility as, for instance, in the gift of Rs. 50,000 to the
funds of the
Imperial Institute. In celebration of Her Majesty's Jubilee he
remitted a
large portion of the rents of all his tenants for the year 1887. It
has been
computed that since his succession to the Raj an aggregate sum of
some-
thing like two millions sterling has been expended on charities, works
of public
utility, and charitable remissions of rent.

On the occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious
Majesty the Maharaja Bahadur was created a Knight Commander of the
Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire. The family cognisance is the
Gangetic dolphin or sacred fish of the Hindus. The Darbhanga Raj com-
prises large portions of the modern districts of Darbhanga,
Muzaffarpur,
Monghyr, Purniah, and Bhagalpur. The capital, Darbhanga, is the civil
station of the district of the same name ; it is a large and thriving
town, with
a population (by the census of 1881) of 65,955, chiefly Hindus.

Residence, Darbhanga, Tirhut, Bengal.

DARGAHI LAL, Rai Bahadur,

Born 2 1 st November 1 8 1 6. The title is personal, and was conferred
on
2nd January 1888, in recognition of eminent public services as a
Municipal
Commissioner of Cawnpur since 1862, and an Honorary Magistrate since
1879. The Rai Bahadur is a Kayasth by caste, and is a native of
Bilgram
in the Hardoi district ; but has practised as a Pleader at Cawnpur
since
1842.

Residence. Cawnpur, North-Western Provinces.

DARIA KHBRI, THAKUR ONKAR SINGH, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1861; succeeded to the gadi 9th April 1888. Belongs to a
Rajput (Hindu) family ; the predecessor of the present Thakur was
Thakur
Ranjit Singh. The area of the State is about 6 square miles ; its
population
about 6 1 6.

Residence. Daria Kheri, Bhopa"!, Central India

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DARKUTI, RANA RAM SARAN SINGH, Rdnd of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1843; succeeded to the gadi i5th October 1883. Belongs to a
Rajput (Hindu) family, whose founder came from Marwar at an unknown
date and settled in the Simla Hills. Twenty-three generations bore
rule ;
and the father of the present Chief was the Rana Ram Singh, who
succeeded
to the gadi in 1856. The Gurkhas overran this State, with others in
the
Simla Hills ; and when they were expelled by the British in 1815 the
then
Rana was confirmed in possession. The area of the State is about 4
square
miles; its population 590, chiefly Hindus. The Rana maintains a
military
force of 10 infantry.

Residence. Darkuti, Simla Hills, Punjab.

DARYA KHAN, Khdn Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on xoth April 1867.
Residence. Hyderabad, Sind.

DARYAO SINGH (of Ghat Piparia), Thdkur.

Born 1831. The title is hereditary, and was originally conferred by
the
Mughal Emperors of Delhi. The ancestors of the Thakur obtained Ghat
Piparia in jdgir from the former Government of Sagar.

Residence. Sa"gar, Central Provinces.

DAS MAL, DIWAN, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877, on tne
occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress
of
India.

Residence. Lahore, Punjab.

DASPALLA, RAJA CHAITAN DEO BHANJ, Rdjd of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1854; succeeded to the gadi 2ist January 1873. Belongs to a
Kshatriya (Hindu) family, said to be of the Solar race ; descended
from a
younger son of the Raja Narayan Bhanj of Bod (q.v.) The title of Raja
has
been enjoyed by the head of the family since the time of the
Mahrattas ; and
was formally conferred by the British Government, 2ist May 1874. The
cognisance of the family is a peacock with tail spread. The area of
the
State, which is one of the Orissa Tributary Mahals, is about 568
square miles ;
its population about 42,000, chiefly Hindus, but including about
13,000
Kandhs and other aboriginal tribesmen. The Raja maintains a force of
343
infantry and 8 guns.

Residence. Daspalla, Orissa, Bengal.

DATANA, THAKUR BHAWANI SINGH, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1864; succeeded to the gadi loth December 1880. Belongs to
a Rajput (Hindu) family.

Residence. Datana, Western Malwa, Central India.

DATTIA, HIS HIGHNESS MAHARAJA LOKINDAR
BHAWANI SINGH BAHADUR, Mahdrdjd of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1 3th August 1854; succeeded to the gadi 2oth November 1857.
Belongs to the great Bundela Rajput family descended from Bir Singh,
who
took the clan name of Bundela, and settled in Bundelkhand in the i3th
century ; and from whom are descended the ruling families of Orchha,
Dattia,
Panna, Ajaigarh, Charkhari, Bijawar, Sarila, etc. In the time of the
Emperors Akbar and Jahangir, the Maharaja Bir Singh Deo was ruler of
Orchha; and his second son, Bhagwan Rai, became ruler of Dattia. The
State came under British control, with other territories in
Bundelkhand, by
the Treaty of Bassein, concluded with the Peshwa in 1802. The Raja
Parichhat of Dattia, whose first treaty with the British Government is
dated
1804, sided with the British throughout the subsequent wars with the
Mahrattas; and was rewarded in 1817, on the deposition of the Peshwa,
by
a new treaty and enlarged territories. His adopted son was the Raja
Bijai
Bahadur of Dattia ; and the adopted son of the latter is the present
Chief,
whose succession was disputed by Arjun Singh (an illegitimate son of
the
Raja Bijai Bahadur), but was enforced by British troops. The ancient
title

of the family was Maharaja Rao Raja. In 1865 the Government
recognised
the title of Maharaja as hereditary ; and on ist January 1877, at the
Imperial
Assemblage at Delhi, in honour of the Proclamation of Her Most
Gracious
Majesty as Empress of India, the title of Lokindar was added. The
motto
of the family is Wir dalap Sharandah (" Lord of the Brave Army, Giver
of
Refuge"). The area of the State is about 836 square miles; its
population
about 183,000, chiefly Hindus, but including some 9000 Muhammadans.
His Highness the Maharaja maintains a military force of 945 cavalry,
5203
infantry, and 124 guns; and is entitled to a salute of 15 guns.
Residence. Dattia, Bundelkhand, Central India.

DAULAT RAM, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1883.
Residence. Jalandhar, Punjab.

DAULAT SINGH (of Kaksis), Rdjd.

Born 2nd October 1830. The title is hereditary. Belongs to a family
which is a branch of the Kachhwaha Rajput clan from Lahar, of
Surajbansi
origin, claiming descent from Raja Dula Rai of Narwar. His son
Indarpal
in the year 1033 A.D. came to Indarki and Lahar, and established a
branch of
the family there, dispossessing the Meo clan. The eldest son of Raja
Indarpal
was Raja Bawan Pal, who seized Rampur in 1241, and reigned there. The
fifth in descent from Bawan Pal was the Raja Aman Deo, who seized
Kaksis
and all the neighbouring territory. His descendants suffered much from
the
Bundela invasion in 1558; and subsequently from the exactions of the
Peshwa and Sindhia. The head of the family was confirmed in
possession
of the estates that remained to him when the country came under
British
control in 1841. The Raja has a son and heir, Raghunath Singh, aged
about thirty-four years.

Residence. Sikri, Pargana" Madhogarh, Jalaun, North- Western
Provinces.

DAULATRAI SAMPATRAJ, MUNSHI, Rao Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty.
Residence. Surat, Bombay.

DATA KISHAN, Rai.

Born 5th December 1842. The title is hereditary. Is the son of Rai
Hingan Lai, Kayasth, formerly Tahsildar of Dehra Dun ; who had a jdgir
and
the honorary title of Deputy Magistrate and Collector conferred on him
on
4th August 1858, for special services rendered to the Government
during
the Mutiny in the Jaunpur district. The Rai has a son and heir named
Madan Makund, born 25th February 1865.

Residence. Jaunpur, North-Western Provinces.

DAYAL SINGH (of Majithia), Sarddr.

Born in 1848 A.D. The title is hereditary, derived originally from
the
Sikh Government, and confirmed by the British Government. The family
is
of the Shergil Jat tribe. The great-grandfather of Sardar Dayal Singh,
who
was named Jodh Singh, was a feudal retainer of Sardar Amar Singh
Baggah,
who possessed a large territory in the district now called Gurdaspur,
and held
a considerable jdgir. He died in 1788. His only son, Sardar Desa
Singh,
remained in the service of the Baggah Sardars till 1809. He entered
the
service of the Maharaja Ranjit Singh on the reduction of the Baggah
Sardars,
and accompanied the Maharaja in his famous expedition to Kangra.
After
the expulsion of the Gurkhas he was appointed Governor of the Hill
States.
He continued to perform - valuable service ; and with his son, Sardar
Lahna
Singh, received extensive grants from Ranjit Singh. He died in 1832,
and
was succeeded in all his estates and honours by Sardar Lahna Singh,
father
of the present Sardar, who received charge of the hill territory
between the
Ravi and the Sutlej. He proved a most capable Governor ; but on the
rise
of Raja Hira Singh to power, he left the Punjab for a pilgrimage, to
avoid
the enmity of Pandit Jalla. After the close of the Sutlej Campaign he
returned to Lahore at the invitation of the Council and the Resident,
and
consented to join the Council. Subsequently, however, foreseeing
further
troubles, he determined to leave the Punjab; and in January 1848 he
left
for Benares, where he died. He was a skilful mechanist and an
original
inventor ; and greatly improved the Sikh ordnance.

Residence. Majithia, Amritsar, Punjab.

DAYAL SINGH (of Vadala), Sarddr.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Sialkot, Punjab.

DBBI PARSHAD, Rai.

The title is personal ; was originally conferred by Carnatic Nawab,
and
recognised December 1890.

Residence. Hyderabad, Deccan.

DEBI PARSHAD, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1890.
Residence. Central Provinces.

DBBI SINGH (of Rajwara), Rao.

Born 1860. The title is hereditary, and has come down from ancient
times. The family is Bundela Rajput, and is a branch of that of the
Rajas
of Chanderi.

Residence. Rajwdra, Lalitpur, North- Western Provinces.

DBBI SINGH, CHAUDHEI (of Asaura), Rai Bahadur.

Born 4th September 1839. The title is personal ; and was conferred on
7th December 1888, for the Chaudhri's services in connection with the
improvement of agriculture.

Residence. Meerut, North-Western Provinces.

DEDHROTA, THAKUR PUNJAJI, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1850. Belongs to a Koli (aboriginal) family. The area of the
State is about 10 square miles ; its population about noo.
Residence. Dedhrota, Mdhi Kcintha, Bombay.

DBLAN SINGH (of Kaimori), Rao.

Born 1851. The title is hereditary, having been originally conferred
by Nizam Shah, Gond Raja of Mandla. Rao Anrudh Singh, the father of
Rao Delan Singh, rendered good service to the British Government
during
the Mutiny of 1857.

Residence. Jabalpur, Central Provinces.

DEO, RAJA BHIKAM NARAYAN SINGH BAHADUR, Rdjd of.

Succeeded his father, the late Maharaja Sir Joy Prakash Singh Bahadur
of Deo, K. C.S.I., in 1881. Belongs to a Sesodiya Rajput family, and
claims
to be descended from the ancestors of His Highness the Maharana of
Udaipur, through Raja Rai Bhan Singh Bahadur. The Raja Fatheh Narayan
Singh, in 1782, and again in 1804, was rewarded by Government for his
services with a grant of land and other honours. He was succeeded by
his
son, Ganesam Singh, who in 1 8 1 6 was similarly rewarded with the
grant of a
Zaminddri ; and the son of the latter, Babu Manti Bhan Singh,
rendered
excellent service in the Kol insurrection of 1831. Manti Bhan Singh
was
succeeded by his son, Joy Prakash Singh, who was conspicuous for his
loyalty
and faithful services during the Mutiny in 1857 ; and for his laudable
exer-
tions in keeping this part of the district in order, and in quelling
the insurrec-
tion in the Chutia Nagpur division, he was at first honoured with the
title of
Maharaja Bahadur, and then in 1866 created a Knight Commander of the
Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. His only son is the present
Raja
Bahadur.

Residence. Gya, Bengal.

DEO NANDAN SINGH, Rdjd.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1891, "for
his
high rank and position, and public spirit." Is a younger son of the
late
Raja Raghu Nandan Singh, Raja of Sheohar, a brother of the late Raja
Sheo
Nandan Singh Bahadur, and an uncle of the present Raja of Sheohar.

Residence. Sheohar, Muzaffarpur, Bengal.

DEO RAO VINAYAK, Rao Saheb.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist June 1888.
Residence. Akola, Berar.

DEODAR, WAGHELA ANANDSINGH CHANDAJI, Thdkur of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1 843 ; succeeded to the gadi in 1888. Belongs to a Rajput
(Hindu)
family.

Residence. Deodar, Pdlanpur, Bombay. I

DEODAR, WAGHELA DEWAJI CHANDAJI, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1837; succeeded to the gadi in 1888. Belongs to a Rajput
(Hindu) family.

Residence. Deodar, Pdlanpur, Bombay.

DEODAR, WAGHELA GAMBHIR SINGH, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1834 ; succeeded to the gadi ist April 1890. Belongs to a Rajput
(Hindu) family.

Residence. Deodar, Pdlanpur, Bombay.

DEODAR, WAGHELA SARDAR SINGH, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1853 ; succeeded to the gadi ist April 1890. Belongs to a Rajput
(Hindu) family.

Residence. Deodar, Pdlanpur, Bombay.

DERBHAVTI, RAJA BHONRAO RATNU, Rdjdof.*
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1870. The Chief belongs to a Bhil (aboriginal) family. The
State,
which is one of the Dang States in Khandesh, contains an area of about
76
square miles, and a population of nearly 5000, chiefly Bhils and
Konknas
(aboriginal tribes).

Residence. Derbhavti, Khandesh, Bombay.

DEROL, THAKUR RAMSINGHJI, Thdkur of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1853. Belongs to a Koli (aboriginal) family. The area of the
State is about 10 square miles; its population is 1224, chiefly
Hindus.
Residence. Derol, Mahi Kdntha, Bombay.

DBVALIA, Thdkur of. See Agar.

DBVBNDRA NATH MALLIK, Kumdr.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i8th July 1861 ; the
Kumar
being the eldest son of the late Raja Rajendra Nath Mallik. The
family
name is Sil ; but the hereditary title of Mallik having been granted
by the
old Mughal Emperors, has been adopted as a family name. The family is
very ancient ; its pedigree for twenty generations is in existence,
and its head
has long been reckoned the Dalapati or Chief of the Shuvarnavanik
caste,
and of the Brahmans of that clan. The crest of the family is an oval
star
enclosing a lion.

Residence. Calcutta, Bengal.

DBVBNDRA NATH SAHAI DEO, Thdkur.

The title is hereditary, and was originally conferred by the Maharaja
of
Chota Nagpur, and confirmed on 23rd December 1872. The family is a
younger branch of that of the Rajas of Chota Nagpur, and is said to
be
descended from the pandrik nag or sacred Serpent ; its cognisance or
crest is a cobra with a human face under the expanded hood.

Residence. Lohdrdaga, Bengal.

DEWA SINGH (of Bahrain), Sarddr.

The title is hereditary.
Residence. Jdlandhar, Punjab.

DBWAS, HIS HIGHNESS RAJA KRISHNAJI RAO PUAR,

Rdjd of (Senior Branch).

"Bdbd Saheb."
A Ruling Chief.

Born November 1849 ; succeeded to the gadi i8th March 1861. Belongs,
with His Highness the Raja of Dewas of the Junior Branch (who is
called
the " Dada Saheb "), to a Puar Rajput family, descended from a common
ancestor with the Raja of Dhar. The Raja Kaluji had two sons, Tukaji
and
Jiwaji, and these sons received from Baji Rao Peshwa the grant of the
Dewas
State in common the descendants of Raja Tukaji being known as the
Senior
Branch or " Baba Saheb." Tukaji was succeeded by Krishnaji, and the
latter
by Tukaji II., who adopted Rukmangad Rao, commonly known as Khasi
Saheb. He succeeded Tukaji II. in 1824; and, dying in 1860, was suc-
ceeded by his adopted son, the present Chief.

The two Rajas of Dewas, Senior Branch and Junior Branch (or Baba
Saheb and Dada Saheb), reside in different palaces in the same town
of
Dewas ; but the rule of each Chief is distinct within his own limits.
Both
Chiefs rendered good service during the Mutiny.

The area of the territories under the rule of the Baba Saheb is 155
square
miles; population about 73,940, chiefly Hindus, but including nearly
8000
Muhammadans. His Highness the Raja maintains a military force of 70
cavalry, 594 infantry, and 14 guns; and is entitled to a salute of 15
guns.

Residence. Dewds, Indore, Central India.

DEWAS, HIS HIGHNESS RAJA NARAYAN RAO PUAR,
Rdjd of (Junior Branch).

"Dddd Saheb."
A Ruling Chief.

Born 2oth December 1860; succeeded to the gadi 8th August 1864.
Belongs, with His Highness the Raja of Dewas of the Senior Branch (who
is
called the " Baba Saheb), to a Puar Rajput family, descended from a
common
ancestor with the Raja of Dhar. The Raja Kaluji had two sons, Tukaji
and
Jiwaji, and these sons received from Baji Rao Peshwa the grant of the
Dewas
State in common the descendants of Raja Jiwaji being known as the
Junior
Branch or "Dada Saheb." Jiwaji adopted Anand Rao Puar, who, in 1837,
adopted Haibat Rao, who succeeded him. The latter died in 1864 and
was
succeeded by his son, the present Raja.

The two Rajas of Dewas, Senior Branch and Junior Branch (or Baba
Saheb and Dada Saheb), reside in different palaces in the same town
of
Dewas, but the rule of each Chief is distinct within his own limits.
Both*
Chiefs rendered good service during the Mutiny.

The area of the territories under the rule of the Dada Saheb is 134
square miles; population 68,222, chiefly Hindus,' but including nearly
7000
Muhammadans. His Highness the Raja maintains a military force of 79
cavalry, 166 infantry, and 6 guns, and is entitled to a salute of 15
guns.

Residence. Dews, Indore, Central India.

DEY, KANNY LALL, C.I.E., Rai Bahadur. See Kanhai Lai De.

DHABLA DHIR and KAKARKHERI, THAKUR CHAND
SINGH, Thdkur of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born about 1836 ; succeeded to the gadi in 1871. Belongs to a Rajput
(Hindu) family. The State, which is in the Bhopal Agency, contains an
area of about 10 square miles, and an estimated population of about
1000,
chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Shujdwalpur, Bhopd.1, Central India.

DHABLA GHOSI, THAKUR GOPAL SINGH, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born about 1820; succeeded to the gadi in 1854. The population of
his State (which is in the Bhopal Agency) is about 400, chiefly
Hindus.
Residence. Shujdwalpur, Bhopdl, Central India.

DHAKJI KASHINATHJI, Rao Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 2oth May 1890.
Residence. Bombay.

DHAMASIA, THAKUR KALUBAWA, Thdkurof.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1834. Belongs to a Rajput (Muhammadan) family. The area of
the State is about 5 miles ; its population is chiefly Bhil
(aborigines).
Residence. Dhamasia, Rewd Kantha, Bombay.

DHAMI, RANA FATBH SINGH, Rand of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1855; succeeded to the gadi 26th January 1870. Belongs to a
Rajput (Hindu) family, whose founder, on the invasion of India by
Shahab-
ud-din Ghori in the i4th century, fled from Rajpura in the Ambala
dis-
trict, and conquered the territory of Dhami. The State was formerly a
feudatory of Bilaspur, but was made directly dependent on the British
Power
on the expulsion of the Gurkhas by the latter in 1815. The sanad
recognis-
jng the Rana is dated 4th September 1815. The present Rana succeeded
the Rana Govardhan Singh in 1870. The area of the State is 29 square
miles ; its population about 3300, chiefly Hindus. The Rana maintains
a
military force of 60 infantry.

Residence. Dhami, Simla Hills, Punjab.

DHANJIBHAI FAKIRJI COMMODORE, Khan Bahadur.
Created a Khan Bahadur, as a personal distinction, 2nd January 1893.
Residence. Marri, Punjab.

DHANJISHA EDALJI MANA, Khan Saheb.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 29th June 1886.
Residence. Kardchi, Sind.

DHANJISHA HORMASJI, Khan Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887.
Residence. Kathiawar, Bombay.

DHANPAT RAI, Rdjd.

The title is personal, and was recognised on 9th December 1864.
Residence. Lucknow, Oudh.

DHANPAT RAI, Rat Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of Her Majesty's reign.
Residence. Peshawar, Punjab.

DHANPAT SINGH DUGAR (of Baluchar), Rai Bahadur.
Born 1841. The title is personal, and was conferred on i3th December
1866. The Rai Bahadur, son of the late Pratap Singh Dugar of the
Oswal
caste, is a leading man among the Jains, and has founded many
Dharmsalas

for the use .of his co-religionists in various parts of India, and
published and
distributed the Jain sacred books. He is a banker and manufacturer,
having
houses in most of the great cities of Bengal, and has been
distinguished for
his liberality and public spirit. He has been twice married, and has
three
sons Babu Ganpat Singh and Babu Narpat Singh by the first wife, and
Babu Maharaj Bahadur Singh by the second. Is an Honorary Magistrate.
The family emigrated about 150 years ago from Kishengarh in
Rajputana,
and settled at Baluchar and Azimganj, in the district of Murshidabad,
Bengal.

Residence. Azimganj and Baluchar, Murshidabad, Bengal.

DHAR, HIS HIGHNESS MAHARAJA SIR ANAND RAO
PUAR, K.C.S.I., C.I.B., Rdjd of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 8th April 1844; succeeded to the gadi 2ist November 1864.
Belongs (with their Highnesses the Rajas of Dewas, Senior and Junior
Branch) to the great Puar Rajput (Hindu) family, said to be descended
from
the famous Hindu legendary heroes, King Vikramaditya and Raja Bhoj.
Raja Bhoj is said to have been the first Puar to come to Dhar. About
the
year 1730 Anand Rao Puar, Raja of Dhar, was acknowledged by the
Peshwa,
Baji Rao, to be the head of the Puars. One of the great historical
Prin-
cesses of India, celebrated for her courage and abilities, and the
determina-
tion with which she resisted the attacks of Sindhia and Holkdr, was
the Rani
Mina Bai, widow of Anand Rao II., who was the great-grandson of his
namesake. The Rani was succeeded by her adopted son, Raja Ramchandra
Puar, who adopted Jeswant Rao, the half-brother of the present Raja.
Raja
Jeswant Rao died in 1857, and the State was confiscated for rebellion
during the Mutiny, but it was restored in 1864 to the present Raja,
who was
then a minor. The title of Viswas Rao (" Faithful ") is said to have
been
conferred on this family by the Maharajas of Satara, as the
descendants of
Sivaji and the heads of the Mahratta Empire, but it has not been
recognised
in recent years. The area of the State is about 1740 square miles, and
it
has many feudatories. The population is about 148,000, chiefly
Hindus,
but including about 12,000 Muhammadans and about 19,000 aborigines.
The present Raja has been granted the title of Maharaja as a personal
dis-
tinction, and created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the
Indian
Empire, ist January 1883 ; he had been created a Knight Commander of
the
Most Exalted Order of the Star of India on ist January 1877, on tne
occasion
of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress of India.
His
Highness maintains a military force of 367 cavalry, 1249 infantry, and
5
guns ; and is entitled to a salute of 1 5 guns.

Residence. Dhdr, Bhopawar, Central India.

DHARAM NARAYAN, Rai Bahddur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 2nd January 1888.
Residence. Ambala, Punjab.

DHARAM NARAYAN PANDIT, C.I.E., Rai Bahddur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on i5th February 1860.
Residence. Indore, Central India.

DHARAM SINGH (of Bichuri), Sardar.

Born 1857. The title is hereditary. Belongs to a Jat family, of
Manjha,
Punjab. Sardar Dargaha Singh acquired considerable territory by
conquest
in 1759 A.D., but his descendants were deprived of the largest portion
of
their estates by the Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The grandson of the
Sardar
Dargaha Singh was Sardar Dewa Singh, who was the father of the
present
Sardar.

Residence. Bichuri, Jcilandhar, Punjab.

DHARAMPUR, HIS HIGHNESS MAHARANA SHRI
NARAYANDEVJI RAMDEVJI, Rdjd of.

Born 3rd September 1840; succeeded to the gadi 2oth January 1860.
Belongs to the Solar race of Udaipur, and is consequently a Sesodiya
Rajput.
His Highness's ancestors have borne the title of Maharana from time
imme-
morial. They were the Rajas of the Surat district when the British
first
came to the country, and have always been recognised by the Paramount
Power. His Highness has four sons Shri Dharamdevji, Shri Mohandevji,
Shri Haridevji, and Shri Baldevji. His banner bears a golden-yellow
sun in
the centre of the field, in virtue of his descent from " the Sun of
the Hindus,"
the Udaipur Chief. Has two grandsons, also several daughters and
grand-
daughters ; and has received a sanad guaranteeing him the privilege of
adop-
tion. The area of the State is 794 square miles; its population about
102,000, chiefly Hindus. His Highness maintains a military force of
40
cavalry, 171 infantry, and 4 guns ; and is entitled to a salute of 9
guns.

Residence. Dharampur, Surat, Bombay.

DHARMA RAO NAYADU, R., Rao Bahddur.

Born 1857; appointed Deputy Collector in 1869; Assistant Commis-
sioner of Salt Revenue in 1880; granted the personal title of Rao
Bahadur
in 1890.

Residence. Cocanada, GodaVari District, Madras.

DHARMRAJ KUNWAR (of Parhat and Rajabazar), Rdni.

Born 1854; succeeded her late husband, the Raja Mahesh Narayan of
Rajabazar, on nth October 1878. The family are Raghubansi Rajputs,
whose founder came from Kaliangarh Sawain, and acquired the
territories of
Rajabazar. The neighbouring Rajas conferred the title of Raja by
tilak
some 200 or 300 years ago, and the late Raja was the seventh who had
borne the title. He was Raja of Parhat, in the district of Partabgarh,
Oudh,
as well as of Rajabazar ; and was an Honorary Magistrate both in Oudh
and
in the North- Western Provinces.

Residence. Ra"ja"baza>, Garwdra, Jaunpur District, North- Western
Provinces.

DHARNANDA, THAKUR BHIM SINGH,

Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1859 ; succeeded to the gadi in December
1887. Belongs to a Chauhan Rajput (Hindu)
family, descended from Thakur Chhatar Sal, who
was recognised by the British Government in
I8 43- The population of the State is about

in the seal and for signature. 5OOO, chiefly Hindus.
(A circle with four Trisulas or _, . , _.. ._,.. _,

Tridents as radii at the car- Residence. Dharnanda, Gwalior, Central
India.

dinal points.)

DHARUP SINGH, Rao Saheb.

The title is hereditary. The ancestor of this family, Rao Kehari
Singh,
did good service with Sultan Muhammad, Nawab of Rahatgarh, in return
for
which he received the title and considerable grants. The father of
the
present Rao Saheb was the Rao Jag Raj Singh.

Residence. Sgar, Central Provinces.

DHAUKAL PARSHAD, MUNSHI, Rai Bahadur.

Born 27th February 1828. The title is personal, and was conferred on
2nd January 1888. Belongs to a Kanungo family of Pargand Karsoli, and
rendered good service to Government during the Mutiny. Is an Honorary
Magistrate.

Residence. Mainpuri, North- Western Provinces.

DHBNKANAL, RAJA SURA PRATAP MAHINDRA
BAHADUR, Rdjd of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1884; succeeded to the gadi as a minor 2Qth August 1885.
The family are Kshatriya Hindus, and were anciently feudatories of
the
old Rajas of Orissa ; said to have been founded by Harihar Samant
Singhar,
who established himself in Dhenkanal after killing the aboriginal
Raja
Dhenka, from whom the State derives its modern name. The titles of
Samant, Singhar ; Brahmarbar were conferred on the family by the old
Rajas
of Orissa. Subsequently the title of Mahindra Bahadur was conferred
by
the Mahrattas, who also recognised the title of Raja, which finally
was con-
ferred on the predecessor of the present Chief by the Government of
India
in 1874. The family crest and seal is the minaketana, a flag bearing
the
emblem of the sacred fish. The area of the State, which is one of the
Orissa Tributary Mahals, is 1463 square miles; its population about
208,316,
chiefly Hindus, but including about 80,000 Savars and other
aboriginal
tribesmen. The Raja maintains a military force of 343 infantry and 8
guns.
Residence. Dhenkanal, Orissa, Bengal.

DHIRAJ KARAN, Rai Bahadur.

Granted the title of Rai Bahadur, as a personal distinction, 2nd
January
1893.

Residence. Monghyr, Bengal.

DHOLPUR, His Highness the Mahdrdj Rand of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1862 ; succeeded to the gadt as a minor 9th February 1873. The
full titles of this Chief are Major His Highness Rais-ud-daula"
Sipahdar-ul-
Mulk, Maharaj-Adhiraj Sri Sawai Maharaj Rana Nihal Singh, Lokindar
Baha-
dur, Diler Jang, Jai Deo. Belongs to a Jat (Hindu) family, which
traces its
pedigree back to the nth century, when it held lands under the Puar
Kings
of Delhi. In later times it acquired territory on the banks of the
Chambal,
and was powerful in the i8th century, when the Rana of Gohad, ancestor
of
the present Maharaj Rana, joined the British troops in the Mahratta
war in
1779. The title of Rana had been recognised by the Emperor Sikandar
Lodi of Delhi, but in 1779 the British recognised the Rana as Maharaj
Rana. ' In 1805 Lord Cornwallis granted Gohad to Sindhia, and in
exchange
granted to the Maharaj Rana Kirat Singh (ancestor of the present
Chief) the
territories of Dholpur, Bari, and Rajakhera. Kirat Singh was succeeded
by
Bhagwant Singh, who showed great loyalty during the Mutiny of 1857,
and
was created a Knight Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star
of
India. His son married a daughter of the late Raja of Patiala, but
died
before his father, leaving a son and heir, the present Maharaj Rana,
who
succeeded his grandfather in 1873. The area of the State is 1200
square
miles; its population about 250,000, chiefly Hindus, but including
18,000
Muhammadans and 2500 Jains. The Maharaj Rana maintains a military
force of 139 cavalry, 1588 infantry, and 32 guns. His Highness is an
Honorary Major in the British army, and is entitled to a salute of 15
guns.
The family colour was azure, but in an encounter towards the end of
the last
century the then Chief captured from the Thakurs of Bamraoli a
golden-
yellow flag, with a figure of Hanuman (the monkey-god) in the centre
of the
field, and this has been subsequently adopted as the family
cognisance.

Arms. Or, a " Hanuma"n " gules, on a chief azure a sword between two
towers or. Supporters. Two Rajput warriors in full armour. Crest.
A " Narsinghji " (man-lion) proper. Motto. Mitra Mitra, Amitra Amitra
(" Sure friend, sure foe.")

Residence. Dholpur, Rajputdna.

DHRANGADRA, HIS HIGHNESS SIR MANSINGHJI
RANMALSINGHJI, K.C.S.I., Raj Saheb of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born nth January 1837 ; succeeded to the gadi on the death of his
father, His late Highness the Raj Saheb Ranmalsinghji, K.C.S.I., on
28th
October 1869. Is the head of the Jhala Rajputs, and the Chief of this
family has consequently long held the title of Raj Saheb, while the
title of
" Maharana " is commonly used by the Jhala clansmen of their chief,
and it
is also commonly used as the vernacular equivalent of " His Highness,"
the
title conferred by the Queen Empress. The Jhala Rajputs are said to
have
entered Kathiawar from Sind in the 8th century A.D., and the founder
of this
dynasty is stated to have been Harapal Devji, who obtained from the
Solankhi Rajput Chief of Patan the grant of the district subsequently
known
as Jhalawar in Kathiawar. It may be noted that the State of Jhalawar
in
Rajputana was founded in the beginning of the i8th century A.D. by
Jhala
emigrants from Kathiawar. His Highness's ancestors from whom also
descend the Chiefs of Wankaner, Limri, Wadhwan, Chura, Sayla, ano!
Than-
Lakhtar were settled first at Patri in Ahmadabad; then at Halwad in
Kathiawar; and finally at Dhrangadra. Sir Mansinghji has been dis-
tinguished for the enlightened character of his administration,
especially in
the matters of public instruction and internal communications. He has
established an efficient girls' school at Dhrangadra, and many good
schools
throughout the State ; and has constructed many good roads, and other
public works. To commemorate the visit of His Royal Highness the Duke
of Edinburgh to Bombay in 1870 His Highness contributed a large sum
towards the erection of a Dharmsdla at Rajkot ; and his loyalty was
still
more conspicuously displayed on the occasion of the landing of His
Royal
Highness the Prince of Wales at Bombay in 1875, which was celebrated
by
the erection and endowment of the Albert Edward Hospital at
Dhrangadra.
His Highness was prevented by serious illness from attending the
Imperial
Assemblage at Delhi on the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty
as
Empress of India, but he was on that occasion created a Knight Com-
mander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India, and received
the
addition of four guns to his salute as a personal distinction. When he
was
presented with the insignia of the Star of India, at the same time as
His
Highness the Jam of Nauanagar, the Political Agent, speaking for the
Government, said : " His Highness the Raj Saheb of Dhrangadra
commands
respect as the head, both of the Jhala tribe and of a ruling house
second to
none in domestic virtue. He now accedes to the honours enjoyed by his
father, Sir Ranmalsinghji, the worthy son of a worthy sire. The
decorations
granted to these princes are the natural ornaments of exalted
hereditary rank."
Much sympathy was felt for His Highness when, in 1879, he lost his
eldest
son and heir, the late Rajkumar Jaswantsinghji, whose son (the
grandson of
the present Chief) is now the heir-apparent to ' the gadi. The area of
the
State is 1156 square miles; its population about 100,000, chiefly
Hindus,
but including about 6000 Muhammadans. The Raj Saheb maintains a
military force of 103 cavalry, 470 infantry, and 9 guns; and is
entitled to a
salute of 15 guns.

Residence. Dhra"ngadra, Ka"thia"wa"r.

DHROL, THAKUR SAHBB HARISINGHJI JAISINGHJI,

Thdkur Saheb of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1846; succeeded his father, the late Thakur Saheb Jesinghji,
26th
October 1886. Is a Jareja Rajput, descended from a brother of Jam
Rawal,
the first Jam of Nauanagar, who founded that State in 1542 A.D; and
the
family is also the same as that of His Highness the Maharao Raja of
Kutch.
The area of the State is about 283 square miles; its population is
about
22,000, chiefly Hindus, but including nearly 3000 Muhammadans. The
Thakur Saheb maintains a military force of 25 cavalry, 285 infantry,
and 6
guns ; and is entitled to a salute of 9 guns.

Residence. Dhrol, Kdthia'wa'r, Bombay.

DHULATIA, THAKUR FATBH SINGH, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born about 1866 ; succeeded to the gadi in 1872. Belongs to a Rajput
(Hindu) family.

Residence. Dhulatia, Western Malwa", Central India.

DHURWAI, DIWAN RANJOR SINGH, Jdgirddr of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born about 1833 ; succeeded to the gadi i4th January 1851. Belongs
to a Bundela Rajput (Hindu) family, descended from the Raja Bir Singh
Deo
of Orchha. The area of the State, which is one of the Hashtbhai
jdgirs^ is
about 1 8 square miles; its population is about 1600, chiefly Hindus.
The
Jagirdar maintains a military force of 10 cavalry, 100 infantry, and 3
guns.

Residence. Dhurwai, Bundelkhand, Central India.

DILAWAR SINGH (of Tilokpur), Midn.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Ka"ngra, Punjab.

DINA NATH, PANDIT, Rai Bahadur.

Granted the title, as a personal distinction, 2nd January 1893, for
eminent
service in the Police.

Residence. Central Provinces.

DINABANDHU NYAYARATNA, Mahdmahopddhydya.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887 for
eminence in oriental learning, on the occasion of the Jubilee of Her
Majesty's reign. It entitles him to take rank in Darbar immediately
after
titular Rajas.

Residence. Konnagar, Bengal.

DINANATH GHOSH, Rai Bahddur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on nth December 1884.
Residence. Calcutta, Bengal.

DINENDRA NARAYAN RAI, Kumdr.

Honorary Magistrate and Municipal Commissioner of Calcutta. Granted
the title of Kumar, as a personal distinction, 2nd January 1893.
Residence. Calcutta.

DINKAR RAO, SIR, K.C.S.I., Rdjd Mushir-i-Khas Bahddur.

Born 1819. The title is hereditary. The Raja comes of an ancient
Dakhani family of the Bombay Presidency, but usually resides in Agra,
Cawnpur, or Benares, in the North -Western Provinces. Was Minister of
His late Highness the Maharaja Sindhia of Gwalior till 1859 :
subsequently
became Superintendent of the Dholpur State, and was a Member of the
Baroda Commission. The Raja was created in 1866 a Knight Commander
of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. At the Imperial
Assemblage
at Delhi, on the occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious
Majesty
as Empress of India, he received the title of Raja Mushir-i-Khas
Bahadur as
a personal distinction, and on 28th August 1884 this was declared
hereditary.
His son and heir is named Raghunath Rao Dinkar, born 4th August 1858.

Residence. Agra, North- Western Provinces.

DINSHA DOSABHAI KHAMBATTA, Khdn Saheb.
The title is personal, and was conferred on i8th August 1881.
Residence. Disa, Bombay.

DIWAN CHAND, RaL

Born 1835. The only son of Diwan Ganpat Rai; who was in favour
with the Maharaja Ranjit Singh, appointed by him tutor of his
grandson, and
rewarded by the grant of a jdgir and the appointment of Hazurnavis.
Descended from a family whose ancestor, Gaggan Mai, was distinguished,
in
the time of the Emperor Akbar, as the founder of Ghartal in Sialkot,
and
obtained the title of Malik. His grandsons, Diwan Ramji Mai and
Shamji
Mai, earned the title of Diwan in the time of the Emperor Aurangzeb ;
Ramji
Mai was appointed Hazurnavis, and Shamji obtained a command in the
Kabul army. The family left Ghartal for Jammu, and subsequently for
Dera
Nanak ; but Diwan Nand Gopal, the grandfather of Rai Diwan Chand,
returned to the ancestral home. His son was Diwan Ganpat Rai
mentioned
above, who was appointed by the Maharaja Sher Singh officer in charge
of
the magazines. He was a brave soldier, and fought in the battles of
Pesha-
war, Multan, and Dera Ismail Khan; and throughout the rebellions of
1847
and 1848 attached himself to the British Resident. The Rai Diwan
Chand
was for some time Tahsildar of Roras in Wazirabad ; has subsequently
been
an able and successful journalist and author, as well as distinguished
in

municipal and university work, and is Vice-President of the Punjab
Press
Association. Received the title on 24th May 1889. Has two sons,
Munshi
Brij Lai and Munshi Gayan Chand.

Residence. Sidlkot, Punjab.

DIWAN MUHAMMAD, SAYYID, Khan Saheb.

Granted the title, as a personal distinction, 2nd January 1893, for
eminent
services in the post of Mir Munshi of the British Agency at Kabul.
Residence. Kharar, Ambala, Punjab.

DODA KHAN, Mulk.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. S ind .

DOSABHAI FRAMJI KARAKA, C.S.I.

A distinguished citizen and official of Bombay, late Collector of
Bombay
and Chairman of the Justices. Created a Companion of the Most Exalted
Order of the Star of India on ist January 1877, on the occasion of
the
Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress of India.

DOSABHAI PBSTANJI, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty.
Residence. Surat, B ombay .

DOST ALI KHAN walad AHMAD KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being descended from one of the Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

DOST ALI KHAN, Nawdb.
The title is personal.
Residence. Tajpur, Sind.

DOST MUHAMMAD walad WALIDAD KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being descended from one of the Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shika"rpur, Sind.

DOTRIA. See Bhaisola.

DRUG SINGH (of Sarekha), Thdkur.

Born 1836. The title is hereditary ; and is stated to have been
originally
conferred by the Gond Rajas, Harade Shah and Nizam Shah of Mandla.

The family is Gond (aboriginal), and is descended from Thakur Bhik
Rai ;
whose grandson, Thakur Ranju Singh, was father of Thakur Prithi Singh,
and
grandfather of the present Thakur. Thakur Drug Singh has three sons
Thakur Jai Singh, Deo Singh, and Sardar Singh.
< Residence. Seoni, Central Provinces.

DUDHPUB, THAKUR ANUPBAWA DADABAWA, Thakur of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1878; succeeded to \hegadi i8th November 1888. Belongs to
a Rajput (Muhammadan) family.

Residence. Dudhpur, Rewd Kdntha, Bombay.

DUGRI, MIAN KHUDA BAKSH, Mian of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born about 1854 ; succeeded to the gadi 5th December 1883. Belongs
to a Pindari (Muhammadan) family.

Residence. Dugri, Bhopdl, Central India.

DUJANA, JALAL-UD-DAULA NAWAB MUHAMMAD MUM-
TAZ ALI KHAN BAHADUR MUSTAKIL, JANG, Nawdb of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1864 ; succeeded to the gadi i5th October 1879, on tne death of
the late Nawab Muhammad Saadat AH Khan. The Nawab belongs to an
Afghan (Muhammadan) family ; whose founder, Abdus Samand Khan, with
his sons, obtained the grant of large estates from Lord Lake as a
reward for
service rendered. The tenure was made hereditary, and other
territories
added, by a sanad dated 4th May 1806. The Nawab Abdus Samand Khan
was succeeded by his son Dunde Khan, and he by the Nawab Hasan AH
Khan, who was the father of the late Nawab Muhammad Saadat AH Khan.
The area of the State is 89 square miles; its population 23,416,
chiefly
Hindus, but including nearly 6000 Muhammadans. The Nawab maintains
a military force of 25 cavalry and 140 infantry.

Residence. Dujdna, Rohtak, Punjab.

DULAM SINGH (of Piparia), Thakur.

Born 1850. The title is hereditary. The Thakur is a grandson of
Thakur Ananta Singh, who was a brother of Thakur Prithi Singh, the
father
of Thakur Drug Singh of Sarekha (see above). The title was originally
derived from the Gond Rajas of Mandla.

Residence.- Seoni, Central Provinces.

DUMRAON, MAHARAJA SIR RADHA PRASAD SINGH
BAHADUR, K.O.I.B., Mahdrdjd of.

Born i4th August 1841. Belongs to an ancient Kshatriya (Hindu)
family, claiming descent from the Raja Vikramaditya of Malwa, through
the
Raja Bhoj Singh, who founded the ancient Hindu city of Bhojpur, the
ruins

of which are distant about one mile from Dumraon, in the district of
Shah-
abad. One of the descendants of Raja Bhoj Singh was Narayan Mai, on
whom it is said that the Mughal Emperor Jahangir conferred the title
of
Raja in the year 1604 A.D. ; and his son, grandson, and great-grandson
in
turn received the same title. The last-named was the Raja Haril Singh,
who
in the year 1720 A. D. received from the Emperor Muhammad Shah the
title of
Raja, extensive grants of land, and the command of 1000 infantry and
800
cavalry. His son was the Raja Chhatardhari Singh, who also obtained
the
same title and further grants from the Emperor Muhammad Shah in 1746
A.D. Chhatardhari's son was the Raja Vikramaditya Singh, who received
his
title in 1771 A.D. from the Emperor Shah Alam, and subsequently
obtained
a confirmation thereof and sundry grants from the British Government.
His
son, Jai Prakas Singh, seems to have obtained the title of Maharaja
from the
Marquess of Hastings in 1 8 1 6. He was succeeded by his grandson,
Janaki
Prasad Singh, who died whilst a minor ; and the latter in turn was
followed
by his uncle, the late Maharaja Maheshwar Bakhsh Singh (father of the
present Maharaja), who was a younger son of the Raja Jai Prakas
Singh,
born 2oth October 1803, and succeeded to the Raj in 1844. The
Maharaja
Maheshwar Bakhsh Singh took a leading part in the reception of His
Royal
Highness the Prince of Wales ; and was honoured with the gift of a
portrait-
medal from His Royal Highness, and a letter of acknowledgment of his
services. He was reported to stand conspicuous for his loyalty and
liberality
on all occasions, and was created a Knight Commander of the Most
Exalted
Order of the Star of India. Dying in 1881, he was succeeded by his
son,
the present Maharaja Radha Prasad Singh Bahadur. The latter had been
created a Raja during the lifetime of his father, for good service
rendered
during the great famine of 1873-74; and he had also been honoured by
receiving a portrait-medal from His Royal Highness the Prince of
Wales,
and a letter of acknowledgment for services rendered in the reception
of His
Royal Highness. On succeeding his father he received the title of
Maharaja
Bahadur as a personal distinction, i3th January 1882.
Residence. Dumraon, Shdhabad, Bengal.

DUN, MATING-, Thuye-gaung Ngweda ya Min.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 2oth May 1890. It means
" Recipient of the Silver Sword for Bravery," and is indicated by the
letters
T.D.M. after the name.

Residence. Katha, B urma.

DUNJ SHBTAN (of Spiti), Nona of Spiti.

The title is hereditary, the Nono being the descendant of the Tibetan
Chiefs, formerly feudatories of Ladakh in Tibet. Since the conclusion
of
the first Sikh war in 1846, Spiti has been an outlying subdivision of
the
Himalayan district of Kangra, Punjab ; and is administered by British
officials with the aid of the Nono, who is an Honorary Magistrate.
The
population of the valley which is covered by deep snow every year
from
December to April is hardly 3000, almost entirely Tibetan in race.

Residence. Spiti, Kdngra, Punjab.

DUNGARPUR, HIS HIGHNESS MAHARAWAL UDAI SINGH
BAHADUR, Mahdrdwal of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 22nd May 1839 ; succeeded to the gadi 28th September 1846.
Is a Sesodia Rajput, descended from a branch of the ruling family of
Udaipur, the " Sun of the Hindus." The Maharawals of Dungarpur were
ributary, from time to time, to the Mughal Emperors of Delhi and to
the
Mahrattas ; from whom they were finally rescued by the British Power,
a treaty being concluded in 1 8 1 8. The Bhils were reduced to
submission ;
and in 1825 the Maharawal Jaswant Singh, being found incompetent, was
deposed by the Government, and his adopted son Dalpat Singh, second
son
of the Chief of Partabgarh, appointed to succeed. Subsequently the
Maharawal Dalpat Singh succeeded to the gadi of Partabgarh ; so the
British
Government permitted him to adopt the present Maharawal (then a
minor)
to succeed him in Dungarpur. The Maharawal has a son and heir, the
Maharaj Kunwar Khuman Singh. The distinctive family colour is red.
The area of the State is about 1000 square miles; its population
about
154,000, chiefly Hindus, but including 3609 Muhammadans and 67,000
Bhils (aborigines). His Highness the Maharawal maintains a military
force
of 251 cavalry, 535 infantry, and 8 guns; and is entitled to a salute
of
15 guns.

Residence. Dungarpur, Rdjputdna.

DUR MUHAMMAD KHAN, KHAGWANI, Bahadur
The title is personal, and was conferred on nth March 1859.
Residence. Dera Ismail KMn, Punjab.

DURGA CHARAN LAHA, C.I.B., Maharaja.

Born 23rd November 1822. The title is personal, and was conferred
on 3oth May 1891. The Maharaja, whose family name is more commonly
spelt " Law," was born at Chinsurah ; educated at the Hindu College,
Calcutta ; senior partner of the firm of Messrs. Prawn Kissen Law and
Company, and a Zamindar ; appointed Justice of the Peace and Honorary
Presidency Magistrate ; first native Member of the Port Commission ;
Member of the Bengal Legislative Council 1874 ; a Member of the
Senate
of the Calcutta University; elected a Governor of the Mayo Hospital
nth
April 1878; Member of the Imperial Legislative Council 1882; Commis-
sioner for the Reduction of Public Debt February 1882; Sheriff 1882 ;
made a Companion of the Indian Empire 24th May 1884 ; President of
the
British Indian Association in 1885 and 1888; the title of Raja was
con-
ferred in 1887; again appointed a Member of the, Imperial Legislative
Council 1888 ; the title of Maharaja conferred in 1891 ; and exempted
from
personal attendance in Civil Courts 27th January 1892. The Maharaja
has
two sons the Maharaj-Kumar Kristo Dass Law, born 24th February 1849;
and Maharaj-Kumar Rishee Kesh Law, born 4th May 1852, both Honorary
Presidency Magistrates.

Residence. 2 Cornwallis Street, Calcutta.

DURGA GATI BANARJI, Rai Bahadur.

Is a distinguished member of the Uncovenanted Civil Service. Obtained
the title on ist January 1891, "for good work as Personal Assistant to
the
Commissioners of the Patna and Presidency Divisions, and as Collector
of
Stamp Revenue and Superintendent of Excise Revenue, Calcutta."

Residence. C alcutta.

DURGA PARSHAD, Rai Bahadur.

Born 8th September 1827. The title was conferred on ist January 1885,
as a personal distinction. Belongs to a family which came originally
from
Kanauj in the Farrukhabad district and settled in Bareli. Educated at
Bareli ;
appointed to the Education Service in 1852, in which he served with
great
distinction, and was made Inspector of Schools of the Western Circle
of Oudh
in 1870. At the Imperial Assemblage at Delhi on ist January 1877, on
the occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as
Empress
of India, received a Silver Medal and a Certificate of Honour. In
1883
appointed Inspector of Schools for Rohilkhand, and retired on pension
in
1885. Is an Honorary Magistrate, and has filled many important public
positions. The Rai Bahadur has three sons Kunwar Kanhia Lai, born
1850; Kunwar Lai Bahadur, born 1863; Kunwar Jagdamba Prasad,
born 1870.

Residence. Bareli, North- Western Provinces.

DURGA PARSHAD, Rai Bahadur.

Born gth October 1843. The title was conferred on 29th May 1886, as
a personal distinction. Belongs to a family that came originally from
Lahore
and settled at Benares, purchasing estates in various districts. His
grand-
father was Kanhaiya Lai, who was treasurer of Gorakhpur 1802-14. Was
appointed an Honorary Magistrate in 1871, and has rendered good
service
in that capacity. Received a Certificate of Honour at the Imperial
Assem-
blage of Delhi on ist January 1877, on the occasion of the
Proclamation of
Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress of India ; and in 1879 was
presented
with a khilat in recognition of his services in the famine of 1876-77.
Is a
Member of the Legislative Council of the North- Western Provinces.

Residence. Gordkhpur, North-Western Provinces.

DURGA PRASAD, PANDIT, Mahdmahopddhydya.

The title was conferred, as a personal distinction, on the 25th May
1892,
in recognition of his eminence as an oriental scholar. It entitles him
to take
rank in Darbar immediately after titular Rajas.

Residence. Jaipur, Ra"jputa"na.

DURGA PRASHAD GHOSH, Rai Bahadur.
The title was conferred on ist January 1878, as a personal
distinction.
Residence. Hugli, Bengal.

DURJAN SINGH (of Patehpur), Rdjd.

Born 22nd July 1837. The title is hereditary. Belongs to a Raj Gond
family that claims an antiquity of more than 900 years, the tradition
being
that the jdgir of Fatehpur was granted to their ancestors in 939 A. D.
A
sanad of the Raja Kamal Nain, Gond Raja of Mandla, dated 1500 A.D.,
is
still in existence, conferring or confirming thisjdgir.

Residence. Hoshangabad, Central Provinces.

DWARIKA NATH MUKHARJI, Rai Bahddur.

Born in February 1831. The title was conferred on i5th March 1882,
as a personal distinction. Belongs to a Kulin Brahman family of high
caste,
descended from the famous Kamdev Pandit. Educated at the Nizamat
College; Murshidabad. Appointed to the Public Works Department in 1849
>
and from 1856 to 1889 executed many very important works in Fort
William and elsewhere. Rendered valuable service during the Mutiny of
1857; retired on pension August 1889. His grandfather, Navakisor
Mukharji, was in the service of the late King of Oudh ; and his
father, the
Diwan Radhanath Mukharji, was in the Public Works Department, and
became Diwan to Her Highness the Nawab Bhao Begam. Has a son and
heir, Babu Devendranath Mukharji.

Residence. Calcutta, Bengal.

DWARKA TBWARI, SUBAHDAR, Rai Bahddur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1890.
Residence. Nepa"l.

BDALJI PBSTANJI, Khan Bahddur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th February 1875.
Residence. Mhow, Central India.

ELAYA RAJA, The. See Travancore, Mahdrdjd of;
also see Cochin, Rdjd of.

FAGHFUR MIRZA, Mirza Bahddur.

Is the son-in-law of the late Wajid Ali Shah, King of Oudh. Son of
Nawab Mumtaz-ud-daula, son of Asghar Ali Khan, eldest son of Muhammad
Ali Shah, third King of Oudh. On the death of the latter he was
succeeded
by his second son, Amjad Ali Shah, though the Nawab Mumtaz-ud-daula,
the son of the eldest son, was alive. Mumtaz-ud-daula married Zinat-
un-
Nissa, the daughter of Malika Zamani, one of the consorts of Nasir-ud-
din
Haidar, second king.

Residence. Oudh.

PAIZ ALI KHAN BAHADUR (of Kotah), NAWAB SIR,

K.C.S.I.

The Nawab Bahadur was created a Knight Commander of the Most
Exalted Order of the Star of India, 3ist December 1875.
Residence. Kotah, Rajputdna.

FAIZ MUHAMMAD KAZI, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i2th April 1876.
Residence. Karachi, Sind.

PAIZ-ULLA KHAN, Khan Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on loth July 1878.
Residence. Jodhpur, Rajputana.

FAIZ-UN-NISA, CHAUDHRAIN, Nawdb Saheb.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th May 1889.
Residence. Tipperah, B engal.

PAKHR-UD-DIN HAIDAR ALI KHAN, SAYYID, Nawdb
Intikhab-ud-dauld.

Is a grandson of the late Wajid Ali Shah, King of Oudh, being the son
of the Nawab Azmat-ud-daula, who married one of the King's daughters.
The title was granted to Azmat-ud-daula by King Wajid Ali Shah in
1849.

Residence. O udh.

PAKIRJI JIWAJI, Khdn Saheb.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 3rd February 1882.
Residence. Bombay.

PARDANJI PBSTANJI, Khdn Saheb.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 8th October 1874.
Residence. Poona, Bombay.

PARID-UD-DIN, MAULAVI, SAYYID, Khdn Bahadur.

Born September 1827. The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th
February 1887, on the occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her
Most
Gracious Majesty, for distinguished service as a Judge. The family
traces its
descent from Sayyid Abdul Khair, of Khursan, who settled in Kara,
district
Allahabad, in the year 1300. The Khan Bahadur's ancestors received
muafi
grants from the Mughal Emperors for their ability and learning.

Residence. Agra, North-Western Provinces.

PARIDKOT, His Highness the Rdjd Bahadur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1842 ; succeeded to ft& gadi 22nd April 1874. His full titles
are
His Highness Farzand-i-Saadat-i-Nishan-i-Hazrat-i-Kaisar-i-Hind Barar
Bans
Raja Bikram Singh Bahadur, Raja Bahadur of Faridkot. Is the head of
the
Barar Jat tribe of Sikhs, the family tracing their origin from Barar,
seventeenth
in descent from Jesal, the founder of the Jesalmir State, and the
ancestor of
the Sidhu and other illustrious Jat clans. A descendant of Barar's,
named
Ballan, rose to eminence in the time of the Emperor Akbar. His nephew
built Kot-Kapura, a fort about six miles south of the town of
Faridkot ; and
a descendant named Sardar Hamir Singh became independent Chief of
Faridkot in 1782. In 1808 Faridkot submitted to the Maharaja Ranjit
Singh, and the territory was granted to Diwan Mokam Chand, the Lahore
General. But when in 1808-9 the British Government demanded from the
Maharaja the surrender of his conquests on the left bank of the
Sutlej,
Faridkot was given back to its ancient possessors; and in 1845, when
the
first Sikh war broke out, the Sardar Pahar Singh of Faridkot attached
him-
self to the English, using his utmost exertions to collect supplies
and carriage,
and furnishing guides for the army. Pahar Singh received as his reward
the
title of Raja, together with half the territory confiscated from the
Raja of
Nabha, and in this obtained possession once more of Kot-Kapura, the
ancestral seat of his family. He was succeeded by his son, the Raja
Wazir
Singh, who joined the English in the second Sikh war, and greatly
dis-
tinguished himself during the Mutiny of 1857 by seizing mutineers,
guarding
the ferries over the Sutlej, and attacking a notorious rebel named
Sham Das,
whose village he destroyed. His troops served with credit under
General
Van Cortlandt in Sirsa and elsewhere. For these services Raja Wazir
Singh
received the additional titles of " Barar Bans Raja Saheb Bahadur," a
khilat
of increased value, and a salute of 1 1 guns. He was also exempted
from
the service of ten horsemen, which he had previously had to provide ;
and in
1862 he received a sanad conferring the right of adoption. The
present
Raja has given up excise and transit duties in exchange for
compensation.
The area of the State is 612 square miles; its population 97,034, of
whom
40,182 are Sikhs, 27,463 are Hindus, and 29,035 are Muhammadans. His
Highness maintains a military force of 70 cavalry, 300 infantry, and 6
guns ;
and is entitled to a salute of 1 1 guns.

Residence. Faridkot, Punjab.

FARRUKH MUHAMMAD TAKI ALI, Mirza Bahadur.

Is the grandson of the late Amjad All Shah, fourth King of Oudh,
being
the son of Mirza Dara Sitwat. The title was conferred by King
Muhammad
Ali Shah on Prince Dara Sitwat in 1838.

Residence. O udh.

FARRUKH SHAH. See Muhammad Farrukh Shah.

FARRUKH SIYAR, Shdhzdda.

Is a descendant of Shah Shuja, the King of Kabul, who was restored to
the throne of Afghanistan by the British. The title is a personal one,
and
was recognised 4th February 1853.

Residence. Ludhicina, Punjab.

FATBH KHAN walad ABBAS ALI KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the
Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Sind.

FATBH KHAN walad AHMAD KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the
Amirs
of the Talpur family, Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

FATEH KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the Mirs
or
Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

FATBH KHAN, Nawdb.

The title is personal ; a courtesy title.
Residence. Hala, Sind.

FATBH KHAN, MIR (of Mirpur), His Highness.

The title is personal, and was conferred on loth November 1877, His
Highness being a descendant of the Amir who was ruling at the time of
the
conquest.

Residence. Hyderabad, Sind.

THE GOLDEN BOOK OF INDIA 135

FATBH KHAN, Khan.

The title is hereditary, and was conferred on ist January 1877.
Residence. Chang, Merwara.

FATEH KHAN GHEBA, SARDAR, Khan Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 2nd January 1888.
Residence. Rawalpindi, Punjab.

FATEH SHER KHAN, TIWANA, MALLIK, Khan Bahadur.

The title was conferred on 3ist January 1860 as a personal
distinction.
Belongs to an ancient Rajput family, the Tiwanas of Mitha Tiwana, who
claim common descent with the Sials of Jhang and the Ghebas of
Pindigheb,
all in the division of Rawalpindi, Punjab. Amir Ali Khan was the
founder
of the family ; and his son, Mir Ahmad Khan, built Mitha Tiwana,
which
became a flourishing town under his successors, Dadu Khan and Sher
Khan.
Dadu Khan was killed in a skirmish with his own son Sher Khan, who
then
became Chief. His grandson, Ahmad Yar Khan, submitted to the Maha-
raja Ranjit Singh , and the nephew of Ahmad Yar Khan, Fateh Khan, held
a
command under Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa till the death of that General
in
1837. Subsequently he was placed in charge of the Bannu territory by
Raja Dhyan Singh, Prime Minister at Lahore. On the outbreak of the
re-
bellion in 1848 Fateh Singh, on the recommendation of Lieutenant
Edwardes,
was appointed Governor of Bannu. He did good service, but his fort of
Dalipnagar was besieged by the mutineers, and he was shot down in the
gateway. He was succeeded by his son, Fateh Sher Khan, the present
Mallik, who served as one of Major Edwardes's chief officers. In the
Mutiny of 1857 he rendered excellent service in the Hissar and Jhajjar
terri-
tories, and was rewarded with an extensive jdgir, as well as the title
of Khan
Bahadur.

Residence. Shdhpur, Punjab.

FATEH SINGH (of Pawayan), Rdjd.

Born loth October 1858. The title is hereditary, and the present Raja
succeeded his adoptive father on the i7th May 1889. Belongs to a
family
of Gaur Rajputs, who first came into the district of Shahjahanpur to
help the
Rani of Nahil against the Pathans. Udhai Singh, the leader of the
second
expedition, founded the town of Pawayan. At the time of the cession
in
1802 the great-grandson of Udhai Singh, named Raja Raghunath Singh,
was
Raja of Pawayan, and he was confirmed in his possessions by Mr.
Wellesley,
the Deputy Governor. He was succeeded in 1825 by his widow the Rani ;
and the latter, having adopted Raja Jagannath Singh (the uncle and
adoptive
father of the present Raja), died in 1850. The Raja is an Honorary
Magistrate.

Residence. Shdhjahdnpur, North- Western Provinces.

PATEH SINGH (of Thehpur), Sarddr.

Born 1823. The title is hereditary. Descended from Sardar Milka
Singh, who was one of the most powerful of the Sikh Chiefs during the
latter
half of the last century. He died in 1804, and his son, Sardar Jiwan
Singh, died the next year. The Maharaja Ranjit Singh then seized the
largest portion of the estate, giving Sardar Anand Singh, the son and
heir of
Jiwan Singh, jdgirs in Firozpur district. Sardar Anand Singh died in
1831,
leaving his only son, the present Sardar, a minor of eight years of
age. On
the annexation of the Punjab the Sardar's personal jdgir was confirmed
to
him for life one quarter to descend to his son, who is named Shamsher
Singh, born in 1843.

Residence. Thehpur, Lahore, Punjab.

PATBH SINGH, RAJ (of Dilwara), Rao Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 2nd January 1888.
Residence. M e wa" r, Ra" j puta" na.

PATH ALI, Nawdb, C.SJ. See Banganapale, Nawdb of.

FAUJDAR KHAN (of Ashti), Nawdb.

Born about 1825. The title is hereditary. The Nawab is the son of
Nawab Hatam Khan ; and is descended in a direct line from the Afghan
Chief, Muhammad Khan Niazi, to whom Ashti was granted as a jdgir by
the Emperor Jahangir of Delhi. The title of Nawab was conferred by
the
Emperor Shah Jahan, and has been recognised by the British
Government.
The Nawab has a son and heir named Hatam Khan.

Residence. Ashti, Wardha, Central Provinces.

FAZL AHMAD KHAN (of Panipat), Nawdb.

The title is hereditary. Is descended from the Nawab Lutf-ulla Khan,
whose great-grandson, Nawab Bakar AH Khan, was the grandfather of the
present Nawab. The family occupied important posts under the Mughal
Emperors of Delhi. The Nawab Bakar AH Khan was succeeded by his son,
the Nawab Aman-ulla Khan ; he rendered excellent service to
Government
during the Mutiny of 1857, and was rewarded with a considerable grant
of
lands. He was succeeded by his elder son, the present Nawab.

Residence. Pdnipat, Karnal, Punjab.

FAZL ALI walad MUHAMMAD KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of the Mirs who
were
Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Sind.

FAZL HUSAIN, SHAIKH, Khan Bahadur.

Born 1826. The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th May 1882,
in recognition of eminent services rendered during the famine of
1877.
Residence. Lucknow, Oudh.

FAZL HUSAIN KHAN walad SOHRAB KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of the Mirs who
were
Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shika"rpur, Sind.

FAZL IMAM SAYYID, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal; and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty.
Residence. Patna, Bengal.

FAZL MUHAMMAD walad ALI BAKHSH KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of the Mirs who
were
Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

FIEOZ KHAN (of Bari), Rdjd.

The title is hereditary. The Raja is a Gakkar Chief, son of Raja All
Gauhar Khan. The Gakkars trace their descent from Kai Gohar, a native
of Ispahan in Persia, whose son, Sultan Kaid, is said to have
conquered
Badakshan and part of Thibet. They were settled in the Punjab about
300
A.D. ; and their conquest of Kashmir, and their resistance to the
Emperor
Babar, are historical events. The Raja has two sons, named Sher Ahmad
Khan and Gauhar Rahman.

Residence. Haza"ra, Punjab.

FRAMJI ARDBSAR, Khan Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th May 1888.
Residence. Ahmednagar, Bombay.

Listed Alphabetically. More to follow...

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GABAT, THAKUR VAJESING-H, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1875 ; succeeded to the gadi as a minor ; is a tributary to
Idar,
and belongs to a Koli (aboriginal) family. The State has an area of
22
square miles; and a population of 1430, chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Gabat, Ma"hi Kdntha, Bombay.

GABBAR SINGH (of Kaimori), Rao.

The title is hereditary ; and was originally conferred by Raja Bikram
Shah, Gond Raja of Mandla. The family is said to be descended from
Shiani Shah Rao, who first bore the title of Rao.

Residence. Jabalpur, Central Provinces.

GAD, Thdkur of. See Garh.

GADHI, RAJA UMAR SINGH walad DBVRAO, Rdjd of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1868 ; succeeded to the gadi 6th October 1886. The area of the
State, which is one of the Dang States of Khandesh, is 170 square
miles ; its
population 6309, chiefly Bhils, Konknas, and other aboriginal tribes.

Residence. Gadhi, Khdndesh, Bombay.

GADHKA, AZAM JADBJA SHIVSINGHJI GOVINDJI,

Tdlukddr of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1869; succeeded to the gadi as a minor, 26th November 1870.
Belongs to a Rajput (Hindu) family. The area of the State is 23
square
miles; its population 2252, chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Gadhka, Kd.thiwdr, Bombay.

GAGAR MAL, LALA, Rai Bahadur.

The title was conferred on i6th February 1887, on the occasion of the
Jubilee of Her Most Gracious Majesty's reign, as a personal
distinction.

Residence. Amritsar, Punjab.

GAJAMAN KRISHNA BHATAVADEKAR, Rao Bahdditr.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 2oth May 1890.
Residence. Baroda.

GAJAPATI RAO, G. N., Rdjd, C.LE.

Born 2nd December 1828. Is a scion of the ancient Goday family of
Vizagapatam in the Northern Circars, Madras Presidency, and Zamindar
of

Ankapalle and other estates. Educated in the
Hindu College, Calcutta. Was a Member of
the Madras Legislative Council from 1868 to
1884; and a Fellow of the University of
Madras. The title of Raja was conferred
upon him in 1881 ; and the Companionship
of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian
Empire in 1892. Has established and main-
tains several schools ; presented the statue of
Her Majesty the Queen Empress of India to
the city of Madras in honour of Her Majesty's
Jubilee in 1887 ; and has given large donations
to many public objects. Has received from

His Holiness the Pope Leo XIII., through

His Delegate Apostolic in East Indies, in 1891,

a mosaic picture as a mark of appreciation of his kindness shown to
the
Catholics of Vizagapatam. The Raja's grandfather, Sri Goday Jaga Rao,
distinguished himself in the service of Government about the middle of
the
1 8th century. It was of him that the Honourable Court of Directors in
a
communication to the Government of Fort Saint George, dated iyth
April
1789, wrote: "We concur in the acknowledgment your Government have
rendered of the zeal for our interests manifested on various occasions
by
Goday Jugga Row." Sri Jaga Rao was succeeded by his son Sri Goday
Soorya Narayan Rao, father of the Raja; born 1792, died 1853. Lord
Connemara, when publicly complimenting the Raja on his presentation of
the
statue of the Queen Empress to the city of Madras, said of this
gentleman :
"The Raja's father, Goday Soorya Narayan Rao, followed in the
footsteps of
his father, founded various charitable institutions, and during the
famine of
1833 fed a large number of poor in the neighbourhood of Nellore. He
also
contributed largely to various public works." The Raja's crest is a
rising
sun over a Hindu device, with the motto, " I desire the Light," in
Sanskrit
and Latin.

Residences. The Mahal, Vizagapatam ; and The Mansion, Madras.

GAJINDAR SINGH (of Majithia), Sardar.

The title is hereditary. Belongs to the same family of the Shergil
Jat
tribe as his first cousin the Sardar Dayal Singh of Majithia (see
Dayal
Singh), both Sardars being grandsons of Sardar Disa Singh. The father
of Sardar Gajindar Singh was Sardar Ranjodh Singh, half-brother of
Sardar
Lahna Singh, being the son [of Sardar Disa Singh by another mother.
He
was a General in the Sikh Army.

Residence. Amritsar, Punjab.

GAJRAJ SINGH (of Hirapur), Thdkur.

Born 1832. The title is hereditary; and is said to have been first
acquired from Raja Narbar. Belongs to a Rajput family of the Bais-
Suraj-
Bansi, or Bais Solar race ; said to have come from the neighbourhood
of
Delhi in the time of the Gond Rajas. Anup Singh, one of his
ancestors,
rendered military service to the Raja of Pitehra ; for which he
received a
jdgir in Sagar territory. The Thakur has five sons Than Singh,
Bhagwant
Singh, Ajmir Singh, Bisal Singh, and Kaliar Singh.

Residence. Hirapur, Narsinghpur, Central Provinces.

GALE MATING, Kyet Thaye zaung shwe Salwe ya Min.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1889. It
means
" Recipient of the Gold Chain of Honour," and is indicated by the
letters
K.S.M. after the name.

Residence. Tavoy, Burma.

GANDA SINGH (of Dhiru Majra), Sardar.

The title is hereditary. The Sardar is the present head of the Dhiru
Majra Sardars, who come of a Jat family. He has taken great interest
in
educational matters.

Residence. Dhiru Majra, Ludhia"na, Punjab.

GANBSH BALKRISHNA HANCHINAL, Azam.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 26th November 1883.
Residence. Belgaum, Bombay.

GANESH GANGADHAR, Rao Saheb.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1890.
Residence. Mdhi Kdntha, Bombay.

GANESH GOVIND, Rao Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i7th October 1884.
Residence. Poona, Bombay.

GANESH SITARAM SHASTRI, SAR SUBAH, Rao Bahddur.

The title was conferred on i6th February 1887, on the occasion of the
Jubilee of the reign of Her Majesty the Queen Empress, as a personal
distinction.

Residence. Baroda.

GANGA BISHTU RAI, Rai Bahddur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 6th December 1884.
Residence. Calcutta, Bengal.

GANGA CHARAN DAS, Rai Bahddur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th May 1883.
Residence. Indore, Central India.

GANGA PARSHAD SINGH, Rai Bahddur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 6th July 1888.
Residence. Darbhanga, Bengal.

GANGA RAM, Rai.

Born 1811. The title is hereditary. Belongs to a Khatri family that
has long resided at Delhi, but came originally from Nawashahr, in the
Jalandhar division of the Punjab. Several members of the family
obtained
positions of trust and honour under the Mughal Emperors ; and one,
Nagar
Mai, obtained the title of Maharaja. The Rai has four sons Baldeo
Singh,
Ram Singh, Sham Singh, and Surat Singh.

Residence. Delhi, Punjab.

GANGADHAR SHASTRI, Mahdmahopddhydya.

The title was conferred on i6th February 1887, on the occasion of the
Jubilee of Her Majesty's reign, in recognition of his eminence in
oriental
learning. It entitles him to take rank in Darbar immediately after
titular
Rajas.

Residence. Benares, North- Western Provinces.

GANGAJI RAMJI, Rao Saheb.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1890.
Residence. Bombay.

GANGPUR, RAJA RAGHUNATH SIKHAR DEO, Rdjd of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1849 ; succeeded to the gadi 28th November 1858. Belongs to a
Kshatriya (Hindu) family, known as the Sikhar family of Sikharpur or
Pachete in Manbhum. The Raja's eldest son and heir bears the title of
Tikait, and is named Tikait Harinath Sikhar Deo. The area of the
State,
which is one of the Chota Nagpur Tributary Mahals, is 2484 square
miles;
its population 107,985, chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Gangpur, Chota Ndgpur, Bengal.

GANPAT RAI (of Deri Ghazi Khan, Punjab), C.I.E., Diwdn.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th May 1883. The
Diwan, for eminent services rendered to Government as an Extra
Assistant
Commissioner in Baluchistan, was created a Companion of the Most
Eminent
Order of the Indian Empire on 25th May 1892.

Residence. Baluchistan.

GANPAT RAO (of Jaisinghnagar), Rao.

Born 1845. The title is hereditary, and was originally conferred by
the
old Mahratta Government. The ancestors of this family were a branch
of
that of the ancient rulers of Sagar. The Rao has a son and heir,
named
Narayan Rao.

Residence. Jaisinghpur, Sdgar, Central Provinces.

GANPATRAO MOROBA PITALB, Rao Saheb.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 3ist January 1870.
Residence. Bombay.

GANPATRAO RAMCHANDAR, Rao Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 3ist October 1879.
Residence. Ujjain, Central India.

GARAB SINGH (of Nandsa), Thdkur.

The title is hereditary, having been originally conferred by the Rajas
of
Deogarh. The Thakur is Jagirdar of Pachmari, and his jdgir was
originally
held by a family of Mowasses of Korkors, the hereditary guardians of
the
Cave of Mahadeo, in the Pachmari Hills.

Residence. Nandsa, Hoshangabad, Central Provinces.

The Santak of the Chauhan
Rajputs, called Chakra, used
in the seal and for signature.

(A circle with four Trisulas or
Tridents as radii at the car-
dinal points.)

GARH, THAKUR CHANDRASINGHJI,

Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1866; succeeded to the gadi loth
November 1884. Belongs to a Chauhan Rajput
(Hindu) family, descended from a younger brother
of one of the ancestors of the Chief of Chhota
Udaipur, to whom the Thakur of Garh is tributary.
The State, which is the largest in the Sankhera
Mehvas, contains an area of 134 square miles; its
population is almost entirely Bhil (aboriginal).

Residence. Garh, Rewa" Kdntha, Bombay.

The Santak of the Chauhan
Rajputs, called Chakra, used
in the seal and for signature.

(A circle with four Trisulas or
Tridents as radii at the car-
dinal points.)

GARHA, RAJA BALBHADAR SINGH,

Rdjd of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1870; succeeded to the gadi 7th April
1 88 1. Belongs to a Chauhan Rajput (Hindu)
family. The State is feudatory to Gwalior, and
was formerly a portion of the Rajhugarh jdgir.
Its name is sometimes spelt Gharra. Its popula-
tion is about 9500.

Residence. Garha, Guna, Central India.

GARHWAL, Rdjd of. See Tehri.

GARRAULI, DIWAN BAHADUR CHANDRA BHAN SINGH,

Jdgir ddr of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1884; succeeded to the gadi as a minor i6th March 1885.
Belongs to the Bundela Rajput (Hindu) family, of the Orchha stock that
has
given rulers to so many States of Central India (see Panna, Ajaigarh,
Dattia,
Charkhari, Bijawar, Sarila, Jigni, Jaso, Lughasi, etc.) Man Singh,
the
younger grandson of Rudra Pratap (founder of Orchha), was the founder
of
the Satgharia branch of this family, from which descend the Garrauli
Chiefs.
Diwan Gopal Singh obtained a sanad from the British Government in
1812.
He was succeeded by his son, Diwan Parichhat, on whom the additional
title of Bahadur was conferred, ryth October 1844. The area of the
State
is 25 square miles; its population 4976, chiefly Hindus. The Diwan
Bahadur maintains a military force of 2 cavalry, 56 infantry, and 4
guns.

Residence. Garrauli, Bundelkhand, Central India.

GAUHAR KHAN, O.I.B., Sardar.

The title is hereditary, the Sardar being the Chief of the Jalawan
Brahuis of Baluchistan. He was created a Companion of the Most
Eminent Order of the Indian Empire on the institution of that Order,
ist
January 1878.

Residence. Baluchistan.

GAUR GRANDER MAN SINGH HARI CHANDAN MURDRAJ
BHRAMARBAR RAI (of Parikud), Rdjd.

Born in November 1850. The title is hereditary, and the present Raja
succeeded to the gadi on the death of his father, Raja Chandra Sikhar
Man
Singh, in 1872. Belongs to an ancient family, whose founder was the
Raja
Jadu Raj. He possessed Parikud and other territory in the time of the
Mughals. He fought against the Subahdar of the province on behalf of
the
Nawab Parasuramraj Pandit, and defeated him, receiving large grants of
terri-
tory from the Nawab as his reward. Towards the close of the Mahratta
rule
the Raja Harisebak of Parikud was defeated by the Raja of Khurdah,
and
lost most of his possessions. Raja Chandra Sikhar Man Singh,
predecessor
of the present Raja, showed great liberality in the time of the Orissa
famine
of 1866, and was created a Companion of the Most Exalted Order of the
Star of India.

Residence. Parikud, Puri, Orissa, Bengal.

GAURHARI RAI, Rai Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 7th April 1884.
Residence. Midnapur, Bengal.

GAURIHAR, RAO SHAMLB PRASAD BAHADUR, Jdgirddr of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1859; succeeded to the gadi on the death of the late Rao Gaja-
dhar Prasad, i4th November 1887. Belongs to a Brahman (Hindu) family,
that held the title of " Sawai Rajdhar " from ancient times. At the
beginning
of the present century Rajdhar Raja Ram, the head of the family, was
a Sardar of the Banda-Ajaigarh State, and Governor of its fort of
Bhuragarh
at Banda. He became a leader of note, and in 1807 was granted the
Gaurihar /dg77' by the British Government. His son, Rajdhar Rudra
Pratap,
did excellent service, and incurred great personal loss at Banda. For
this
the Government conferred on him, in the Cawnpur Darbar of 1859, the
title of Rao Bahadur, a khilat, and the right of adoption. The area of
the
State is 72 square miles; its population is 10,691, chiefly Hindus.
The
Chief maintains a military force of 43 cavalry, 198 infantry, and 6
guns.

Residence. Gaurihar, Bundelkhand, Central India.

GAURISHANKAR UDESHANKAR, AZAM, C.S.L

Born 2ist August 1805; was for a long time the Diwdn or Prime
Minister of the State of Bhaunagar (g.v.\ in Kathiawdr, where he so
distinguished himself by his vigorous administration and numerous
reforms
as to earn from Sir Bartle Frere, then Governor of Bombay, the high
praise
of being "one of the best and ablest of modern native statesmen." At
the
Imperial Assemblage of Delhi, ist January 1877, on the occasion of
the
Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress of India, he was
created a Companion of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India,
with
a Medal of Honour. He retired from the service of the Bhaunagar State
in
1879, having been honourably engaged in it for a period of no less
than
fifty-seven years.

Residence. Bhaunagar, Ka"thia"war.

GAVRIDAD, AZAM JADBJA PRATAPSINGHJI MERUJI,

Tdlukddr of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1839; succeeded to the gadi in 1855. Belongs to a. Rajput
(Hindu) family. The State, which was the original seat of the Chiefs
of
Palitana, has an area of 27 square miles; and a population of 2381,
chiefly
Hindus. The Talukdar maintains a military force of 1 1 cavalry, 1 9
infantry,
and 2 guns.

Residence. Gavridad, Kd.thid.w^r, Bombay.

GAWHALI, Chief of. See Raysinghpur.

GAYA PARSHAD (of Pindarna), Thakur.

Born 1852. The title is hereditary, having been originally conferred
by
Raja Mardan Singh of Garhakota. An ancestor of the family, named
Rawat
Parshad, saved the life of the Raja Mardan Singh from the Raja of
Tehri,
and obtained from him a sanad on copper-plate, granting him lands and
the
title of Thakur. He has one son, Thakur Bhairao Parshad.

Residence. Pindarna, Sdgar, Central Provinces.

GEROLI, Diwdn Bahddur of. See Garrauli.

GHANSHAM SINGH (of Mursan), Rdjd Bahddur.

Born 1851. The title is hereditary, and having long been recognised
by
Government, was formally conferred on 3rd December 1859, for the
excellent
services of the Raja Tikam Singh, grandfather of the present Raja,
during the
Mutiny of 1 85 7. The Raja comes of a family of Baisni Jats, having a
common
ancestor with the Raja Har Narayan Singh of Hathras in Aligarh a Jat
Chief,
by name Makhan, who came from Rajputana and settled in the
neighbourhood
of Mursan. His great-grandson, Thakur Nand Ram, died in 1696, leaving
fourteen sons, of whom one was named Zulkaran. The latter left a son
named
Khusal Singh, who obtained lands from the favour of the Nawab Vazir
of

Oudh, Saadat Khan. He died in 1749, and was succeeded by his son Phup
Singh, who largely increased the family estates, and assumed the title
of Raja.
His son Bhagwant Singh succeeded in 1798, and also increased the
estates,
and was granted ajagtr by the British Government for good service
performed
in Lord Lake's campaign. He died in 1823, and was succeeded by Raja
Tikam Singh, of whom above. Raja Tikam Singh was also created a
Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire. He died in
1878, and was succeeded by his grandson, the present Raja, who is an
Honorary Magistrate.

Residence. Mursan, Aligarh, North-Western Provinces.

GHARI, BHUMIA NAHAR SINGH, Bhumia of.

Born about 1839 ; succeeded to the gadi in 1864. Belongs to a
Bhilala family. The State is also called Bhaisakho; its population is
about 980.

Residence. Ghari, Bhopdwar, Central India.

GHARRA, Rdjd of. See Garha.

GHAUS SHAH KADARI, Khan Bahddur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877, in
celebra-
tion of the assumption of the Imperial title by Her Most Gracious
Majesty
the Queen Empress.

Residence. Kadar, Mysore.

GHAUSIA BBGAM, Nawdb.

Is the half-sister of His late Highness Muhammad Ghaus, the last of
the
titular Nawabs of the Carnatic. Was granted the personal title of
Nawab in
1822.

Residence. M adras.

GHAYAS-UD-DIN ALI KHAN, DIWAN, Shaikh-ul-Mushaikh.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877, on the
occasion of the Proclamation of Her Majesty as Empress of India.
Residence. Ajmir.

GHAYAS-UD-DIN JALA-UD-DIN KAZI, MIR, Khan Saheb.
Granted the title, as a personal distinction, 2nd January 1893.
Residence. Ndsik, Bombay.

GHAZANPAR ALI, MIR, Khan.

A member of the Carnatic family. The title is a personal one ; and,
having been originally conferred by the Nawab of the Carnatic, was
recognised 1890.

Residence. M adras.

GHORAM KHAN, RIND, Khdn Bahddur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 2 ist February 1884.
Residence. Karachi, Sind.

GHORASAR, THAKUR DADA SAHEB SURAJMALJI, Thdkurof.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1869; succeeded to the gadi 5th January 1883. Belongs to a
Dabbi Rajput (Hindu) family. Is tributary to the Gaekwar. The area of
the State is 40 square miles ; its population 8400, chiefly Hindus.

Residence, Ghorasar, Ma~hi Kdntha, Bombay.

GHULAM AHMAD, Khan Bahadur Kasim Jang.

The title, having been originally conferred by the Nawab of the
Carnatic,
was recognised in 1890.
Residence. M adras .

GHULAM AHMAD, MIRZA, C.I.E.

Was created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian
Empire, 24th May 1881.
Residence.

GHULAM AHMAD-ULLA, Khdn.

The title, having been originally conferred by the Nawab of the
Carnatic,
was recognised 1890. Is styled Muhammad Khair-ulla Khan.
Residence. M adras .

GHULAM AKBAR KHAN walad HUSAIM BAKHSH, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the
Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Hyderabad, Sind.

GHULAM ALI, Khdn Bahadur.

A member of the Carnatic family. The title, having been originally
conferred by the Nawab of the Carnatic, was recognised 1890.
Residence. Madras.

GHULAM ALI walad ZULFIKAR KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of the Talpur
Mirs,
who were ruling in Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Hyderabad, Sind.

GHULAM ALI KHAN walad KHAN MUHAMMAD, Mir.
The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the
Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Hyderabad, Sind.

GHULAM ALI KHAN walad GHULAM SHAH KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the Mirs
or
Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shika"rpur, Sind.

GHULAM BABA, MIR, Khan Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 2yth June 1878.
Residence. Surat, Bombay.

GHULAM DASTAGIR, Khan Bahadur.
The title is a personal one, and was conferred in January 1888.
Residence. Trichinopoli, Madras.

GHULAM GHAUS, MUNSHI KHWAJA, Khdn Bahadur Zulkadr.

Born 1822. The title is personal, and was conferred on 6th June 1885.
Belongs to a family that left Kashmir towards the close of the
Durrani
dynasty on the occasion of a political outbreak, and removing to
Tibet,
engaged in commerce at Lhassa ; but subsequently migrated to Nepal,
and
finally settled at Benares. Khwaja Ghulam Ghaus succeeded his uncle
as
Mir Munshi to Government, and held that post till his retirement in
1885.
Rendered loyal service during the Mutiny of 1857, for which a sanad
and
khilat were conferred upon him.

Residence. Allahabad, North-Western Provinces.

GHULAM GHAUS. See Ghulam Muhammad Ghaus.

GHULAM HAIDAR walad MUHAMMAD KHAN, Mr.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the
Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Sind.

GHULAM HASAN, SHAIKH, Khdn Bahddur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 2nd January 1888.
Residence. Amritsar, Punjab.

GHULAM HUSAIN walad NAJIP ALI KHAN, Mir.
The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the
Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikarpur, Sind.

GHULAM HUSAIN walad ALI GAUHAR KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the
Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikcirpur, Sind.

GHULAM HUSAIN (JATI), Malik.

Born about 1847. The title is hereditary, the tradition being that it
was first conferred by Sultan Murad Khan, son of Sultan Muhammad Khan
of Constantinople. There is also a sanad from Muhammad Shah, Emperor
of Delhi. Belongs to a Jat (Muhammadan) family.

Residence. Karachi, Sind.

GHULAM HUSAIN KHAN walad IMAM BAKHSH
KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the
Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind.

Residence. Shikctrpur, Sind.

GHULAM HUSAIN KHAN walad AHMAD KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the Mirs
or
Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

GHULAM JILANI, Khan.

The title, originally conferred by the Nawab of the Carnatic, was
recognised
in 1890.

Residence. M adras.

GHULAM KADIR KHAN walad KHAN MUHAMMAD
KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the Mirs
or
Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikcirpur, Sind.

GHULAM KADIR KHAN, Khan Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 20th May 1890.
Residence. Gwalior, Central India.

GHULAM KASIM KHAN, KATI KHEL (of Tank), Nawdb.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 6th October 1882.
Residence. Dera Ismail Kha~n, Punjab.

GHULAM MAHMUD, Khan.

The title is a personal one, and having been originally conferred by
the
Nawab of the Carnatic, was recognised in 1890. Is styled Niamat Khan.
Residence. Madras.

GHULAM MAHMUD, H AJI, Khdn Bahadur Mutasib Jang Mustafi-
iid-dauld Sharf-ul-Mulk.

The title is a personal one, and having been originally conferred by
the
Nawab of the Carnatic, was recognised in 1890.
Residence. Madras.

GHULAM MOHI-UD-DIN, Khdn.

The title is a personal one, and having been originally conferred by
the
Nawab of the Carnatic, was recognised in 1890.
Residence. Madras.

GHULAM MOHI-UD-DIN, Khdn.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th May 1881.
Residence. Kashm i r.

GHULAM MUHAMMAD, Khdn Bahadur.

Born 1850. Is son-in-law of His late Highness Prince Intizam-ul-Mulk,
the third of the Princes of Arcot ; granted the personal title of Khan
Bahadur
in 1887.

Residence. Madras.

GHULAM MUHAMMAD GHAUS, Khdn Bahadur.

Born 1861. Is son of Muazzaz-ud-daula, and grandson of His late
Highness Azim Jah, the first of the titular Princes of Arcot. Granted
the
personal title of Khan Bahadur in 1876.

Residence. Madras.

GHULAM MUHAMMAD HAIDAR, Khdn Bahadur.

Born 1834. Rendered eminent service in the Madras Police, for which
he received the title as a personal distinction in 1887. Retired on
pension
in 1890.

Residence. Karur, Coimbatore, Madras.

GHULAM MUHAMMAD HAJI, Khdn Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 3rd April 1884.
Residence. Bombay.

GKEULAM MUHAMMAD, Haji, Khan Bahadur Ghalib Jang Sharf-

ud-dauld.

The title is a personal one, and having been originally conferred by
the
Nawab of the Carnatic, was recognised in 1890.
Residence. Madras.

GHULAM MUHAMMAD HASAN ALI, Khan Bahadur.

Born 1850. Son of Sardar Jang. Granted the title of Khan Bahadur
as a personal distinction in 1883.
Residence. M adras.

GHULAM MUHAMMAD KHAN walad RUSTAM KHAN,

Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of the Talpur
Mirs,
who were ruling in Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Hyderabad, Sind.

GHULAM MUHI-UD-DIN, Khan Bahadur.

Born 1852. Granted the personal title of Khan Bahadur in 1885, for
good service in the Railway Department.
Residence. Tanjore, India.

GHULAM MURTAZA, Sardar.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Baluchistan.

GHULAM MURTAZA KHAN walad CHAKAR KHAN
(of Rahuja), Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of the Talpur
Mirs,
who were rulers of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

GHULAM MUSTAFA KHAN, HAJI, walad GHULAM
HAIDAR, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the Mirs
or
Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Hyderabad, Sind.

GHULAM NABI, MUNSHI, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the celebration of the Jubilee of Her Majesty's reign.
Residence. Punjab.

GHULAM NABI ALI, Khan Bahadur Nasir Jang.

The title is a personal one, and having been conferred originally by
the
Nawab of the Carnatic, was recognised in 1890. Is a member of the
Carnatic family.

Residence. Madras.

GHULAM NABI KHAN walad IMAM BAKHSH KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary. The Mir is a descendant of one of the Mirs
or
Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

GHULAM NAJAF KHAN walad IMAM BAKHSH KHAN,

Mir.

The title is hereditary. The Mir is a descendant of one of the Mirs
or
Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

GHULAM RASUL, MIYAN, Khdn Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1890.
Residence. Peshdwar, Punjab.


GHUND, Chief of.

Is a feudatory of the Raja of Keonthal (q.v.\ and rules over one of
the
Simla Hill States.

Residence. Ghund, Simla Hills, Punjab.

GIDHAUR, MAHARAJA RAVANBSHWAR PRASAD SINGH
BAHADUR, Maharaja Bahadur of.

Born 1859. Belongs to a Kshatriya family of the Chandra Vansi or
Lunar sept, whose founder was Bir Vikram Singh. His ancestors had
come
from Mahoba in Bundelkhand, and settled at Bardi in Rewah, and he was
the younger brother of the Raja of Bardi. From him the ninth in
descent is
said to have built the temple of Baidyanath. Raja Dalar Singh,
fourteenth
Raja, is stated to have received zfarmdn from the Emperor Shah Jahan
in
1651. Raja Gopal Singh was recognised by the British Government; and
his grandson was the well-known Sir Jaimangal Singh Bahadur, K.
C.S.I., on
whom the title of Maharaja Bahadur was conferred for his eminent
services
during the Santal insurrection and the Mutiny of 1857. On ist January
1877, on the occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty
as
Empress of India, Sir Jaimangal Singh received the hereditary title of
Maha-
raja Bahadur. He was succeeded by his son, Maharaja Shiva Prasad
Singh
Bahadur ; and the latter by his son, the present Maharaja Bahadur, who
is

well known for his benevolence and loyalty. Educated in Sanskrit,
Persian,
Hindi, and English ; married in 1885, and has a son and heir, born in
1890.
Received a khilat from the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal on succeeding
to
the title, also the privilege of exemption from attendance in Civil
Courts.
The family cognisance is a trisul, or trident of Siva.
Residence. Gidhaur, Bengal.

GIRDHARLAL ULATRAM, Rao Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 27th December 1872.
Residence. Ahmadabad, Bombay.

GIRIAPA TIMAPA DBSAI, Heladi Naik Bahadur Desai Nadugauda.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Belgaum, Bombay.

GIRIJA NATH RAI (of Dinajpur), Mahdrdjd.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th May 1884. Is the son
of the late Maharani Sham Mohini of Dinajpur ; and belongs to a
family
settled in the Dinajpur district since the time of Akbar, at which
time one
of its ancestors, named Srimanta Datta, was Zamindar of Dinajpur. His
daughter married Hari Ram Rai, who had been Diwan to the Zamindar of
Idrakpur. The son of this marriage was Suka Deb Rai, who died in
1677.
His son, Raja Jai Deb, was Raja of Dinajpur from 1677 to 1682; and
was
succeeded by his brother, Raja Prannath, from 1682 to 1723, who
adopted
a young relative named Ram Nath, who succeeded to the Raj, and died
in
1760. A grandson of the latter by adoption, named Radha Nath, was
Raja
from 1780 to 1 80 1 ; at his accession he owned the greater part of
the three
districts of Dinajpur, Maldah, and Bogra, but after the Decennial
Settlement
the bulk of the estate was sold for arrears of revenue. His grandson
was
the Raja Tarak Nath, 1840 to 1865, husband of the late Maharani Sham
Mohini, and adoptive father of the present Raja. The title of Maharani
was
formally conferred on that lady in 1875, for ner eminent benevolence
during
the great famine of 1873.

Residence. Dinajpur, Bengal.

GIRISH CHANDAR DAS, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 2nd April 1874, for
eminent
public services.

Residence. Calcutta, Bengal.

GIRISH CHANDAR GHOSH, Rai Bahadur.
: is personal, ar
ices as Judge.
Residence. Hugli, Bengal.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ipth August 1879, for
eminent services as Judge.

GIRISH CHANDAR RAI, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th May 1889, for
eminent
public services.

Residence. Nalthoba, Bengal.

GOBARDHUN DAS, SAH, Rai Bahddur.

Born 2Qth October 1856. The title is personal, and was conferred on
ist January 1886, for eminent public services as a Municipal
Commissioner
of Lucknow, and an Honorary Magistrate. Belongs to an Agarwala
family ;
and is one of the sons of Sah Benarsi Das, late a banker at Lucknow,
and a
partner in the banking firm of Sah Behari Lai, Lucknow.

Residence. Lucknow, Oudh.

GOBIND RAM, Rao Bahddur.

Born 1 5th December 1851. The title was conferred, 2nd January 1888,
as a personal distinction, for his services on the District Board and
Municipal
Committee, and especially for consideration shown to his debtors in
proceed-
ings under the Jhansi Encumbered Estates Act. Belongs to a Gaur
Brahman
Pattiwal family, whose ancestor, Khem Chand, emigrated to Jaipur from
Jesalmir, and there established a commercial house ; and subsequently
established three more houses in Jhansi. The Rao Bahadur's uncle
rendered good service during the Mutiny of 1857.

Residence. Jhdnsi, North-Western Provinces.

GOBIND RAO NARAYAN, Rao.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Allahabad, North-Western Provinces.

GOBIND SAHAI, Diwdn.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Gujra'nwdla, Punjab.

. GOBIND SINGH (of Beona), Rdjd.

Bom 29th November 1872. The title is hereditary; and is stated by
the family to have been obtained in the year 1746 from the Mahrattas,
after
the defeat of the Bundelas by the combined forces of the Peshwa and
Nawab
Khan Bangash of Farrukhabad. Belongs to a Bundela Rajput family, and
is
the son of the late Raja Parachat, who died on 3rd March 1878.

Residence. Jalaun, North-Western Provinces.

GOBIND SINGH, THAKUR, Rao Bahddur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1889.
Residence. Jaipur, Rajputa~na.

GODE NARAYAN GAJAPATI RAO, Rdjd. See Gajapati.

GOGAN CHANDRA RAI, Rat Bahadur.

Granted the title of Rai Bahadur, as a personal distinction, for
eminent
services rendered in the Benares Opium Department, 2nd January 1893.
Residence. Benares, North- Western Provinces.

GOKAL DAS, SBTH, Rdjd.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1889. The
Raja
had been created a Rao Saheb in 1867, on account of his liberal
contributions
towards the erection of the Jabalpur Town Hall. His father was Seth
Kushal
Chand, a wealthy banker of Jabalpur, who rendered good services during
the
Mutiny in 1857; a gold medal was presented to him by the Government
for
his liberal help in fitting out the Madras Column.

Residence. Jabalpur, Central Provinces.

GOKAL NARAYAN, Rai.

Born 1842. The title is hereditary ; having been originally conferred
by
the Nawab Shuja-ud-daula Bahadur on an ancestor of the family named
Lachmi Narayan, Khattri, who was Daroga of the palaces of the Begam.
The Rai's father was the Rai Baldeo Narayan, alias Chotu Lai. The Rai
is also known by the name of Chotu Lai ; he has three sons Babu Kesri
Narayan, Mahabir Narayan, and Badri Narayan.
Residence. Allahabad, North- Western Provinces.

GOKUL CHANDRA SINGHI, Rai Bahadur.

Born 1825; son of the late Babu Uma Charan Singhi, of Khishma,
Nadiya, Bengal. Has rendered good service in the Small Arms
Ammunition
Factory at Dum-Dum; and received the title on the ist January 1891,
in
recognition thereof. Belongs to a Kayastha family descended from Rai
Lakshman Singha of Chaula, who was the Gushtipati or " Chief of the
clan "
among the Maulik Kayasthas. Muralidhar Singha first settled in Khishma
in
the beginning of the i7th century; and it is stated that Raja Kali
Prasanna
Singha of Calcutta, translator of the Mahabharata, is a lineal
descendant of
this family. The Rai Bahadur married a daughter of the late Babu
Chandra
Nath Mustafi, Zamindar of Ula in Nadiya District, whose ancestors are
stated
to have held the post of Accountant-General under the Nawab Nazims of
Bengal. The Rai Bahadur has three sons Anukul Chandra Singha, born
1865; Bankim Chandra Singha, born 1870; Atul Chandra Singha, born
1875. His eldest son, Satis Chandra Singha, is deceased; but has left
a
son and heir, Probodh Chandra Singha, born 1881.

Residences. Dum-Dum, near Calcutta; 173 Cornwallis Street, Calcutta;
Khishma, Nadiya' District, Bengal.

GOLAK CHANDAR CHAUDHRI, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877, on the
occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress
of
India.

Residence. Chittagong, Bengal.

GONDAL, HIS HIGHNESS THAKUR SAHEB SIR BHAG-
WATSINGHJI SAGRAMJI, K.C.I.E., Thdkur Saheb of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 24th October 1865 ; succeeded to \hegadi i4th December 1869
as a minor. Belongs to a Jareja Rajput (Hindu) family, tracing its
origin to

the renowned Krishna; descended from the
Nawanagar-Rajkot family ; is a Kumbhani, being
a descendant of Kumbhoji I., founder of the
Gondal dynasty ; was only four years old when
he succeeded his father, who died in 1869,
when on a visit to Bombay. The following is
a brief summary of the history of this ruling
family: (i) Kumbhoji I., founder of the Gon-
dal dynasty; 1634-49 A.D. Succeeded by his
son (2) Sagramji I., 1649-1714 A.D. Succeeded
by his son (3) Haloji, 1714-53. Succeeded
by his son (4) Kumbhoji II., 1753-90 A.D., was
a most powerful chief; was both a warrior and
a statesman, and aggrandised his possessions by
conquest and statecraft. Succeeded by his
grandson (5) Muluji, 1790-92 A.D. Succeeded
by his son (6) Dajibhai, 1792-1800 A.D., was a patron of letters, and
was
especially fond of poetry. Succeeded by his uncle (7) Devaji, 1800-12
A.D.,
was a brave soldier and a wise ruler. Succeeded by his four sons one
after
another (8) Nathuji, 1812-14 A.D. ; (9) Kanuji, 1814-21 A.D. ; (10)
Chandra Sinhji, 1820-41 A.D. ; (u) Bhanabhai, 1841-51 A.D. ; (12)
Sag-
ramji II., 1851-79 A.D., was a very quiet and pious Chief. Succeeded
by
his son, the present Thakur Saheb. During his minority the State was
at
first administered direct by the British Government, but afterwards a
Joint-
Administration was introduced. He was educated at the Rajkot Rajkumar
College and also at the Edinburgh University. His College career has
been
reported to be eminently successful ; in order to give the finishing
touch to
his education, he undertook a voyage to Europe in 1883, in the company
of
Major (now Colonel) Hancock ; returned after six months ; published
an
account of his tour under the title "Journal of a Visit to England in
1883 ";
was associated with Major (now Colonel) Nutt in the administrative
business
of his State, and assumed sole charge on the 24th August 1884. The
reply
made by him on the occasion of his installation to the address of the
Political
Agent, Colonel West, was pronounced by Government to be highly
creditable
to him, both as regards the tone and the matter of it, showing " good
feeling
and good taste, and his description of his duties as a ruler evinces a
sound
and clear judgment." Three years after his installation the Thakur
Saheb was
publicly complimented by the Governor, Lord Reay, in the following
words :
" Thakur Saheb, though you have only been three years on the gadi, I
believe
you have acted up to the pledges you then gave." Nominated a Fellow of
the
Bombay University ; and a Vice-President of the Deccan Education
Society
at Poona. Having been imbued with a love of science, he again
proceeded
to Scotland in 1886, to reside for a time at the Edinburgh
University ; which,
in appreciation of his " exemplary quest of knowledge," conferred on
him the

honorary degree of LL.D. in 1887. The same year he was requested to
be
a member of the deputation from the Kathiawar Chiefs that waited on
Her
Majesty the Queen Empress at the time of the celebration of Her Most
Gracious Majesty's Jubilee; and on that occasion was made a K.C.I.E.
Returned to India in August 1887. Takes a keen interest in the
adminis-
trative business of the State, and is a joint-proprietor of the "
Bhaunagar-
Gondal " and " Gondal-Porbandar " railways, in which concerns he has
invested
about ^"500,000. Is taking steps to connect his capital with the main
line
of railway. Besides railways, the territory has many macadamised
roads,
schools, hospitals, municipalities, rest-houses, infirmary, post and
telegraph
offices, courts of justice, and other appliances of an improved
administration.
Owing to the excellence of his administration, the British Government
was
pleased to raise Gondal from the rank of a second-class to that of a
first-class
State in Kathiawar. In 1889 his wife daughter of His Highness the
Maharana of Dharampur being taken very ill, the doctors advised her to
go
to England for a change, and His Highness was obliged to take her
there for
the benefit of her health. This is the first instance of a Rajput
consort of a
Ruling Chief ever venturing to overcome her caste prejudices. Her
Highness
was received . by Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen Empress, and
personally invested with the Imperial Order of the Crown of India.
The
Thakur Saheb has contributed numerous donations to deserving public
institutions ; has relieved his subjects of the burden of many
obnoxious
taxes, and remitted a vast amount of debt which his people owed him.
His
subjects, in return, have voted him a statue by public subscription.

Arms. A belt and sword with the word " Gondal " at the top. Motto.
(Sanskrit) Sajyam cha Satyam, in Devanagari character, meaning "Ready
and True." His Highness's sons are Kuma'r Shri Bhojraj, heir -
apparent,
born 1883 ; is being educated in Edinburgh. Kuma'r Shri Bhupat Sinhje,
born
1888 ; is in England with his parents.

Residence. Gondal, Ka"thia~wdr, Bombay.

GOPAL CHANDAR MUKHARJI, Rai Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1889.
Residence. C alcutta.

GOPAL CHANDRA MUKHARJI, Rai Bahadur.

Has rendered good service as Chairman of the Kasipur-Chitpur Muni-
cipality, Calcutta; and received the title as a personal distinction
on 25th
May 1892.

Residence. Calcutta.

GOPAL DAS, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th May 1884.
Residence. Lahore, Punjab.

GOPAL MOHAN SARKAR, Rai Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1887.
Residence. Calcutta.

GOPAL RAO (of Rehli), Rao.

The title is hereditary. Is the son of the late Rao Kishen Rao ; and
descended from Govind Pandit, who came to Sagar with the Mahratta
ruler
from Puna, and being a relative of the latter, was made Mdmlatddr of
Rehli.

Residence. Sagar, Central Provinces.

GOPAL RAO, PANDIT, Rao Bahadur.

Born 6th August 1832. The title was conferred on 2nd January 1888,
as a personal distinction, for eminent public services. His ancestors,
during
the Mahratta Government, held the post of Secretary to the Raja of
Sagar
for three generations ; and consequently his father and grandfather
received
political pensions from the British Government after the annexation.
The
Rao Bahadur himself rendered excellent service to Government at the
risk
of his life during the Mutiny of 1857, for which he received the grant
of two
villages in the Jalaun district for his life. His family is Dakhini
Brahman.

Residence. Jhansi, North-Western Provinces.

GOPAL RAO HARI DESHMUKH, Rao Bahadur.

Born 1 8th February 1823. The title was conferred on ist January
1877,
as a personal distinction, on the occasion of the Proclamation of Her
Most
Gracious Majesty as Empress of India. Educated at Puna. Served the
Government with the highest success and distinction from 1844 to
1879,
when he retired after occupying the place of Joint Judge and Sessions
Judge
of Nasik, and other high positions in the Judicial Service. Invited to
be
present at the Imperial Assemblage at Delhi in 1877. Granted revival
of
political pension in 1877. Member of Bombay Legislative Council,
1880.
Name entered in the list of First -Class Sardars of the Deccan for
rank and
precedence, 1881. Appointed Prime Minister of Ratlam (^.z>.), 1884.
Has
been a prominent social reformer, having been put out of caste for
ten
years for his advocacy of widow remarriage, and for sending his
second
son, Krishnarao Gopal, to England for education. Is a copious author,
acquainted with many languages, and writing under the nom-de-plume of
Lokahitawddi. Is President of the Bombay Branch of the Theosophical
Society, Bombay Arya Samaj, Puna Arbitration Court ; and Vice-
President of
the National Indian Association. Is descended from Vishwanath Sidhaye,
a
Deshmukh (hereditary farmer of the revenue), 1690-1717, many of whose
descendants held high office under the Government of the Peshwa.
Residence. Puna, Bombay.

GOPAL RAO SHIVDBO (of Malegaon), Rao Bahadur.

Born 2 gth June 1843. The title is hereditary, having been originally
conferred by the Peshwa. The Rao Bahadur's mother enjoys a pension
from the Government.

Residence. Ndsik, Bombay.

GOPALA CHARIYA KRADKAR, Mahdmahopddhydya.

The title is a personal one, and was conferred on i6th February 1887,
in recognition of his eminence in oriental learning. It entitles him
to take
rank in Darbar immediately after titular Rajas.

Residence. Gwalior, Central India.

GOPALA PADHYB GURJAR, Mahdmahopddhydya.

The title is a personal one, and was conferred on i6th February 1887,
in recognition of his eminence in oriental learning. It entitles him
to take
rank in Darbar immediately after titular Rajas.

Residence. Ratnagiri, Bombay.

GOPALA, P., RAO, Rao Bahadur.

Born 1856. Member of the Berhampur Municipal Council, 1884;
Chairman, 1887. Granted the title as a personal distinction in 1891
for his
eminent municipal services.

Residence. Berhampur, Ganjam, Madras.

GOPALJI SURBHAI DBSAI, Rao Bahadur.

Born 24th June 1832. The title was conferred on i3th January 1882,
as a personal distinction, for eminent public services in the
Educational
Service, which extended from 1853 to 1892. Is a son of Desai Surbhai
Dayalji of Puni, Surat, an important Zaminddr in that district.
Received the
title of Rao Saheb in 1864; and the sanad conferring the title of Rao

Bahadur in 1882 was delivered to him in full Darbar by the Political
Agent
at Bhaunagar. Has received the thanks of Government for his services
(in
conjunction with his father) in bringing about the settlement of
Wattans in
Surat ; also in connection with archaeological researches in
Kathiawar, and
with the settlement of the wording of the " Fashzamin " bonds entered
into
by the Kathiawar Chiefs. Appointed Fellow of the Bombay University,
1885 ;
Educational Inspector, Northern Division, Bombay Presidency, 1885. Is
President of the Kathiawar General Library, Rajkot ; a Life Member of
the
East India Association, and of the Gujarat Vernacular Society.
Residence. Surat, Bombay.

GOPI MAL, Rai.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 3ist May 1871.
Residence. Firozpur, Punjab.

^GOPINATH GURU, Rao Saheb.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887.
Residence. Kdlahandi, Central Provinces.

GOVARDHAN SINGH (of Ramgarh), Mian.

The title is hereditary in this branch of the family. The head of
another
branch of the same family is Sardar Ranjit Singh (q.v.\ who holds the
hereditary
title of Sardar. Descended from a Rajput family, whose great ancestor
was
Raja Singar Chand, Raja of Bilaspur (Kahlur). His younger son was
Kalal
Chand, tenth in descent from whom was Surat Singh, whose four sons,
with
their retainers, aided the Raja of Nahan to conquer Suchawar, Ramgarh,
and
other territories, and received Ramgarh as their share. Sardar
Khushal
Singh was the only one of the four who left any children. He built the
fort
at Ramgarh ; and his grandson, Gopal Singh, was the grandfather of
Mian
Govardhan Singh.

Residence. Ambala, Punjab.

GOVIND LAL RAI, Rdjd.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 2nd January 1888, in
recognition of the Raja's " liberality and public spirit."
Residence. Rangpur, Bengal.

GOVIND RAO (of Jaisinghnagar), Rao.

Born 1841. The title is hereditary, having been originally conferred
by
the old Mahratta Government, and subsequently recognised by the
Govern-
ment of India. The Rao, like his kinsmen, Rao Ganpat Rao (g.v.) and
Rao Ram Chand Rao of Jaisinghnagar, is descended from ancestors who
were connected with the former rulers of Sagar; and to one of them,
named Rao Ganpat Rao, the pargand of Jaisinghnagar was made over as
its talukdar.

Residence. Sdgar, Central Provinces.

GOVIND RAO (of Rehli), Rao.

The title is hereditary. Is a younger brother of Rao Gopal Rao of
Rehli (g.v.)

Residence. Rehli, Sa"gar, Central Provinces.

GOVIND SAKARAM HOSUR, Rao Saheb.

Granted the title, as a personal distinction, 2nd January 1893, for
eminent
municipal services. Is Vice-President of the Saundatti Municipality,
Bombay.
Residence. Saundatti, Belgaum, Bombay.

GOVINDRAO RAMCHANDRA GARUD, Rao Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1887.
Residence. Dhulia, Bombay.

GUL HASAN KHAN, Khan Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877.
Residence. Hyderabad, Sind.

GULAB SINGH (of Meanoni), Rao Saheb.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Sa"gar, Central Provinces.

GULAB SINGH (of Bina), Rao.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Sa"gar, Central Provinces.

GUNABHIRAM SARMA BARUA, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the celebration of the Jubilee of Her Most Gracious
Majesty's
reign.

Residence. Nowgong, Assam.

GUR SAHAI, LALA, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1890.
Residence. P unj ab.

GURBAKHSH SINGH (of Kot Shera), Sarddr.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Gujra'nwa'la, Punjab.

GURU PRASAD, PANDIT (of Benares) Mahdmahopddhydya.

The title is a personal one, and was conferred on i6th February 1887,
in recognition of his eminence in oriental learning. It entitles him
to take
rank in Darbar immediately after titular Rajas.

Residence. Lahore, Punjab.

GWALIOR, His Highness the Maharaja Sindhia of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1877 ; succeeded to the gadi as a minor 3rd July 1886. Is the
head of the great Mahratta House of Sindhia. Full title is " His
Highness
Mukhtar-ul-Mulk, Azim-ul-Iktidar Rafi-ush-Shan Wala Shikoh Muhtashaim-
i-
Dauran, Umdat-ul-Umara, Maharaj-Adhiraj Alijah Hisam-us-Saltanat
Maharaja
Madho Rao Sindhia Bahadur Srinath Mansur-i-Zaman, Fidwi-i-Hazrat-i-
Malika-i-Muaz-zama-i-Rafi-ud-Darja-i-Inglistan" (see Introduction, n).
His
Highness, who rules over an area about equal to that of Holland,
Belgium,
and Saxony combined, and over a population more numerous than that of
Switzerland or of Greece, is descended from the famous Ranoji Sindhia,
the
son of a Dekhani pdtel, who became a member of the household of the
Peshwa Balaji Rao, and subsequently a successful commander of the
Peshwa's
cavalry. Ranoji Sindhia was succeeded by his second son, Mahadaji
Sindhia,
who was one of the greatest soldiers and cleverest statesmen ever
produced
by India. He greatly distinguished himself at the battle of Panipat in
1761 ;
and, taught by that disaster, he disciplined and strongly organised
his army,
chiefly under French officers, and in this way, though nominally still
a servant
of the Peshwa, he became in 1764 really the ruler of Hindustan. He
died
in 1794, and was succeeded by his grand-nephew, Daulat Rao Sindhia,
whose reign of over thirty years is part of the history of India. The
battles
of Assaye, won by Sir Arthur Wellesley (afterwards Duke of Wellington)
in
1803, and of Laswari, won by General Lord Lake, in 1804, the Treaty
of
Sarji Anjangaon in 1805, and the Pindari war in 1817 are important
land-
marks in the career of Daulat Rao Sindhia. On his death he commended
his State and his younger widow, the famous Baiza Bai, to the care of
the
British Government. Jhankuji Sindhia subsequently succeeded to the
gadi
by adoption, marrying the grand-daughter of Baiza Bai, who was at
first regent
of the State. Family dissension, however, ensued ; Baiza Bai had to
leave
Gwalior in 1833, and Jhankuji Sindhia died without issue in 1843. His
widow adopted a young scion of the Sindhia family, who succeeded
under
the title of Jaiaji Rao Sindhia. He displayed great courage and
loyalty
during the Mutiny of 1857, when his army revolted to the mutineers,
and he
himself and his Minister, Sir Dinkar Rao, were compelled to flee to
Agra.
He was restored and brought back to Gwalior by Sir Hugh Rose on iQth
June 1858, and received many great and well-deserved honours during
the
rest of his long reign. He obtained the right of adoption, numerous
titles,
extensive grants of additional territory, and an increase to his
army ; and
became successively an Honorary General in the British army, a Knight
Grand Cross of the Bath, a Knight Grand Commander of the Star of
India,
and a Companion of the Indian Empire. The present Maharaja, Madho
Rao Sindhia Bahadur, succeeded as a minor in 1886. The family colour,
famous on so many battle-fields, is bhagwd, orange or brick-red, the
flag of
that colour bearing on its field the representation of a serpent
holding the
sun and moon in its coils referring to a legend that Ranoji Sindhia,
when
an infant, was sheltered from the heat of the sun by the expanded hood
of a
cobra. The area of the State is 29,046 square miles ; its population
3,030,743, chiefly Hindus, but including more than 160,000
Muhammadans,
12,000 Jains, and 167,000 aborigines of various tribes. The Maharaja
Sindhia maintains a military force of 5504 cavalry, 11,040 infantry,
and 48
guns. His Highness is entitled to a salute of 19 guns, and within the
limits of Gwalior territory to a salute of 2 1 guns.
Residence. Gwalior, Central India.

GTYANODA KANT RAI, Rdjd.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 6th July 1888.
Residence. Jessore, Bengal

Listed Alphabetically. More to follow...

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HABIB KHAN, Sarddr Bahadur.
The title is personal.
Residence. Peshdwar, Punjab.

HABIB-UR-RAHMAN, KAZI, Khan Saheb.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist June 1888.
Residence. Burhdnpur, Central Provinces.

HACHARAO AKBAT HARIHAR, Rao Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th May 1889.
Residence. Belgaum, Bombay.

HADI HUSAIN KHAN, SAYYID, Khan Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1878.
Residence. Delhi, Punjab.

HADOL, Thdkur of. See Harol.

HAFIZ ABDUL KARIM, SHAIKH, Khan Bahadur.

Born 1838. The title is personal, and was conferred in 1884 for
services
rendered by his ancestors, and for his own acts of public generosity.
His
father was present at the battles of Bharatpur, Kamon, and Shekhawati
in the
first Kabul campaign ; and his brother was rewarded with a khilat for
his good
services in the first and second Punjab wars.

Residence. Meerut, North- Western Provinces.

HAIDAR ALI KHAN walad ALI AKBAR KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the
Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Hyderabad, Sind.

HAKIM KHAN, MALIK, Khdn Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist June 1888.
Residence. Shdhpur, Punjab.

HAKK NAWAZ KHAN (of Dera Ismail Khan, Punjab),

Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 8th May 1885.
Residence. Baluchistan.

HALARI SHAMANA, Rai Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on i8th May 1885.
Residence. Mercara, Coorg.

HAMID ALI, MUNSHI. See Muhammad Hamid Ali.

HAMID HUSAIN, MAUL AVI SAYYID, Shams-ul-Ulama.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the celebration of the Jubilee of Her Majesty's reign. It
entitles
him to take rank in Darbar immediately after titular Nawabs.

Residence. North- Western Provinces and Oudh.

HAMIR SINGH (of Bayeri), Thdkur Sawai Rai.

Born 1838. The title is hereditary, but its origin is not known. Is a
Korkars Girassia Chief. Rendered assistance to the Magistrate of
Harda
during the Mutiny of 1857, for which he received a khilat. Has two
sons
Thakur Umrao Singh and Thakur Sardar Singh.

Residence. Hoshangabad, Central Provinces.

HAMIR SINGH (of Mohli), Thdkur.

Born 7th August 1825. The title is hereditary, and was originally
con-
ferred by the Raja of Benares. Belongs to the same family as that of
the
Rajas of Hatisi in Damoh district, Central Provinces. This branch of
the
family obtained the jdgir of Mohli from the former Government of
Sagar.
Has two sons Kunwar Khalak Singh and Mohan Singh.

Residence. Sa~gar, Central Provinces.

HAMIR SINGH (of Pali), Rao.

Born 1823. The title is hereditary. This Bundela Chief belongs to the
family of the ex-Raja of Banpur, whose estates were confiscated after
the
Mutiny of 1857. His son and heir is Nirbhai Singh, aged thirty-one
years.

Residence. Banpur, Lalitpur, North- Western Provinces.

HANUMAN SINGH (of Barwara), Thdkur.

Born 1841. The title is hereditary, having been originally conferred
on
his ancestors by the Gond Raja of Mandla, Raja Nizam Shah. Is an
Honorary Magistrate of Jabalpur district.

Residence. Jabalpur, Central Provinces.

HAP A, THAKUR WAKHATSINGHJI, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1877 ; succeeded to the gadi 4th August 1889. Belongs to a Koli
(Hindu) family. Is at present a minor, and the State under the
management
of the Mahi Kantha Agency. The late Thakur was named Madhusinghji,
and his widow, the Thakurani Surajbai, is living. The State contains
an
area of 79 square miles, and a population of 1546, chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Hapa, Mdhi Kcintha, Bombay.

HARBALLABH NARAYAN SINGH (of Sonbarsa), Maharaja.

Born 7th June 1846. The title is personal, and was conferred on 2nd
January 1888. The Maharaja had received the title of Raja in 1875 f r
eminent services rendered during the famine of 1873-74, and had been
granted the title of Raja Bahadur on ist January 1877, on the occasion
of
the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress of India.
Created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire,
2nd January 1893. The family cognisance is a flag, bearing on it the
figure of an elephant.

Residence. Bhcigalpur, Bengal.

HARBANS RAI (of Hatri), JRdjd.

Born 7th April 1835. The title is hereditary, and is said to have
been
first conferred by a Muhammadan King, in 1494-95, on the Raja Sahal
Shah
of Bakhtiyargarh. Succeeded the late Raja on 8th May 1848. Rendered
good service to Government during the Mutiny of 1857. Has two sons,
of
whom the elder enjoys the title of Diwan Diwan Kishori Singh and Bhan
Partab Singh.

Residence. Damoh, Central Provinces.

HARBANS SINGH, Rdjd.

Born 1846. The title is hereditary, the Raja being the brother and
the
adopted son of the famous Sardar Tej Singh, who was Commander-in-
Chief
of the Sikhs in the first Sikh war, subsequently appointed President
of the
Council of Regency, and on 7th August 1847 created Raja of Sialkot.
Throughout the rebellion of 1848-49 the Raja Tej Singh remained
faithful to
the Government, and on the annexation of the Punjab the jdgirs of
himself
and his cousin, Sardar Bhagwan Singh, son of Jamadar Khushal Singh,
were
confirmed for life. Raja Tej Singh rendered excellent service by
raising
horsemen during the Mutiny of 1857, and as a reward, in 1862, two-
thirds of
his jdgir was granted in perpetuity, and he received a sanad
authorising him
to adopt an heir. He died in December 1862, having adopted his
brother,
the Raja Harbans Singh, who now enjoys the title and estate.

Residence. Lahore, Punjab.

HARBANS SINGH (of Kandaula), Sarddr.

The title is hereditary, the Sardar belonging to the same family as
those
of the Sardars Tara Singh of Manauli, Uttam Singh of Ghanauli, and
other
Sardars of the Ambala division. The founder of the family was Sardar
Khushal Singh, who achieved conquests in the Manjha, and took
possession
of the town of Jalandhar. In 1756 A.D. he had large Cis-Sutlej
possessions ;
they were subsequently wrested from the family by the Maharaja Ranjit
Singh of Lahore, but ultimately came under British control with the
other
Cis-Sutlej territories. Sardar Dayal Singh, the grandson of Sardar
Khushal
Singh, succeeded to the Kandaula estates, and his grandson is the
present
Sardar. For services during the Mutiny of 1857 the Sardars of this
loyal
family received large remissions from the Government.

Residence. Kandaula, Ambala, Punjab.

HARDERAM ANUPRAM MUNSHI, Rao Saheb.
The title is personal, and was conferred on i8th December 1888.
Residence. B ombay .

HARDHIAN SINGH, Rai Bahadur.

Granted the title, as a personal distinction, 2nd January 1893. Is an
Honorary Magistrate of Delhi.

Residence. Delhi, North- Western Provinces.

HARDIT SINGH (of Dayalgarh), Sarddr.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Ambdla, Punjab.

HARDIT SINGH, ROZA, Sarddr.

The title is hereditary ; and Sardar Hardit Singh succeeded his
father,
the brave and loyal Sardar Kahan Singh, in June 1864. Sardar Kahan
Singh was the grandson of Tek Singh, who was in the service of the
Bhangi
Sardars of Lahore, and received from them the grant of the village
Nodhpur.
Kahan Singh entered the service of the Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1822;
and, on the recommendation of General Ventura, was appointed Com-
mandant in the Life Guards, served with his regiment in Kulu, Mandi,
and
elsewhere, and being severely wounded in the attack on Raja Suchet
Singh,
was promoted to be Colonel, with large emoluments. He fought on the
Sikh side in the battles of Sobraon and Firuzshahr. After the
annexation
Colonel Kahan Singh lost his jdgirs, but was granted a pension by the
British Government. When the Mutiny broke out in 1857 .he was one of
the first Chiefs selected for service by Sir John Lawrence, and,
starting at
once for Delhi with fifty-three of his retainers, he served with the
Guides till
the fall of the city, being again severely wounded in one of the rebel
sallies.
For these services he received substantial rewards from the
Government, in-
cluding the regrant of some of his old Sikh jdgirs.

Residence. Lahore, Punjab.

HARBNDRA KISHOR SINGH, Maharaja Sir, K.CJ.E. See Bettiah.

HARI APPAJI, Rao Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 2nd January 1888.
Residence. Baroda.

HARI CHAND (of Lahaul), Thdkur.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Lahaul, Kangra, Punjab.

HARI CHAND (of Bhabaur), Rai.

The title is hereditary. The Rai belongs to the same family as that
of
the Rajas of Kangra, Jaswan, Goler, Siba, Datarpur, etc. ; being
descended
from Raja Pirthi Chand, son of Raja Beni Chand. The Rai Karm Chand,
in the time of the Maharaja Ranjit Singh, held a large jdgir in this
district ;
and his grandson, Rai Ratan Chand, died 24th October 1884, and was
suc-
ceeded by his son, the present Rai.

Residence. Bhabaur, Hoshirpur, Punjab.

HARI CHAND YAJOJI, Rai Bahddur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877.
Residence. Bombay.

HARI CHARAN SARMA, Rai Bahddur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 3rd October 1872.
Residence. Cachar, Assam.

HARI MOHAN THAKUR, Rai Bahddur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 6th July 1888.
Residence. Bhcigalpur, Bengal.

HARI NARAYAN KALE, Rai Bahddur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877.
Residence. Ratnagiri, Bombay.

HARI RAJ SINGH (of Kashipur), Rdjd.

Born 1857. The title is hereditary. Belongs to a family connected
with that of the Chand Rajas of Kumaun, being descended from Pahar
Singh, a younger son of Raja Baz Bahadur Singh, Raja of Kumaun from
1638 to 1678. In the time of Raja Dip Chand of Kumaun (1748-77),
Mohan Singh, grandson of Pahar Singh, became Bakshi or head of the
army. He eventually seized and imprisoned Raja Dip Chand, and, on the
death of the latter in prison in 1777, proclaimed himself Raja under
the

title of Mohan Chand. He himself was killed in 1788 by Harak Deb
Toshi, who again was driven out by Lai Singh, brother of Mohan Singh,
with the aid of Faiz-ullah Khan of Rampur. Mahendra Singh, son of
Mohan Singh, was installed as Raja by Lai Singh, who claimed for him
the
protection of the Nawab of Oudh, as recognised owner of the Tarai. In
1790, however, the Gurkhalis from Kathmandu invaded Kumaun and
defeated the forces of Mahendra Singh, who fled with his uncle, Lai
Singh,
to Kota, and fixed upon Kilpuri as his headquarters, where he
endeavoured
to enlist troops for an attack upon Kumaun. Hearing this, the
Gurkhali
general, Amar Singh Thapa, marched on Kilpuri and thus deprived the.
Kumaunis of their only rallying-point. Mahendra Singh and his
partisans,
deprived of every acre that they could lay claim to, fled to the Oudh
Subahdar, and representing that the tract from which the Gurkhali had
ousted them formed a part of the Tarai, which of right belonged to
the
Nawab, requested his aid in recovering it from the Gurkhalis. A war
with
Nepal would probably have resulted had not the good offices of Mr.
Cherry
promoted an understanding, by which the Gurkhalis agreed to yield up
all
pretensions to the low country. At the same time provision was made
for
the retention by the exiled family of some doubtful tenure of a
portion of
the Tarai for their subsistence. Mahendra Singh retired first to
Rudrapur
and then to Kilpuri; but, owing to bad management, this Pargana was
reduced to a swamp, and was rendered so unhealthy that on the petition
of
the representatives of the family to the British Government, it was
exchanged
for the confirmation of possession in taluqa Chachait in the Pilibhit
district.
Kunwar Partab Singh, son of Mahendra Singh, sued his uncle, Lai
Singh,
for a share in Chachait, but his claim was dismissed. He then
petitioned
the Government, who gave him Rs.25o per mensem in 1820. Partab
Singh's claim to Bazpur was also negatived. Lai Singh had held
possession
as head of the family and retained it. Guman Singh, son of Raja Lai
Singh, received a sanad from the British Government in 1828, as Raja.
His
son, Raja Shiuraj Singh, C.S.I., rendered good service during the
Mutiny of
1857 ; and was rewarded with the Order of the Star of India, and with
an
increased grant. He died in October 1886; and was succeeded by his
son,
the present Raja, who married a daughter of Kupendra Bikram Singh of
Nepal, and has a son named Kunwar Udai Raj Singh. The Raja is an
Honorary Magistrate.

Residence. Kashipur, Tara"i, North- Western Provinces.

HARI RAOJI CHIPLUNKAR, Rao Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 2nd January 1888.
Residence. Poona, Bombay.

HARI SINGH (of Nadaun), Mian.

The title is hereditary. The Mian is a brother of Raja Amar Chand of
Nadaun, and a younger son of the Raja Sir Jodhbir Singh, brother-in-
law of
the Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Lahore, who died in 1873. The Mian is an
Extra Assistant Commissioner of the Punjab.

Residence. Nadaun, Ka~ngra, Punjab.

HARI SINGH, Sarddr.

The title is hereditary. Is one of the Sikh Sardars of the Ludhiana
district, Punjab.

Residence. Ludhidna, Punjab.

HARI SINGH (of Pindit Lala), Sarddr.

The title is hereditary. The Sardar is one of the Sardars of the
Gujrat
district, Punjab.

Residence. Gujrat, Punjab.

HARI SINGH (of Akalgarh), Diwdn.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Gujranwala, Punjab.

HARI SINGH, SARDAR, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty.
Residence. Sialkot, Punjab.

HARIHAR DATT DUBE (of Badlapur), Rdjd.

Born 1856. The title is hereditary. Belongs to a family of Dube
Brahmans, who came originally from Amauli in the Fatehpur district,
where
their ancestor, Sheo Lai, was an eminent banker. In 1788 Sheo Lai
Dube
was appointed farmer of the revenues of Jaunpur by Mr. Jonathan
Duncan,
the Resident at Benares ; and obtained the title of Raja for killing a
noted
rebel named Saltanat Singh. The sanad conferring the tdluka of
Badlapur
on Raja Sheo Lai Dube, dated November 1797, is in existence, and was
signed by Sir John Shore, then Governor-General. The present Raja is
a
great-grandson of Raja Sheo Lai Dube, and is an Honorary Magistrate.

Residence. Jaunpur, North-Western Provinces.

HARIHAR SHASTRI DRAVIDA, Mahdmahopddhydya.

The title is a personal one, and was conferred on i6th February 1887,
in recognition of his eminence in oriental learning. It entitles him
to take
rank in Darbar immediately after titular Rajas.

Residence. Indore, Central India.

HARILAL AMBASHANKAR, Rao Saheb.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1879.
Residence. Surat, Bombay.

HARINDAR SINGH (of Kandaula), Sarddr.

The title is hereditary ; the Sardar belongs to the same family as
those
of the Sardars Tara Singh of Manauli, Uttam Singh of Ghanauli, and
other Sardars of the Ambala division. For an account of the Kandaula
branch of this family, see Harbans Singh (of Kandaula), Sardar. The
Sardar is a grandson of Sardar Dayal Singh of Kandaula.

Residence. Kandaula, Ambdla, Punjab.

HARISH CHANDRA MITTRA, Rai Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist June 1888.
Residence. Calcutta, Bengal.

HARNAM SINGH, AHLUWALLA, Kunwdr, C.LE.

Born i Qth January 1851. Is a son of His late Highness the Raja Sir
Randhir Singh, G. C.S.I., of Kapurthala, and only brother of the late
Raja
Kharak Singh of Kapurthala, and uncle of the present Raja of
Kapurthala
(q.v.) Was created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the
Indian
Empire on ist January 1885.

Residence. Kapurthala, Punjab.

HARNAM SINGH (of Kharar), Sarddr.

Born 1857. The title is hereditary. Belongs to a Khatri family, whose
ancestor, Sardar Dayal Singh, took possession of considerable
territory in the
Hoshiarpur, Firozpur, and Ambala districts. His sons were deprived of
much of their land by the Maharaja Ranjit Singh ; but the eldest,
named
Sardar Dharm Singh, secured some lands in Kharar, Ambala district.
His
grandsqn, Sardar Ganda Singh, rendered excellent services during the
Mutiny
of 1857, and received a khilat from the Government in acknowledgment
thereof. He died at Patiala about the year 1876; and was succeeded by
his son, the present Sardar.

Residence. Amba"la, Punjab.

HARNAM SINGH (of Lidhran), Sarddr.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Ludhidna, Punjab.

HARNAM SINGH (of Moron), Sarddr.

Born 1 86 1. The title is hereditary. Belongs to a Jat family, that
came
originally from Varpal, in the Amritsar district. About 1759 Sardar
Salig
Singh obtained possession of territory around Moron. The family fell
under
the power of the Maharaja Sher Singh ; but when the Jalandhar doab
was
ceded to the British after the first Sikh war, a considerable jdgir
was con-
firmed to the head of the family in perpetuity, and is now enjoyed by
Sardar
Harnam Singh.

Residence. Jalandhar, Punjab.

HARNARAYAN SINGH (of Hathras), Rdjd.

Born Qth December 1864. The title is personal, and was conferred on
ist January 1877, as a continuation of the title of the Raja's
adoptive father,
Raja Gobind Singh of Hathras. Belongs to a Jat family, whose founder,
named Makhan, came from Raj putana about the year 1600, and settled in
the
neighbourhood of Mursan. His great-grandson, Thakur Nand Ram, died
in 1696, leaving fourteen sons, of whom one was Zulkaran Singh,
ancestor
of Raja Ghansham Singh of Mursan (q.v.\ and the other was Jai Singh.
The great-grandson of the latter, Thakur Daya Ram, established himself
as
an independent Chief in his fortress of Hathras, at that time one of
the
strongest in the country. The fortress was, however, captured by
General
Marshall in 1817, and the Thakur's estates confiscated. The latter, on
his
death in 1841, was succeeded by his son, Thakur Gobind Singh. He
distinguished himself by most valuable services during the Mutiny of
1857 ;
and was rewarded in 1858, by Lord Canning on behalf of Her Majesty,
with
the title of Raja and extensive grants of land. Raja Gobind Singh was
succeeded by his adopted son, the present Raja ; who is an Honorary
Magistrate.

Residence. Aligarh, North- Western Provinces.

HARNATH CHAUDHRI (of Dubalhati), Rdjd Bahadur.

Born 1833. Is the son of the late Anandanath Rai, of Dubalhati in the
district of Rajshahi, Bengal \ who was descended through a long line
of
ancestors from Kasiram Rai. The title of Raja Bahadur was conferred as
a
personal distinction on the ist January 1877, on the occasion of the
Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress of India. The
Raja
Bahadur had received the title of Raja on the i2th of March 1875, m
recog-
nition of his eminent services during the famine of 1873-74.

Residence. Rajshdhi, Bengal.

HARO SUNDARI DBBIA (of Siarsol), Mahdrdni.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877, on the
occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress
of
India. The Maharani had already received the title of Rani on i2th
March
1875, f r ner eminent services during the famine of 1873-74. Belongs
to a
family descended from Govinda Prasad Pandit.

Residence. Bardwan, Bengal.

HAROL, THAKUR JAWANSINGHJI, Thakur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1883 ; succeeded to the gadi 22nd March 1888. Belongs to a
Thakerda (Hindu) family. The State contains a population of nearly
3000,
chiefly Hindus. Its name is also spelt Hadol.

Residence. Harol, Mdhi Ka"ntha, Bombay.

HARSA SINGH (of Mughalchak), Sarddr.

The title is hereditary. Belongs to an ancient Sikh family, famous
for
the conspicuous bravery of its members. Sardar Anup Singh, of
Probyn's
Horse, was one of the most distinguished officers in the army
throughout the
Mutiny campaigns of 1857, 1858, and 1859. He was present at the fall
of
Delhi, at the capture of Lucknow, and on many other great occasions ;
was
four times wounded, and had three horses wounded under him. He also
fought with great distinction in the China campaign in 1860, and
subse-
quently in the disturbances on the north-west frontier. He twice
received
the Order of Valour for bravery in the field. In 1876 he accompanied
His
Royal Highness the Prince of Wales to England, and was honoured with
the
marked approval of Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen Empress and
the Royal Family. He died in 1885, amid universal expressions of
regret,
and was succeeded by the present Sardar.

Residence. Mughal Chak, Gujra"nwala, Punjab.

HASAN ALI BEY BPPBNDI,
Khan Bahadur.

Is a leading member of the Karachi Bar,
and was in 1886 appointed Consul for Turkey
by His Imperial Majesty the Sultan. Presi-
dent of the Sind Branch of the Central National
Muhammadan Association, 1884; also Presi-
dent of the Karachi Madrasa Board, managing
the Karachi Muhammadan College, which has
an endowment fund of about six lakhs of
rupees.

Residence. Karachi, Bombay.

HASAN ALI walad MUHAMMAD KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a representative of one of the
Mirs or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Sind.

HASAN ALI walad MUHAMMAD AISAN, Khan Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist June 1888.
Residence. Karachi, Sind.

HASAN ALI KHAN, C.I.E., Nawdb.

The title is hereditary. The Nawab was created a Companion of the
Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire 5th February 1881.
Residence. Baluchistan.

HASAN ALI KHAN, MIR, His Highness.

The title is personal. His Highness is the representative of one of
the
Mirs or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Hyderabad, Sind.

HATI SINGH (of Chandgarh), Rao.

Born 5th September 1844. The title is hereditary, and is said to have
been originally conferred by Gori Shah Padishah. The family is
descended
from Prithi Singh, who was eleventh in descent from the famous Bhoj
Raj.

Residence. Nimdr, Central Provinces.

HATWA, MAHARAJA SIR KRISHNA PARTAB SAHI
BAHADUR, K.C.I.B., Maharaja Bahadur of.

Born October 1857. Belongs to a Baghochhia Brahman family, that
claims to have been settled as Rajas in the district of Saran for 102
generations.
The patronymic of the earlier Rajas was " Sen," this in the sixteenth
descent
was changed to "Singh," in the eighty-third to "Mai," and in the
eighty-seventh
to "Sahi." The traditions of the family state that the title of
Maharaja was con-
ferred on the eighty-sixth in this line, the Maharaja Kalyan Mai, and
that of Maha-
raja Bahadur on the eighty-seventh, the Maharaja Isham Karan Sahi
Bahadur,
both by the Emperor of Delhi. In the time of Akbar it is said that
the
Maharaja Jubraj Sahi Bahadur obtained possession of Pargana Sipa by
killing
the Muhammadan Chief Kabul Muhammad, probably one of those Muham-
madan Chiefs who had rebelled against the Imperial authority in
Southern
Behar. Four generations later the Maharaja Sardar Sahi invaded the
Majauli
Raj, and destroyed their garh or fort, and imposed as terms of peace
on the
Chief of Majauli the condition that he and his descendants were not to
dis-
play their nishans and dunkas (flags and drums) till these should be
re-
taken from the Hasipur (or Hatwa) Rajas. The eldest son of the
Maharaja
Sardar Sahi died before his father ; he was succeeded by the second
son, the
Maharaja Fateh Sahi Bahadur, who was a rebel against the British
Govern-
ment in 1767, in the time of Warren Hastings, and ultimately fled to
the
Gorakhpur jungles. His cousin, Babu Bassant Sahi, displayed his
loyalty
by assisting the Government with his retainers, and doing all in his
power
to arrest Fateh Sahi. But in 1775 he was surprised by the rebel and
killed,
and his widow ascended the funeral pyre, and was burnt with her
husband's
head on her lap. Bassant Sahi's son, Babu Mahes Datt Sahi, followed in
his
father's footsteps, and the Government was about to proclaim him the
rightful
successor of the rebel Fateh Sahi when he died, leaving a son, Babu
after-
wards Maharaja Chhatardhari Sahi. In 1790, when the Decennial Settle-
ment was in contemplation, Lord Cornwallis, after inquiring into all
the
facts and the usages of the family, granted to the latter the estates
of Fateh
Sahi; and in 1837 the title of Maharaja Bahadur was conferred upon
him.
This title was renewed in October 1858 in favour of the Maharaja
Rajendar
Partab Sahi, and by the sanad of 3ist August 1874 in favour of the
present
Maharaja Bahadur. At the time of the Santal insurrection, and again
during
the Mutiny of 1857, the Maharaja Chhatardhari Sahi Bahadur rendered
most
valuable services to the Government, and was rewarded at the close of
the
Mutiny with the grant of a portion of the confiscated estates of the
rebel
Kunwar Singh. He was succeeded by his great-grandson, the late
Maharaja
Rajendra Partab Sahi Bahadur, who died in 1871, leaving a minor son,
the
present Maharaja, The latter attained his majority and was installed
on the
gadi on 3ist August 1874. He received a medal of distinction at the
Imperial Assemblage at Delhi in 1877, on the occasion of the
Proclamation
of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress of India, and in 1889 he was
created a Knight Commander of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian
Empire. The family cognisance consists of a shield between two
swords,
with tigers as supporters, and underneath is the motto f{ tnihT

Residence. Hatwa, Saran, Bengal.

HAZURA SINGH, SUBAHDAR, Rai Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 25th March 1880.
Residence. Rewa, Central India.

HIMMAT SINGH (of Katra Balkheda), Thdkur.

The title is hereditary.

Residence. Katra Balkheda, Jabalpur, Central Provinces.

HINDOL, RAJA JANARDAN MARDRAJ JAGDEB, Rdjd of.

A Ruling Chief.

Bom 1855 ; succeeded to the gadi i8th July 1877. The title of Raja
has always been enjoyed by the head of this family since Mahratta
times, and
was formally recognised by Government in 1874. The State was founded
by two brothers named Lakshman Mahratta and Bharat Mahratta, scions
of
the family of the Khemdi Raja in Ganjam. The present Raja, who suc-
ceeded his brother, Raja Fakir Singh Mardraj Jagdeb, is stated to be
twenty-
fifth in succession from them. His father was Raja Ishwar Singh
Mardraj
Jagdeb. The family cognisance is a dagger. The area of the State is
312
miles; its population 33,802, chiefly Hindus. The Raja maintains a
mili-
tary force of 148 infantry and 2 guns. The State is one of the Orissa
Tributary Mahals.

Residence. Hindol, Orissa, Bengal.

HINDUPAT (of Bharrai), Rao Saheb.

Born 1836. The title is hereditary, and was originally conferred on
Rati
Rao, the founder of the family, by the old Mahratta Government of
Deori.
Has two sons Diwan Malkhan Singh and Diwan Gajraj Singh.

Residence. Sdgar, Central Provinces.

HINDUPAT (of Ghat Piparia), Thdkur.

The title is hereditary. The present Thakur is the son of the late
Thakur Orjuri Singh. The family is descended from ancestors who
obtained
the village of Ghat Piparia, with the title of Thakur, from the old
Mahratta
Government of Sagar. ,

Residence. Ghat Piparia, Sa"gar, Central Provinces.

HINDUR (NALAGARH), RAJA ISRI SINGH, Rdjd of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1832 ; succeeded to the gadi i6th December 1876. Belongs to a
Rajput (Hindu) family, whose founder was named Aji Singh, and the
present
Raja is twenty-fifth in succession from him. The State was overrun by
the
Gurkhas, but they were expelled by the British forces in 1815-16, and
in
that year the Raja received a sanad confirming him in the possession
of all

his territory except the fort of Malaun, for which the Thdkuri of
Barauli was
substituted. Subsequently, in 1846, the fort was restored to him. The
area
of the State is 249 square miles; its population is 53,373, chiefly
Hindus,
but including 7201 Muhammadans. The Raja maintains a military force
of
375 infantry and 4 guns.

Residence. Hindur, Punjab.

HIBA, RAW AT (of Dewair), Thdkur Rdwat.

The title was conferred on ist January 1877 as a personal distinction,
on
the occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as
Empress
of India.

Residence. Merwara.

HIRA SINGH, Rai Bahadur.

The- title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty,
for
eminent official services in the Survey.

Residence. Survey of India.

HIRA SINGH, MAN (of Manawala), Sardar.

The title is hereditary. Belongs to a Man Jat family, descended from
Sardar Sarja Singh, whose grandson, Colonel Budh Singh, Man, served
throughout the Sutlej Campaign, and after its close was sent with the
Sher
Singh brigade to assist the Maharaja Gulab Singh to subdue the
rebellion in
Kashmir. The Colonel rendered excellent service in this campaign; and
also throughout the Multan rebellion (or second Sikh war), in which he
was
severely wounded when fighting gallantly under Major Nicholson against
the
rebels in the Margalla Pass. On the annexation he was rewarded with
extensive lands. On his death he was succeeded by his son, the
present
Sardar.

Residence. Amritsar, Punjab.

HIRA SINGH, SARDAR (of Jamdan), Rdjd.

Born 5th May 1839. The title of Raja was conferred on yth December
1888 as a personal distinction, to mark the appreciation of the
Government
of the Sardar's exertions for the improvement of agriculture in Oudh.
Is the
son of Sardar Bahadur Jai Singh, of the Gondon Khatri Sikh family of
Jamdan, who was an officer in the army of the Maharaja Ranjit Singh
of
Lahore ; was subsequently appointed by Lord Lawrence to the ist
Sikhs.
For his gallant conduct and loyalty during the Mutiny of 1857 he was
made
a Sardar Bahadur; and in 1858 was rewarded with a large grant of
lands.
He died in November 1865, and was succeeded by his son, the present
Raja, who was himself a distinguished officer in Fane's Horse, and
served
through the Mutiny campaigns and in the China war. Since his
retirement
from the army he has lived for many years on his estates in Oudh,
devoting
himself to their improvement.

Residence. Bahraich, Oudh.

HIRAPUR, RAO CHHATAR SINGH, Rao of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1821 ; succeeded to the gadi ist May 1841. Belongs to a Rajput
(Hindu) family. The population of the State is 963, chiefly Hindus.
Residence. Hirapur, Bhopdl, Central India.

HITTU RAM, C.I.B., Rai Bahadur.

Born 1842. Has long been a distinguished political officer on the
frontier of Baluchistan and Afghanistan, having entered the service in
1859,
when he received a reward for preparing a " History of Dera Ghazi
Khan
District and Frontier." Appointed to special duty for Kalat in 1875 ;
accompanied Sir Robert Sandeman on two missions to Kalat, and
received
a khilat in 1877 for his services thereon, also the title of Rai.
Appointed
Extra Assistant Commissioner of the Punjab in 1879; and in same year
received a khilat at the Kalat Darbar, and was placed in charge of
Sibi
district. Received the title of Rai Bahadur as a personal distinction,
2oth
April 1 88 1, having served in the Political Department throughout the
Afghan
war of 1 880-8 1, with medal. In the same year he received a jdgir,
and in
1882 was created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian
Empire. Was in charge of arrangements for supplies, etc., for the
Afghan
Boundary Commission, 1884, across the Baluch Desert; and received
thanks
of Government for the same. Was on special duty in the Bolan Pass, in
the
military preparations for the expected outbreak of hostilities between
England
and Russia, March 1884 to November 1885. Deputed to hold charge of
Las Bela State on the death of the Jam in 1889, pending installation
of
successor; and was on special duty with Sir R. Sandeman in 1889-91,
and
specially commended.

Residence. Sibi, Baluchistan.

HLAING, MAUNG- (Shwedabo of Baw), Thuye-gaung Ngweda

ya Min.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist June 1888. It means
" Recipient of the Silver Sword for Bravery," and is indicated by the
letters
T.D.M. after the name.

Residence. Shan State of Baw, Burma. -

HLB, MAUNG, Ahmiidan gaung Tazeik-ya Min.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1889. It
means
"Recipient of the Medal of Honour for Good Service," and is indicated
by
the letters A.T.M. after the name.

Residence. Maulmein, Burma.

HMB, MAUNG, Kyet Thaye zaung shwe Sahue ya Min.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of Her Most Gracious Majesty's reign. It
means
" Recipient of the Gold Chain of Honour," and is indicated by the
letters
K.S.M. after the name.

Residence. Prome, Burma.

HOLKAR, His Highness the Maharaja Bahadur (of Indore}. See Indore.

HOPON, KUN WARA, Myoza of.
A Ruling Chief.

The area of the State, which is one of the Shan States on the frontier
of
Burma, is about 400 square miles.
Residence. Hopon, Burma.

HORMASJI ADARJI PATBL, Khan Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist June 1888.
Residence. Surat, Bombay.

HOSHANGJI JAMASPJI, DASTUR, Khan Bahadur, Shams-ul-Ulama.

These titles are personal; the first was conferred on ist January
1878,
and the second on ist January 1890. The title of Shams-ul-Ulama
entitles
the Khan Bahadur who is also a " Dastur " or High Priest of the Parsis
of
the Deccan to take rank in Darbar immediately after titular Nawabs.
The
Dastur Jamaspassa family are descended from Assaji. The last Dastur
of that family, the Dastur Nasarwanji Jamaspji, Khan Bahadur,
rendered
valuable services to Government during the time of the Mutiny; and
received the title of Khan Bahadur as a reward for them in 1868. The
title of Shams-ul-Ulama was conferred on Dastur Hoshangji Jamaspji in
recognition of .his eminence in oriental learning.

Residence. Poona, Bombay.

HUSAIN walad SHAIKH MADAR, SHAIKH, Khan Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist June 1888.
Residence. Belgaum, Bombay.

HUSAIN BAKHSH walad GHULAM HAIDAR KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a representative of one of the
Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Sind.

HUSSAN. See Hasan.
HUTWA, Maharaja Bahadur of. See Hatwa.

Listed Alphabetically. More to follow...

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Sid Harth
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HYDERABAD (or, The Deccan), His Highness the Nizam of, G. C.S.I.
A Ruling Chief, and the Premier Prince of the Indian Empire.

Born 1 8th August 1866; succeeded to the masnad as a minor, on the
death of his father, His late Highness the Nizam Afzul-ud-daula, 26th
^February 1869.

The Nizam's full titles are His
Highness Asaf Jah, Muzaffar-ul-
Mamalik, Rustam-i-Dauran, Arastu-i-
Zaman, Nizam-ul-Mulk, Nizam -ud-
daula, Nawab Mir Sir Mahbub AH
Khan Bahadur, Fath Jang, Knight
Grand Commander of the Most
Exalted Order of the Star of India.
Belongs to a family of the highest
antiquity and importance among
Muhammadan rulers, being lineally
descended from the first Khalif,
Abu Bakr, the successor of the
Prophet. His descendant, after a
long line of intervening generations,
was the Turkoman Chief named

Ghazi-ud-din, one of the greatest of the Generals of the Emperor
Aurangzeb,
who was the hero of the capture of Bijapur in 1686 A.D. ; he was
largely concerned in the overthrow both of that kingdom and of the
Golkonda dynasty, and in the establishment of the Mughal power in
the Deccan, which then became a subah (or province) of the Mughal
Empire of Delhi. His son and successor was Chin Kulij Khan, 1
better known as the great Asaf Jah, the real founder of the Hyderabad
dynasty. He was bom in 1644; and in 1713 was appointed Subahddr or
Viceroy of the Deccan by the Emperor Farukh Siyar, with the title of
Nizam-
ul-Mulk (Administrator of the Country), which has ever since been
retained
by his descendants. He reigned till 1748, attaining the great age of
104;
and throughout this lengthened career, with occasional vicissitudes of
fortune,

1 Ktilij or Qulij sometimes spelt Chillich is the Turki word for
sword ; and Kulij
Khan, as a title, bears the same meaning as the Persian Shamsher Khan.
On the title of
Asaf Jah, subsequently borne by the Nawab Chin Kulij Khan and his
descendants, the
learned Professor Blochmann gives this note : " Asaf was the name of
the Vazir of Solomon,
who like his master is proverbial in the East for wisdom. During the
reign of Akbar three
grandees received this title. Badaoni, to avoid confusion, numbers
them Asaf Khan I., II.,
and III. . . . Jahangir conferred the title of Asaf Khan (IV.) on Abul
Hasan, elder brother
of the Empress Nur Jahan, and father of the Empress Mumtaz Mahal (or
Taj Bibi, Shah-
jahan's wife), whose mother was a daughter of Asaf Khan II. During the
reign of Shahjahan,
when titles containing the word Dauld were revived, Asaf Khan was
changed to Asaf-ud-
dauld ; and this title was conferred on Asaf-ud-daula Jumlat-ul-Mulk
Asad Jang, a relation
of Asaf Khan IV. Under Ahmad Shah, lastly, we find Asaf-ud-daula Amir-
ul-Mamalik,
whose name, like that of his father, Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah, occurs so
often in later Indian
history."

As the ancient titles of the Mughal Empire are retained among the
nobles of the Deccan,
and are still conferred by His Highness the Nizam, it may here be
noted that in ascending
order they contain the words Jang, Dauld, Mulk, and Umara or Jah.
Titles containing
the words Jah or Umara may be compared with English Dukes or
Marquesses ; those con-
taining Mttlk with English Earls ; those containing Dauld with
Viscounts ; and those
containingya7Z- with Barons.
he continually increased his power during the days of the declining
vigour of
the Mughal Empire.

The dynasty, thus established as the greatest native Power in the
Indian
Peninsula, has been almost uniformly closely attached to the British
Power in
India, and has consequently obtained from English writers the style of
" Our
faithfully ally the Nizam." At all the most critical periods in the
history of
the Indian Empire in the Mysore wars, in the Mahratta wars, during
the
Mutiny of 1857, and recently when Russian invasion seemed probable
the
Nizam of the day has always rendered invaluable help.

Of Asaf Jah, the founder of the dynasty, an English writer thus
speaks :

" Content, however, with actual sovereignty, he never assumed its
title and
insignia. The family, indeed, to the last professed subordination to
the Court of
Delhi, and the Nizam's successors continued to be formally confirmed
by mandates
from the Mogul Emperors. The immunity enjoyed by Nizam-ool-Moolk, in
a
practical surrender of the Deccan to his rule, appears to have been
merely due
to his essential importance as the only available check to the growing
power and
harassing incursions of the Mahrattas a constant source of disturbance
and
alarm to his titular master. The evening of his eventful life, whose
span is said
to have exceeded a century, was spent by the first Nizam with singular
retention
of extraordinary physical and mental faculties, in his so strangely
gained prin-
cipality, when death closed in 1748 a career remarkable and prominent
in a
stirring and productive time. Impartial estimates of his character can
hardly be-
grudge his descendants a pride in the founder of their name and
renown, for his
politic compass and tenacious hold of independent power were unstained
by
treachery or cruelty, and the later annals of the family are similarly
clear of the
grosser incidents of conquests. He left them, too, an example of
equanimity
undaunted in adversity and superior to elation by success." 1

After the death of the aged Nizam-ul-Mulk the throne of the Deccan
was long and fiercely contended for, with varying fortunes, by his
grandson
Muzaffar Jang, and his sons (uncles of Muzaffar Jang), known as Ghazi-
ud-din,
Nasir Jang, Salabat Jang, and Nizam Ali. Involved in these wars were
also
the English and French forces in the Carnatic, and the armies of the
Mahrattas
and of the Nawabs of Arcot. It was the Nizam Salabat Jang who finally
adopted the city of Hyderabad, on the river Musi, as his capital ; its
ancient
name was Bhagnagar, and it had been founded in 1585 by Muhammad Kutb
Shah, King of Golkonda. In 1761 Salabat Jang was dethroned by his
brother Nizam Ali, who put him to death in 1763, and reigned till
1803
playing a prominent part during the whole of that period in the
incessant
wars with the English, the Mahrattas, and the Sultans of Mysore,
Haidar and
Tippu. The first treaty between the British Power and the Nizam was
con-
cluded in 1766, followed by great and permanent treaties in 1798 and
1800.
In accordance with these engagements, after the defeats of the
Mahrattas at
Laswari and Assaye, the Nizam received large accessions of territory,
including
the great and rich province of Berar ; and similarly after the
conquest of
Tippu the Nizam shared in the division of territory. Nizam Ali died
in
1803, and was succeeded by his son, the Nizam Sikandar Jah, who was
served in turn by three famous Prime Ministers, Mir Alam, Munir-ul-
Mulk,

1 Quoted in the learned and voluminous History of Hyderabad Affairs,
compiled for
private circulation in 1883 by the Maulavi Sayyid Mehdi Ali, Nawab
Mohsin-ul-Mulk,
Secretary to the Government of His Highness the Nizam.
and the Raja Chandu Lai. In 1829 Sikandar Jah was succeeded by his
son, the Nizam Nasir-ud-daula, who reigned till 1857. He had no great
liking for affairs of State, which he left largely to the care of his
Prime
Minister, the Nawab Suraj-ul-Mulk, who died in 1853, when the Nizam
appointed his nephew, the well-known Sir Salar Jang, to succeed him in
the
office of Minister. Nasir-ud-daula is described as having " a gracious
dis-
position to private charity, and with much bountiful kindness to his
de-
pendants." He died in May 1857, just before the outbreak of the
Mutiny,
and was succeeded by His late Highness the Nizam Afzul-ud-daula,
father of
the present Nizam.

The loyalty of the late Nizam and his troops during the crisis of
1857
has been well commemorated by an English writer in the following
words :

"When, on the I7th of July in that memorable year, after a frantic
pro-
mulgation of Jihad or Holy War on the part of the indigenous
Muhammadans of
both Southern and Northern India, the Rohillas attacked the Residency,
and
were repulsed by troops under the command of the late Colonel Briggs,
had the
Nizam, untried as he then was, aided the movement, or even openly
avowed
sympathy with the mutineers, there can be no doubt that any success at
Hydera-
bad would have proved a signal for revolt to the bigoted and fanatic
Muhammadan
population, not only there, but in all Central, Western, and Southern
India,
and that our terrible straits elsewhere would have been multiplied and
sorely
aggravated. For we had at the time but one European corps at
Secunderabad,
the military station, and camped at Trimulgherry, about two miles from
the
central arsenal, which must have been left in the charge of native
soldiers if
attacked from the capital. . . . But the Nizam was firm in his
alliance, attracting
to our side all that was respectable in his Court and capital. The
traditions of
the family also, and old memories of rescue from the Mahrattas, were
with us,
and not inefficacious in our hour of need.

"And now for the behaviour of the Hyderabad contingent. In this
force,
recollect, are thousands of the same caste as those whose relatives
elsewhere were
murdering their officers, or marching towards the Mogul standard at
Delhi.
From these came emissaries, not only to their brethren of the
contingent, with
letters and personal entreaties to join, but to the Court itself. The
greater
portion of the contingent was presently ordered into the .field, and a
brigade of
all arms was pushed into Central India, where they fought, under Sir
Hugh Rose,
with bravery and endurance unsurpassed by any corps in the Service.
With only
eighteen hours' warning, i.e. receiving their orders at seven in the
morning, and
starting at midnight of the same day, these troops took the field, and
were absent
from their homes for fifteen months, remaining the whole of that time
under
canvas, leaving their own fertile plain of the Deccan behind them,
until, after
fighting their way inch by inch, they bathed in the holy river at
Calpee, after a
signal victory obtained over the rebels at that place. Instancing a
few of their
exploits, I may mention that at Mehidpoor, the seat of former triumph
to the
contingent, when they formed a part of Sir John Malcolm's army in
1817, they
arrived, after a forced march of sixty miles, in time to rescue an
English lady ;
and finding that the enemy, consisting of the Mehidpoor contingent and
the
escaped garrison of Dhar, had made away with the Mehidpoor battery
and
arsenal stores, they immediately, after despatching Mrs. Timmins to
the camp of
the Bombay column, rattled off in pursuit, the enemy having got
several hours'
start of them. They overtook the rascals late in the afternoon, about
twelve
miles distant from Mehidpoor, charged, and captured both battery and
stores,
cutting up a large number of mutineers, and severing at a blow, from
the enemy,
most important means of offence and defence, which a week later would
assuredly
have been in position and used against us when the great battle, which
lasted
throughout four days, was fought at Mundessoor. The troops, especially
the
native portion, lived almost entirely on parched grain collected from
the fields in
the neighbourhood, and immediately submitted to the process of hand
manipula-
tion over the fire. It is not my intention to trace here the further
exploits of the
Hyderabad contingent troops, beyond noticing the fact of their rapid
journeys in
advance of the main columns they accompanied, returning only to
headquarters
when a general action was to be fought. On the thousands of miles
marched by
the cavalry of this force, accompanied often by the infantry and
artillery, I need
not dwell. Sir Hugh Rose termed these troops 'the wings of my army.'
With
the restoration of peace came full time for recognising the Nizam's
fidelity and
active aid. Presents to the value of ,10,000 were made to His
Highness, and
the Star of India was conferred on him. The territory transferred in
'53 to our
management was now yielding more than the requisite revenue, and a new
arrange-
ment was accordingly proposed, under which, in 1860, districts of the
value of
13 lacs were restored to the Nizam, together with a transfer of the
principality
of Shorapoor, whose Rajah had been seduced into the rebellion of the
Southern
Mahratta country. This acquisition affords an annual surplus of ,
15,000. We
also remitted the entire debt."

The Nizam Afzul-ud-daula, G. C.S.I., died in 1869, and was succeeded
by his son, the present Nizam, who has followed all the best
traditions of his
ancestors, and has demonstrated his attachment to the Empire in even
more
striking fashion. In 1885 he offered to send troops to aid the
Government
in Egypt ; and in the same year, when there was a menace of Russian
aggression on the Afghan frontier, he repeated the generous offer. But
it
was in 1887, in the year of the Jubilee of Her Most Gracious
Majesty's
reign, that His Highness gave the most signal proof of his princely
loyalty.
In August of that year His Highness wrote the following most
remarkable
and patriotic letter to the Viceroy of India :

" HYDERABAD, August 26.

11 MY FRIEND, No inhabitant can be indifferent to the persistent
advance
of another great military power towards India ; to the necessity that
exists for
putting the frontier in a proper state of defence ; and to the burden
it imposes
on those charged with its safety and the care of the Empire. All who
have the
welfare of India at heart are bound to consider what should be done,
and to
show they are heartily in sympathy with those who are endeavouring to
place
the frontier in a proper state of defence, so as to ward off all
danger from our
hearths and homes. The Princes of India have not been blind to the
movement
of events. We realise the financial responsibility the present state
of affairs
imposes on the Indian Exchequer. It seems to me that the time has
arrived for
showing in some open manner that India is united on this question, and
for that
reason I write now to spontaneously offer to the Imperial Government a
con-
tribution from the Hyderabad State of twenty lakhs annually for three
years, for
the exclusive purpose of Indian frontier defence. This is my offer in
time of
peace. At a later stage you can count upon my sword. Your sincere
friend,

" MIR MAHBUB ALI KHAN."

The effect of this letter on public opinion throughout the world was
very
great. Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen Empress was pleased to
express her warm appreciation of the loyal action of His Highness in
the
following letter, by His Excellency the Viceroy's hand :

"SIMLA, October*].

" MY FRIEND, I have received from Colonel Marshall your letter of the
26th of August, and send this reply by his hands. It is difficult for
me to
express in fitting terms my sense of the ready loyalty and goodwill
which have
prompted your Highness to come forward at this time with so generous
an offer,
emanating as its does from the head of one of the largest and most
important
States in India. It is indeed a striking proof of the friendly
feelings entertained
towards Her Majesty and -the British Government by the Princes of the
Empire ;
and I had the greatest satisfaction in acquainting the Queen Empress
with the
contents of your Highness's kharita. There is no doubt that the
advance of a
great military power towards the borders of India has imposed on the
Govern-
ment the obligation of taking those precautions for the defence of our
frontier
which are adopted by all nations on becoming conterminous with each
other, no
matter how friendly their existing relations. This duty undoubtedly
has con-
siderably added, and will continue to add for some time, to the
expenditure of
the Government of India ; and it is a convincing proof both of your
Highness's
statesmanlike capacity as well as of your generosity that you should
have been
the first among the Princes of India to recognise the principle that
the Native
States are as much interested as the rest of the Indian population in
assisting
the Government to take whatever measures may be necessary to preserve
the
borders of the Empire from any dangers which may arise from external
com-
plications. Again thanking your Highness in the name of my Government,
as
well as in the name of Her Majesty and the Government of England, for
the
noble example which you have set, I remain, my friend, yours
sincerely,

" DUFFERIN."

And the appreciation of the people of England of the friendly action
of
the First Prince of the Indian Empire was aptly expressed in the
following
leading article in the Times :

" This is an intimation, which no one can misinterpret, that the great
Native
Courts, who are outside the red line of British administration, have
been alive to
the incessant encroachments of Russia in the direction of India, and
now per-
ceive that this advance constitutes a danger for them as well as for
us. We
believe that feeling is shared by every potentate, great or small,
from Travancore
to Cashmere, yet it has remained voiceless, not for want of will, but
rather of
knowledge as to how and when to speak. With remarkable acumen the
Nizam
has not only seen that the time has come, but he has chosen the very
best and
the most original mode of giving vent to the pent-up feeling of a
large section of
the Indian population. In time of war and invasion, or, indeed, of any
military
operations beyond the frontier, the rulers of the Native States would
be com-
pelled to play a certain part, and we should receive, as we have
received before,
the offer of their military contingents. But we are fortunately not in
any immi-
nent risk of war or invasion, although we have sanctioned an
expenditure of some
ten millions sterling on frontier defence, and it is this which makes
the Nizam's
princely gift all the more gratifying and significant. There is
absolutely no prece-
dent in Indian history for the Nizam taking this step in time of
peace, nor, indeed,
for any Native Court admitting the least responsibility in regard to
the financial
embarrassments of the Central Government, even if caused by
expenditure on
objects from which that Court derives a direct benefit. The action of
the Nizam,
magnificent in itself, is enhanced by all the attendant circumstances.
It is quite
unexpected, the step having been taken by the Nizam entirely on his
own
initiative. . . . W T e can assure His Highness that his generous
friendship will
wake a responsive feeling in the breasts of the British people, not
merely for the
noble proportions of his contribution to frontier defence, but for the
loyal feelings
which inspired him to place on unmistakable record before the world
the unanimity
of opinion in India on the subjects of English rule and Russian
aggression.
The Nizam's act cannot fail to arouse our enthusiasm at the same time
that it
furnishes a unique compliment to our authority and power.

" The impression produced by the Nizam's letter will not be limited to
India
or this country, although its full effect will be felt most in the
Peninsula of
Hindostan, where the ruler of Hyderabad speaks as the great political
chief
among the fifty million Mahomedans of the Empire. The great service
which
he has rendered our Government and cause is that, at a moment when
even the
suspicion of compulsion could not exist, he has come forward with the
frank
declaration that in his opinion every ruler and native of India has a
common
interest in the security of the country against external attack. In
doing this he
has not only committed his own person and dynasty to a policy of
implacable
hostility to a foreign invader, but he has set all the feudatories of
the Indian
Empire a splendid example. If any other Indian chief had taken this
step the
deed would have been in a personal sense quite as gratifying, but it
would not
have possessed the same political significance. When an Indian
Mahomedan
talks of the secular power of Islam, his expressed thought may be for
the Sultan
as Caliph, but his real conviction is that for him personally the
Nizam is quite
as important a personage. The Nizam has spoken not only * as the
oldest ally
of the English in India,' but as the foremost Mahomedan potentate in
our
quarter of Asia. He is an infinitely greater prince, tested by his
revenue, the
number of his subjects, and his own personal enlightenment and that of
his
Government, than the Ameer of Bokhara, who is termed the Head of Islam
in
Central Asia. . . . The silly stories which those adventurers who wish
to make
a livelihood out of Russian credulity have been circulating about
English oppres-
sion in India, and especially at the expense of Mahomedans, have now
received
the clearest possible refutations at the hands of the most
representative Mahome-
dan prince in the Peninsula. The Nizam's letter is also .important as
putting an
end to all possible ambiguity as to the cordial relations and good
understanding
subsisting between the Central Government and the chief feudatories of
India.
A great deal too much notice has been paid to alleged disaffection at
native
courts and capitals, instigated by outside intriguers ; and the armies
and the
social state of Native States, kept up in conformity with written
treaty, may
perhaps have been scanned with too closely critical an eye under the
sudden
perception of what might be a concealed danger. The Nizam's letter
annihilates
such petty and personal criticism. It is impossible after this to
suspect Hydera-
bad of being less staunch in the cause of defending India than
ourselves ; and
when the greatest and most powerful of Indian States is thus outspoken
we may
feel sure that the rest will not lag far behind. The Nizam has been
good
enough to take the most effectual steps to shatter the pleasing belief
of Russian
commanders and some Continental critics, that when the Czar's armies
move
towards the Indus the discontented princes and peoples, alienated by
the greed
and tyranny of England, will rise to welcome them as deliverers, so
that the
contest will be virtually over before the first shot is fired. . . .
The present
Nizam has bettered his predecessor's example. He has anticipated the
crisis
which may be before that country, and he declares in the most emphatic
and
unequivocal manner that if the fatal hour comes he will be with us,
and that
' England can count on his sword.' This we never doubted, but what is
as
surprising as it is welcome is that he has discovered the very best
way to convince
the world that his words are sincere, and not mere lip service. It
would be
futile to talk of making the Nizam some adequate return, for there is
no repaying
such generosity and cordiality as he has shown. But we cannot do less
than
admit that he acquires an additional claim on our confidence and
consideration
by conferring an inestimable service on the whole of the Empire, and
one which
no one but he, as the first of Indian princes, and the greatest
magnate in alliance
with the Crown, could have rendered with the same effect. British
politicians
can learn from his action the moral that British authority in India is
both
popular and useful, and at the same time that the menace from Russia
is
regarded by the responsible representatives of the Peninsula as a real
and
growing danger. In the union of those who will suffer from it is to be
found
absolute security, both now and in the future, and the Nizam has shown
that
this union exists."

In November 1892 the Marquess of Lansdowne visited His Highness's
capital in State, as Viceroy of. India; and was entertained at dinner
by the Nizam, who took the opportunity, when proposing the health of
his
distinguished guest, to reiterate his sentiments of loyalty and
friendliness
in the following words :

" The historical friendship that has existed between my State and the
British
Government has not been confined to mere mellifluous words, but has
been
tested by deeds deeds in which the best blood of Hyderabad was shed
in
defence of British interests, deeds in which British blood was spilt
in defending
the throne of a faithful ally. This friendship is a most precious
legacy left to me
by my ancestors, which I am not only most anxious to maintain but to
increase
by continuous deeds of loyal amity."

And the speech of the Viceroy reciprocated these sentiments ; the
following
is an extract from it :

" His Highness the Niza"m rules over an area of 100,000 square miles
and a
population of over eleven millions of human beings. It is perhaps
instructive, in
order to give a correct idea of the importance of the State, to recall
the fact that
its population is about five times that of Denmark, considerably more
than double
the population of the Netherlands, of Norway, Sweden, and of Turkey in
Europe,
while it is also considerably more than double that of the great
island Continent of
Australia and of that vast Dominion of Canada in which I had for some
years the
honour of representing Her Majesty. His Highness's territories
comprise some
of the richest in natural resources of any in India, and it is not too
much to say
that given a Government founded upon justice and personal security,
there is no
reason why the State should not be what His Highness, I am sure,
desires it to
be, an example to the rest. And I may add that there is no ruler whom,
upon
personal grounds, the Government of India is more desirous of
supporting and
encouraging in the discharge of his onerous duties than His Highness
the Nizdm.

" I have had the advantage of meeting several of those who have had
official
relations with him, and they are all agreed in bearing witness to the
personal
qualities which have attracted to him the sympathy and goodwill of
those with
whom he has been brought into contact. It is satisfactory to know that
he has
on more than one occasion shown by his acts that he is sincerely
anxious to do
his duty as the ruler of this important State. I may refer in
illustration of my
meaning to the liberality with which the support of the State has been
given to
such useful measures as the improvement of the water-supply of
Secunderabad,
and to the public spirit shown by His Highness in connection with the
appoint-
ment of the Chloroform Commission, ably presided over by Surgeon-
Lieutenant-
Colonel Lawrie an enquiry which has already produced scientific
results of
importance, and which shows that His Highness is prepared to recognise
the
claims of a philanthropy transcending the limits of his own
possessions."

The progress of the State of Hyderabad under the rule of this brave
and
patriotic Prince has been most surprising, and is evident in every
department
of public affairs. In communication and means of locomotion, in
education,
in sanitation, in the administration of justice, police, and prisons,
in finance,
in revenue-administration and surveys, and in every other department,
the
most thorough reforms have been attempted with marked success. The
recent increase in trade and manufactures cotton-spinning, cloth and
silk
weaving, shawl-making and the like has been most marked. It is not
too
much to say that the Nizam is idolised by his people ; on the occasion
of his
serious illness in 1884, the prayers in all the mosques, and the
public
anxiety throughout the State, reminded fvery one of the feeling evoked
in
England by the illness of the Prince of Wales. The Nizam has had the
advantage of being served by many of the ablest and most experienced
and
successful Statesmen that India has produced, among whom the most
prominent have been the late Sir Salar Jang, the late Shams-ul-Umara,
and
the living members of the great Shamsiya family Sir Asman Jah, Sir
Khurshid Jah, and the Vikar-ul-Umara. And to these may be added the
Nawab Safdar Jang, Mushir-ud-daula, Fakhr-ul-Mulk Bahadur, Minister
of
Justice ; the Nawab Shahab Jang, Mukhtar-ud-daula Bahadur, Minister
of
Police ; the Nawab Nizam Yar Jang, Hasim-ul-Mulk, Khan-i-Khanan,
Minister
of the Miscellaneous Department ; and the Nawab Asaf Yar-ud-daula,
Asaf
Yar-ul-Mulk Bahadur, Member of Council. And among the Ministers who
have successfully administered the important Departments of State
under the
Council may be mentioned the Nawab Mehdi AH (Mohsin-ul-Mulk), the
Nawab Mushtak Husain (Vikar-ul-Mulk), the Nawab Mehdi Hasan (Fateh
Nawaz Jang), the Nawab Sayyid Husain AH Bilgrami (Imad-ul-Mulk), the
Nawab Chiragh AH (Azam Yar Jang), and the Sardar Diler Jang (Diler-
ud-
daula). By the aid of these Ministers His Highness has developed his
State by a great railway which he opened in person on the 3rd of
April
1886; he has established an extensive system of public instruction,
based
on the most perfect models, both for elementary and for secondary
education ;
he has purified the administration of justice, and put it on a par
with that in
British India ; he has repaired the neglect of centuries in the
maintenance
and construction of tanks and wells, and in the sanitation of the
great cities
of the State, and especially in the capital. He has introduced and
largely
carried out a scientific system of Revenue Survey, and safeguarded the
rights
of the poorer cultivators. The great central jail of Hyderabad,
although it
contains some of the most desperate criminals in India, is admirably
arranged
and administered, and is becoming a valuable centre for jail-
manufactures.
His Highness has cared for the medical wants of his female subjects
by
employing lady-doctors, establishing schools for the training of
nurses, and by
many similar benefactions. Some of the sons of the Hyderabad nobles
are
sent to England, at the cost of the State, to be educated. The Nizam
has
also established a system of famine-relief, for use in time of famine,
based
on the Report of Sir James Caird's Famine Commission, that may be
compared with that of British India. In every way the progress
attained,
especially of late, has been most remarkable and gratifying.

His Highness's personal staff is at present constituted as follows :
Private
Secretary, the Nawab Imad-iri-Mulk Bahadur ; Military Secretary and
Aides-
de-Camp, the Nawab Mahbub Yar Jang Bahadur, Major the Nawab Afsar
Jang Bahadur, and the Nawab Dawar-ul-Mulk Bahadur ; Surgeon-in-
attendance,
the Nawab Sultan-ul-Hukama.

The family banner of the Nizam is coloured yellow, and it bears in
its
centre a disc, which represents the " Lucky Chapati " of the first
Nizam.
This family cognisance took its origin in the following incident. When
the
first Nizam was departing to the wars in the Deccan, a holy man came
forward to give his benediction to the hero of the faith, and
presented him
with a chapdti as an emblem of good fortune ; this chapdti the warrior
carried
with him as an amulet through all his successful campaigns, and his
descendants have ever since borne the device called the kulcha on
their
banner.

The Nizam rules his State in a constitutional manner, through the
medium
of a Prime Minister His Excellency Sir Asman Jah, K.C.I.E. with a
Council of State, whose chief member is the Vikar-ul-Umara. His
Highness
has fixed days in the week when he transacts public business with the
Council ; and thrice a week the Prime Minister attends at the Palace,
with
all reports, financial statements, and other documents, thereby
keeping the
Nizam fully informed of the state of public affairs. His Highness is
said to
take a personal interest in all that goes on ; and indeed, for some
time before
the appointment of the present Prime Minister, he acted as his own
Minister,
with the aid of an English officer lent him by the Viceroy. He is a
keen
sportsman, and a proficient in all manly exercises, especially in that
of tent-
pegging, which is his great amusement, and in which he is very
expert.

The area of the Nizam's dominions including the Berars or Hyderabad
Assigned Districts, which are temporarily administered by the British
Government in trust for him is about 98,000 square miles ; its
population
is nearly 13,000,000, chiefly Hindus, but with over a million
Muhammadans.
It is by far the largest, richest, and most populous of the feudatory
States of
India ; it is three times as large as Bavaria, and more than twice as
populous.
The Nizam maintains a military force of 6228 cavalry, 24,068 infantry,
and
35 guns; exclusive of the Paigah or Household Troops. His Highness is
entitled to a salute of 2 1 guns.

Residence. Hyderabad, Deccan.

IBRAHIM KHAN. See Muhammad Ibrahim Khan.
IBRAHIM SAYYID. See Muhammad Ibrahim, Maulavi, Sayyid.

ICHHRA SINGH, Sarddr.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Gujrdnwdla, Punjab.

IDAR, HIS HIGHNESS MAHARAJA SRI SIR KESRISINGHJI
JAWANSINGHJI, K.C.S.L, Maharaja of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1864; succeeded to the gadi 26th December 1868. Belongs to
the great Rahtor Rajput (Hindu) family, said to spring from the second
son
of the legendary hero Rama, and therefore of the Solar race ; of whom
the
principal Chief is His Highness the Maharaja of Jodhpur, and to which
also
belong the Chiefs of Bikanir and Kishangarh in Rajputana, and other
important Princes. In 1729, when the famous Abhai Singh, Rahtor Raja
of Jodhpur, was Subahdar of Gujarat under the Emperor Muhammad Shah,
and his brother Bakht Singh Rahtor was the conqueror of Nagar, two
other
brothers, named Anand Singh Rahtor and Rai Singh Rahtor, established
themselves at Idar by force of arms. The Peshwa and the Gaekwar soon
despoiled the young State ; and the Raja Sheo Singh Rahtor, son of
Anand
Singh, who died in 1791, was compelled to lose part of his
territories, and to
pay tribute to the Gaekwar. This tribute is still paid by the Chief of
Idar,
who in return receives tribute from some other minor States. Sheo
Singh
was succeeded by his son Bhawan Singh, who died shortly afterwards,
leaving
the gadi to a minor son, the Raja Gambhirsinghji. The latter was
succeeded
by the Maharaja Jawansinghji, K.C.S.L, who was a Member of the
Legislative
Council of Bombay, and died in 1888, leaving his son, the present
Maharaja,
as a minor. His Highness was educated at the Rajkumar College at
Indore.
His State has an area of 2500 square miles; and a population of
258,429,
chiefly Hindus, but including 8700 Muhammadans and 6266 Jains. The
Maharaja has obtained a sanad of adoption; and was created a Knight
Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India on i5th Feb-
ruary 1887, on the occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most
Gracious Majesty. His Highness maintains a military force of 54
cavalry,
100 infantry, and 21 guns; and is entitled to a salute of 15 guns.

Residence. Idar, Mdhi Kdntha, Bombay.

IJPURA, THAKUR GOBARSINGHJI, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1850. Belongs to a Koli (aboriginal) family. His State has a
population of about 392, chiefly Hindus.
Residence. Ijpura, Mahi Kntha.

ILAHI BAKHSH, SHAIKH, Khan Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th May 1889.
Residence. Ajmir.

ILOL, THAKUR WAKHATSINGHJI DIPSINGHJI, Thdkur of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1864; succeeded to the gadi i6th April 1866. Belongs to a Koli
(Hindu) family; was educated at the Rajkumar College, Rajkot. The
State of Ilol is tributary to the Gaekwar, and also to Idar. Its area
is 44
square miles; its population is 5603, chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Ilol, Mdhi Ka"ntha, Bombay.

ILSIFAT HUSAIN, MIR, Khan Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th May 1889.
Residence. B aroda.

IMAM BAKHSH walad SHER MUHAMMAD KHAN
(of Mirpur), Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a representative of one of the
Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Hyderabad, Sind.

IMAM BAKHSH (of Raikot), Rai.

Belongs to a Rajput Muhammadan family, that claims descent from the
same stock as that of the ruling house of Jaisalmir. Its founder,
Tulsi Ram,
second son of Raja Dulchi Ram of Jaisalmir, is said to have become a
con-
vert to Islam in the year 1833. His descendants occupied Raikot till
the
death of Rani Bhagbari in 1852, when the territory lapsed to the
British
Government. Rai Imam Bakhsh is a distant relative of the late Rani,
and has
succeeded to her private estate. He has three sons Amir Khan, Fateh
Khan, and Faizulla Khan.

Residence. Raikot, Ludhia'na, Punjab.

IMAM BAKHSH KHAN, BOZDAR, Khan Bahadur.

Born 1834. The title was conferred on loth April 1884 as a personal
distinction, in recognition of his eminent services in the Survey
Department
as an explorer of unknown tracts on the Frontier. He has done
especially
valuable work as an explorer in the Gilgit country, also in Zhob and
the
Ghumal country, and in the Shirani Hills. He has taken part also in
ex-
ploring expeditions to the Vaziri country, to Buner, to Agror,
Kandahar, and
Kabul. He is a Member of the Municipal Committee of Dera Ghazi Khan ;
and has received a khilat and a chair in Darbar from the Government.

Residence. Dera Ghdzi Kha"n, Punjab.

IMAM BAKHSH KHAN walad MUHAMMAD HASAN
KHAN, His Highness.

The title is personal, His Highness being a representative of the
ruling
Chiefs or Mirs of Sind at th time of the annexation.

Residence. Shika" rpur, S ind.

IMAM BAKHSH KHAN, MAZARI, SIR, K.C.I.B., Mir, Nawdb.

The first title (of Mir) is hereditary, the second (of Nawab) is
personal,
and was conferred on 23rd February 1877, i n recognition of his loyal
and
zealous services in Sir R. Sandeman's mission to Kalat. Belongs to a
Mazari
Baluch family that claims descent from Amir Hamza, the uncle of the
Prophet, whose son, Kul Charag, emigrated from Persia to Kalat, and
settled
in Kach and Makran. A descendant, Batil Khan, received the title of
" Mazar," meaning a lion in the Baluch language, on account of his
gallantry
in the battles with the Lashiris, and hence the name of this Baluchi
clan.
Bahrain Khan, the father of Sir Imam Bakhsh, received a sanad from
the
Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Lahore. During the Mutiny of 1857 Sir Imam
Bakhsh gave conspicuous aid to the Government; and was created a
Knight Commander of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire,
24th May 1888. He is an Honorary Magistrate of the first class, and
one
of the most influential and loyal Chiefs on the Baluch frontier. His
eldest
son, named Bahrain Khan, was born in 1857, and has married the
daughter
and only child of his cousin, Sher Muhammad, which marriage ensures
the
Tamanddrshipi or headship of the clan, to Sir Imam Bakhsh's
descendants.

Residence. Dera Ghdzi Kha"n, Punjab.

IMAM SHARIF, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887.
Residence. Survey of India.

IMDAD ALI KHAN walad HASAN ALI KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a representative of the Mirs
or
Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.

Residence. Sind.

IMDAD IMAM, MAUL AVI, SAYYID, Shams-ul-Ulama.

The title was conferred on 24th May 1889 as a personal distinction,
in
recognition of his eminence as an oriental scholar. It entitles him to
take
rank in Darbar after titular Nawabs.

Residence. Patna, Bengal.

INAYAT ALI KHAN walad MIR GHULAM SHAH, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a representative of the Mirs
or
Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

INAYAT ALI KHAN, MIRZA, AK Kadr Bahadur.

Is a grandson of the late Muhammad AH Shah, King of Oudh, being the
son of the Nawab Sir Mohsin-ud-daula, K.C.S.I., who married the
King's
daughter. The title, which is a personal distinction, was first
conferred by
King Muhammad Ali Shah in 1839, and was recognised by Government in
1877. Is a trustee of the Husainabad Endowment.

Residence. Lucknow, Oudh.

INAYAT HUSAIN KHAN, MUNSHI, Khan Bahadur.

Born September 1834. Belongs to a Pathan family, and has been in
the service of the Government since 1850. During the Mutiny he
rendered
valuable services at the risk of his own life and property, and for
these he
has been rewarded with a grant, and on 6th June 1885 obtained the
title of
Khan Bahadur as a personal distinction.

Residence. Allahabad, North-Western Provinces.

INAYAT HUSAIN SHAIKH, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 25th November 1870.
Residence. Hyderabad, Deccan.

INAYAT-ULLA KHAN, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
tne
occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty.
Residence. Gwalior, Central India.

INDAR DEO (of Akhrota), Rdjd.

The title is hereditary. The family is of ancient Rajput origin. Its
founder was Raja Ranjit Deo, Raja of Jammu, the son of Raja Darab
Deo,
who was the ancestor of the Maharajas of Jammu and Kashmir. Raja
Indar Dec's grandfather was the ruling Chief at Jammu, who was ejected
by
the Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Lahore when he conquered that territory.
He
is the son of the late Raja Raghbir Deo.

Residence. Akhrota, Pathankot, Gurdaspur, Punjab.

INDAR KUNWAR (of Balrdmpur), Mahdrdni.

The Maharani, being the widow of the late Maharaja Sir Digbijai
Singh, K.C.S.I., of Balrampur, is the largest landowner in Oudh, and
the

guardian of the heir to the Chiefship of
Balrampur, adopted by her. The hereditary
title of Raja dates from the i6th century.
The family is a younger branch of the Janwar
family of Ikauna, in the Bahraich district (see
Narpat Singh, Raja of Gangwal). Madho
Singh, the younger brother of Raja Ganesh
Singh of that family, made some conquests
between the Rapti and Kuana rivers \ and
his son, Balram Singh, founded the town of
Balrampur. Some of his successors, the
Rajas of Balrampur, successfully resisted the
exactions of the Nawabs Vazirs of Oudh.
Raja Newal Singh, who ascended the gadi
in 1777, is one of the most famous warriors
of the line. In 1836 the late Sir Digbijai
Singh, K. C.S.I., then a boy of eighteen,

became Raja. Throughout the Mutiny of 1857 he took the most active
and
conspicuous part on the side of the Government from first to last, and
in
the final campaign aided in driving the rebel leaders across the
frontier into
the Nepal TardL He was one of the five loyal Talukdars specially
mentioned
in Lord Canning's Proclamation of 1858 ; and in 1866 was created a
Knight
Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. He was for
some time a Member of the Viceroy's Legislative Council, and enjoyed
a
personal salute of 9 guns, with many other honours and dignities. He
died on the 27th May 1882. The Maharani adopted, as son and heir,
Udit Narayan Singh, a child nearly related to the late Maharaja ; and
in
1883 this adoption was ratified by the Government.

Arms. Argent, on a fesse azure between in chief a sword in bend
surmounted by a matchlock in bend sinister, and in base on a mount a
tiger
couchant, all proper, an Eastern crown between two stars of six points
of the
first. Crest. On a wreath of the colours, upon a trunk of a tree
eradicated
fessewise and sprouting to the dexter, a falcon surmounted by a
rainbow, all
proper. Motto. Fide et Justitid.

Residence. Balrdmpur, Gonda, Oudh.

INDAR NARAYAN, Rat.

Born 1850. The title is hereditary, and was conferred on 5th June
1858. Belongs to a Brahman family of Kashmir. The late Pandit Rai
Kishan Narayan was Settlement Deputy Collector of Sagar in the
Central
Provinces at the time of the Mutiny of 1857, and greatly distinguished
him-
self by his courage and fidelity, which were of the greatest value to
the local
authorities throughout the time of the disturbances. As a reward he
received
the hereditary title of Rai, with a grant of lands. On his death his
son, the
present Rai, who is a Subordinate Judge in the North- Western
Provinces, in-
herited the title and estates. He was educated at Agra, and has two
sons
Brij Narayan and Iqbal Narayan.

Residence. Cawnpur, North-Western Provinces.

INDAR NARAYAN SINGH, Mahdrdj -Kumar.

The title is personal. The Maharaj-Kumar is the son of the late Maha-
raja Gopal Chandra Singh, who obtained the title in 1867, "on account
of
his many acts of public liberality." The Maharaja was the husband of
the
Rani Janaki Kumari, eleventh in descent from Raja Banha Singh, and
owner
of Pargana Sultanabad in the Santal Parganas.

Residence. Maheshpur, Santa"! Pargands, Bengal.

INDORB, HIS HIGHNESS MAHARAJ-ADHIRAJ SHIVAJI
RAO HOLKAR, BAHADUR, G.C.S.I., Maharaja of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1860; succeeded to the gadi on i2th July 1886. His Highness's
full titles are His Highness Maharaj-Adhiraj Raj Rajeshwar Sawai Sir
Shivaji Rao Holkar Bahadur, Knight Grand Commander of the Most
Exalted
Order of the Star of India. Holkar is the dynastic name of the Princes
of
this great Mahratta family, who have occupied a very conspicuous place
in
the history of India since the first half of the i8th century. It is
derived
from Hoi, the name of the village on the Nira river in the Deccan,
where,
in 1693, was born Malhar Rao, the founder of the dynasty. It is an
in-
teresting fact in connection with the history of this Principality,
that its
administration has twice, at important periods, been in the hands of
ladies of
the family once, most successfully, in those of the famous Ahalya Bai
(1765-95), and once (less happily) in those of Tulsi Bai (1811-17).
Malhar
Rao adopted a military life in his early youth, and in the year 1724
entered
the service of the Peshwa, from which time his rise was very rapid.
Eight
years later he had become the Commander-in-Chief of the Peshwa's
armies,
had conquered the Imperial Subahdar of Malwa, and had received, from
the
gratitude of the Peshwa, the territory of Indore, with most of the
conquered
territory. He continued to strengthen his position, and at the great
battle of
Panipat, in conjunction with Sindhia (see Gwalior, Maharaja of), he
com-
manded one division of the Mahratta hosts. After that disaster he
retired to
Indore, and devoted himself to the development of this great
Principality,
which he left in 1765 to his grandson, a minor named Mali Rao Holkar,
in
a state of prosperity. The latter died in a few months ; and the
administra-
tion was then assumed by his mother, Ahalya Bai, the daughter-in-law
of the
first Holkar. Aided by her Commander-in-Chief, Tukaji Rao Holkar,
this
clever and courageous lady ruled for thirty years, and left Indore, at
her
death in 1795, in a well-ordered and prosperous condition. Thereon
much
disorder ensued. At last Jeswant Rao Holkar, an illegitimate son of
Tukaji,
amid many vicissitudes of fortune, managed to maintain the position of
the
family. He defeated the combined armies of Sindhia and the Peshwa in
1802, and took possession of the Peshwa's capital of Poona; which,
how-
ever, reverted to the Peshwa by British intervention after the Treaty
of
Bassein in the same year. Again, after the Treaty of Sarji Anjengaon,
war
ensued between Jeswant Rao Holkar and the Paramount Power, with
varying
fortune, till at length, in 1805, Holkar was forced to surrender to
Lord Lake,
and sign a treaty on the banks of the river Bias in the Punjab. He
died in
1811, leaving a minor son, Malhar Rao Holkar; and the administration
was
carried on by Tulsi Bai, one of the concubines of the late Maharaja,
as
Queen Regent. She was murdered in 1 8 1 7 by her own officers ; but
the
Indore army was defeated by the British forces at the battle of
Mehidpur,
and the Treaty of Mandesar followed in 1818, by which Malhar Rao
Holkar
became a feudatory Prince of the British Empire. He died in 1833
with-
out issue. Martand Rao Holkar was adopted as his successor, but was
speedily deposed by his cousin, Hari Rao Holkar. The latter, dying in
1843
without issue, was succeeded by his adopted son, Khandi Rao, who died
in
1844, and was succeeded by adoption by His late Highness the Maharaj-

Adhiraj Tukaji Rao Holkar, father of the present Chief. Tukaji Rao
was
only eleven years old at the date of his accession, and was the second
son of
Bhao Holkar. In 1852 he attained his majority, and was invested with
the
full management of the State. In 1857 the Indore army mutinied, and
besieged the British Resident, Sir Henry Durand, at Indore, who was
ex-
posed to much difficulty and danger in taking off the women and
children to
a place of safety at Bhopal. The Maharaja, however, remained loyal,
and his
rebellious troops soon after were forced to lay down their arms. The
Maha-
raja subsequently received a sanad of adoption, an increased personal
salute,
and the rank of a Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted Order of
the Star of India. He died in 1886, and was succeeded by the present
Maharaj-Adhiraj Bahadur. His Highness has visited England, and is
known
as a Prince of great enlightenment and ability. Like his illustrious
father, he
has received the rank of a Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted
Order of the Star of India. The area of his State is 8400 square
miles ; its
population about 1,055,000, chiefly Hindus, but including about
73,000
Muhammadans, and 86,000 belonging to various aboriginal tribes. In
size
the State of Indore may be compared with the kingdoms of Saxony or
Wiirtemberg, but is larger than either. In population it may be
compared
with the Grand Duchies of Hesse or Baden, being more populous than
the
former, and less so than the latter. His Highness maintains a military
force
of 3231 cavalry, 6128 infantry, and 65 guns. He is entitled to a
salute of
2 1 guns within the limits of Indore territory, and 1 9 guns
elsewhere.

Residence. Indore, Central India.

INDRA BIKRAMA SINGH (of Raipur Ikdaria, Itaunja), Rdjd.

Born 24th November 1864. The title is hereditary, having been
assumed by Rai Dingar Deo, ancestor of the Raja, and having been
recognised as hereditary by the Government in 1877. Belongs to a
Puar Rajput (Hindu) family, of the Vasishta Gotra or clan ; tracing
their
descent from Deo Ridh Rai, eighth son of Raja Rudra Sah of Dharanagar
or
Deogarh, who took service under the King of Delhi, and obtained from
him
important commands. The Rajas have before their residence a large
square
stone, which they hold in almost sacred reverence. They say that they
brought it from Delhi, and that it is the symbol of their right to the
estates
granted to them by the Emperors of Delhi. The late Raja Jagmohan
Singh
died in 1881, four months after attaining his majority, and was
succeeded by
his brother, the present Raja, then sixteen years old, as a minor
under the Court
of Wards. Educated at Canning College, Lucknow ; attained his
majority,
and received possession of his estate 2nd January 1886.

Residence. Itaunja, Mahona, Lucknow, Oudh.

INGHAR SINGH, Rao Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty.
Residence. Charkhdri, Central India.

ISHRI PARSHAD TBWARI, Rai.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 2oth May 1890.
Residence. Central Provinces.

ISHRI SINGH (of Nadaun), Mian.

The title is hereditary. Is a near relative of the Raja Amar Chand of
Nadaun (q.vl), and a descendant of the Raja Sir Jodhbir Chand,
K.C.S.I.
Residence. Ka"ngra, Punjab.

ISHWAR DAS, Rai Bahadur, Rdjd Ddyawant.

Born 1 3th June 1826. The titles are personal, and having been con-
ferred by the Nawab of the Carnatic, were recognised by the
Government
1890. His grandfather, the Rah Raja Makhan Lai Bahadur, and his
father,
Rai Raja Tikam Chand Bahadur, both successively held important posts
under the Nawabs of the Carnatic. Belongs to a Kayastha family,
claiming
descent from the famous Chitragupta. Has received the thanks of
Govern-
ment for his public services and his benevolence. His adopted son is
named
Lachmi Das.

Residence. Madras.

ISHWAR DAS, PANDIT, Rai Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th May 1889.
Residence. Peshdwar, Punjab.

JABBIA BHIL and JABRI, MIAN YUSUF MUHAMMAD,

Midn of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1874; succeeded to the gadi loth May 1888 as a minor. Belongs
to a Pindari (Muhammadan) family, descended from Rajan Khan, brother
of
the Pindari leader Chitu. The State is tributary to Gwalior, and
contains a
population of about 1000, chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Jabria Bhil, Bhopdl, Central India.

JADAB CHANDAR BARUA, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 3oth August 1888.
Residence. Nowgong, Assam.

JADU. See Yadu.

JADUNATH DEO (of Aul), Kumar.

Is the son of the late Raja Padmalabh Deo of Aul, who was born in
1830, succeeded to the gadi in 1840, and has recently died. Is
descended
from the ancient Royal family of Orissa. The Maharaja Makund Deo, the
last Maharaja of Orissa, was conquered by the Raja Man Singh (see
Jodhpur)
as Viceroy of the Mughal Emperor towards the close of the 1 6th
century.
When subsequently Ram Chandra Deo, belonging to another family, was
proclaimed Maharaja of Orissa by the headmen of the country, his title
was
disputed by the two surviving sons of Makund Deo, of whom the elder
was
also called Ram Chandra Deo, and the disputes were finally settled by
Raja
Man Singh in 1580 A.D., who appointed Ram Chandra Deo, the son of
Maharaja Makund Deo, to be Raja of Aul, and his . brother to be Raja
of
Sarungar of Patiya, while the other Ram Chandra Deo was made Raja of
Khurda. In 1803 the Raja of Aul acknowledged fealty to the British
Government.

Residence. Aul, Orissa, Bengal.

JADUNATH HALDAfe, Rai Bahadur.

Born 5th April 1832. The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th
May 1889. His great-grandfather was in the service of the Nawab of
Mur-
shidabad in Bengal, and was granted by him the appellation of Haldar,
which
his descendants retain as their family name. After the British
conquest of
Bengal he was appointed Tahsildar of Khas Mahal in Barrackpore.
During
the Mutiny the Rai Bahadur was a prisoner in the hands of the rebels
for
five months, and has subsequently rendered excellent service in the
Police of
the North-Western Provinces.

Residence. Allahabad, North-Western Provinces.

JADUNATH MUKHARJI, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 22nd May 1876, "for
liberality displayed by him in various matters of public progress and
im-
provement." Granted the title of Rai Bahadur, as a personal
distinction,
2nd January 1893.

Residence. Haza*ribagh, Bengal.

JAFAR ALI KHAN, CJ.E.

Was created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian
Empire, 25th June 1887. Is an officer in Her Majesty's Army, with the
rank of Risalddr.

Residence. C alcutta.

JAFAR ALI KHAN, Nawdb Bahadur.

The title is personal. Is the grandson of the late Amjad Ali Shah,
King
of Oudh, being the younger son of Nizam-ud-daula, who married a
daughter
of the King.

Residence. Lucknow, Oudh.

JAFARABAD, Chief of . See Janjira.

JAGADINDRA NATH RAI (of Ndtor), Maharaja.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877. Belongs
to
a Saritra Brahman family, who were eminent for many generations as
Maha-
rajas of Nator, and at one time owned the greater portion of the
Rajshahi
district. It is stated that the title of Maharaja Bahadur was
conferred on
Ram Jiban Rai by the Emperor of Delhi, and another sanad from Delhi
was
conferred on his grandson, the Maharaja Ram Krishna Rai Bahadur of
Nator. His son was the Maharaja Bisvanath Rai Bahadur of Nator, who
is
said by the family to have been granted a political pension by the
British
Government in 1806. His grandson was the Maharaja Gobindanath Rai
Bahadur of Nator, the (adoptive) father of the present Maharaja.

Residence. Ndtor, Rajshdhi, Bengal.

JAGADISHWAR fcHATTARJI, Rai Bahadur.

Born 1 7th March 1846. The title is personal, and was conferred on
2nd
January 1888, for long and approved service in the Opium Department,
in
which he held an important position. Belongs to a Brahman family of
Bengal.

Residence. Ghdzipur, North-Western Provinces.

JAGANNADHA RAO, VALLURI, Rai Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887.
Residence. Vizianagram, Madras.

JAGAT BAHADUR (of Umri), Rdjd.

Born iyth November 1850; succeeded to the gadi 23rd October 1872.
The title is hereditary. Is the senior representative of the ancient
Bilkhari
(Rajput) Chiefs of Fort Bilkhar, the vast ruins of which remain to
this day in
the mauza of Agyapur ; descended from Ghaibar Sah, fourth son of
Jaswant,
and great-grandson of Balbhaddar Dikhit, who built Fort Bilkhar after
the fall of
Kanauj. About 600 years ago one of his descendants, Raja Ram Deo, was
the Bilkharia Chief of Patti and Fort Bilkhar, but was deposed by his
son-in-
law, Bariar Singh Bachgoti (see Madho Prasad Singh, Rai), who slew his
son
Dalpat Sah, and seized the fort, leaving only a few villages to the
descendants
of Raja Ram Deo. The present Raja has a son and heir, named Lai
Krishna Pal Singh.

Residence. Umri, Partdbgarh, Oudh.

JAGAT SINGH, Sarddr Bahddur.
The title is personal.
Residence. Sia"lkot, Punjab.

JAGATPAL BAHADUR SINGH (of Raipur Bichaur), Rai.

The title is hereditary. Is the son of the late Rai Jagmohan Singh
(who
died on Qth April 1886) and of the Thakurain Sultan Kunwar, who now
holds the estate of Raipur Bichaur as the heir of her late husband
(see
Sultan Kunwar, Thakurain). Belongs to the Bachgoti clan of Rajputs
(see
Ranbijai Bahadur Singh, Diwan), and is descended from Hirda Singh of
Patti
Saifabad. In 1818 Rai Pirthipal Singh held the estate, and was
dispossessed
by the Nawab Nazim, but restored after three years.

Residence. Raipur Bichaur, Partdbgarh, Oudh.

JAGJIWANDAS KHUSHALDAS, Rao Bahddur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877.
Residence. Surat, Bombay.

JAGJODH SINGH, Sarddr.

The title is hereditary. Is the son of the late Kunwar Peshawara
Singh
of the Lahore family.

Residences. Sidlkot, Punjab ; and Bahraich, Oudh.

JAGNISHAN SINGH, C.I.E. (of Atra Chandapur), Rdjd.
Born 2ist August 1841; succeeded 1864. The title is hereditary.
Belongs to the great Kanhpuria (Rajput) family (see Surpal Singh
Bahadur, Raja

of Tiloi), being descended from Raja Madan Singh of Simrauta, third
son of
Prasad Singh, who was seventh in descent from Kanh, the Kshatriya
founder
of Kanhpur in the time of the great Manik Chand. The seventh in
descent
from Madan Singh was the Raja Mandhata Singh, who was in possession
of
Chandapur at the time of the conquest of Oudh by Saadat Khan. The
Raja
Shiudarshan Singh had half the estate confiscated at the time of the
Mutiny
in 1857. His grandson, the present Raja, is an Honorary Magistrate,
and
received a Medal of Honour at the Imperial Assemblage at Delhi on ist
January 1877, on the occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most
Gracious
Majesty as Empress of India ; and subsequently for good services he
has
been created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian
Empire.
Residence. Chandapur, Rai Bareli, Oudh.

JAHAN KADR MIRZA MUHAMMAD WAHID ALI
BAHADUR, Prince.

The title is personal a courtesy title of the Prince, as a son of the
late
King of Oudh.

Residence. Calcutta, Bengal.

JAHANDAD KHAN (of Khanpur), Rdjd, Khan Bahadur.

The first title (Raja) is hereditary, and the second (Khan Bahadur) is
per-
sonal, and was conferred on 24th May 1 88 1 . Belongs to a family of
the Gakkar
tribe, who overran Kashmir in early times, and were formidable
opponents of
the Emperor Babar. Is the son of Raja Haidar Bakhsh Khan ; has acted
as
Extra Assistant Commissioner of the Punjab. His son and heir is named
Fazaldad.

Residence. H azdra, Punj ab.

JAI CHAND (of Lambagraon), Raja.

Born 1870. The title is hereditary, and was conferred on i2th
December
1851. Belongs to the Katoch family of Rajputs, and is head of the
Kangra
family. Raja Parmad Chand died childless in exile at Almora, and was
succeeded by his relative, Raja Partab Chand, the father of the
present
Raja.

Residence. Kdngra, Punjab.

JAI SINGH (of Guler), Rdjd.

The title is hereditary, and was conferred on 28th February 1878, the
Raja being the brother of the late Raja Shamsher Singh of Guler, and
having
previously enjoyed the hereditary title of Mian. His son and heir is
named
Rughnath Singh. The family is connected with that of His Highness the
Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir by marriage. It is an offshoot of the
families of Kangra and Lambagraon.

Residence. Guler, Kdngra, Punjab.

JAI SINGH (of Siba), Rdjd.

The title is personal, and was conferred on yth August 1878. The Siba
family is an offshoot of the Guler family (see Jai Singh, of Guler,
Raja), which
itself was an offshoot of that of Kangra. Is descended from Sibaru
Chand, a
younger son of the Raja of Guler, who conquered the Siba territory,
calling
it Siba after his own name. Raja Ram Singh, the last of the old
hereditary
Rajas of Siba, died without male issue in 1875. The territory lapsed
to the
Paramount Power, but as an act of favour to His Highness the Maharaja
of
Jammu and Kashmir, who is related to the family by marriage, the
territory
and title was continued to a scion of the family named Raja Bije
Singh. He
died in 1878, and was succeeded by his son, the present Raja.

Residence. Siba, Kdngra, Punjab.

JAIBANS KUNWAR (of Kaithola), Rdni.

Born 1849. The title is hereditary. The Chief of Kaithola is the head
of the great Kanhpuria family (see Surpal Singh and Jagnishan Singh),
being
the representative of Sahas, the eldest son of Kanh. From him a line
of
twenty descents from father to son ends in the late Raja Mahesh Bakhsh
of
Kaithola, who died without male issue in 1881. The estates were under
Government management for some time, and were then handed over to the
present Rani, the widow of the late Raja.

Residence. Parta"bgarh, Oudh.

JAIKISHAN DAS, C.S.I., Raja Bahadur.

Born 24th November 1832. The title is personal, and was conferred
on 1 8th January 1860. Belongs to a family of Chaube Brahmans, who
fled
to Etah from Muttra in the reign of Ala-ud-din Ghori, because they had
slain
the Kazi of Muttra. Chaube Ghansham Das, having long been in Govern-
ment service, and having retired on pension, in 1857 rendered most
valuable
aid to the Government, although blind and infirm; and ultimately was
surprised and slain by the rebels at Kasganj. His brother, the present
Raja"
Jai Kishan Das Bahadur, had loyally supported him, and was rewarded
with
the title and a grant of lands and other honours in 1860. He was
created
a Companion of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India in 1870. Is
a
Fellow of the Allahabad University, and Deputy Collector of Bareilly.

Residence. Moradabad, North- Western Provinces.

JAIMAL SINGH (of Thalia), Sarddr.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Jalandhar, Punjab.

JAIPRAKASH LAL, C.I.B., Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal; and was conferred on 3ist August 1881. The
Rai Bahadur was for many years the Diwan of the Dumraon Raj, and
rendered excellent service in that capacity. On 25th May 1892 he was
created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire.

Residence, Dumraon, Bengal.

Listed Alphabetically. More to follow...


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JAIPUR, HIS HIGHNESS SIB MADHO SINGH
BAHADUR, G. C.S.I., Maharaja of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1 86 1 ; ascended the gadi as a minor i8th September 1880, and
was invested with full governing powers on attaining his majority in
September

1882. Is the Chief of the famous
Kachhwaha tribe of Rajputs, de-
scended from the legendary hero
Rama, and therefore of the Surya-
vansi or Solar race. Tod devotes
a large part of his learned Annals of
Rdjdsthdn to the history of this
family, which, indeed, is no unim-
portant part of the history of India.
Tod says of the ruling family of
Jaipur (otherwise called Amber or
Dhundar) : " A family which traces
its lineage from Rama of Koshala,
Nala of Nishida, and Dola the lover
of Maroni, may be allowed 'the
boast of heraldry'; and in remembrance of this descent, the Cushites
[Kach-
hwaha] of India celebrate with great solemnity the annual feast of the
sun,
on which a stately car, called the Chariot of the Sun, Surya ratha,
drawn by
eight horses, is brought from the temple, and the descendant of
Ramesa,
ascending therein, perambulates his capital."

The full title of the Maharaja is His Highness Saramad-i-Rajaha-i-
Hin-
dustan Raj Rajendra Sri Maharaj-Adhiraj Sawai Sir Madho Singh
Bahadur,
Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India
(see Introduction, u).

From Rama, the hero of the Rdmdyana, the greatest of the legendary
heroes of India, to Dhola Rao, the founder of the Jaipur State in 967
A.D.,
there are enumerated 34 generations ; and from Dhola Rao to the
present
Maharaja, 106 generations. Early in the nth century a descendant of
Dhola Rao named Hamaji conquered Amber from the Minas, and fixed
his court there; and Amber remained the capital of the dynasty until
the time of Jai Singh II., who transferred it to Jaipur in 1728. In
the
time of the Great Mughal, the Emperor Akbar, Raja Bhagwan Das of
Jaipur was one of the first Princes of the Empire. Overcoming Rajput
pride
of race, he gave his daughter in marriage to the Emperor's son and
heir,
Prince Salim, afterwards the Emperor Jahangir, and was himself one of
the
greatest Imperial commanders. But his adopted son and successor, the
Raja Man Singh, was the most famous of all the Imperial generals. He
and
his Rajputs carried the arms of the Empire successfully into Orissa,
Bengal,
Assam, and Kabul ; the chronicles of the age are full of the exploits
of the
brother-in-law of the Emperor, and he was successively Governor of
Kabul,
Bengal, Behar, and the Deccan. His nephew, the Raja Jai Singh, known
as
the Mirza Raja, was equally famous throughout the wars of Aurangzeb in
the
Deccan ; he it was who effected the capture of the famous Sivaji,
founder of
the Mahratta Power ; and he is said to have fallen a victim to the
jealousy of

the Emperor, who caused his death by poison. Some generations later,
in
the time of the Emperor Muhammad Shah, the second Jai Singh was
famous,
not only as a warrior, but also as an astronomer. He built
observatories at
Jaipur (to which place he removed his capital from the hills of Amber,
five
miles off), Delhi, Benares, Muttra, and Ujjain. After the death of the
Raja
Jai Singh II., the subsequent history of the family is much occupied
with
leagues with Udaipur and Jodhpur against the Imperial Power, with
contests
with Jodhpur for the honour of marrying a Princess of Udaipur, with
Rajput
rivalries and defections, and with Mahratta raids. In order to regain
the
privilege of marrying Princesses of the House of Udaipur which honour
they had forfeited by marrying a daughter to the Mughal Emperor the
Rajas of Jaipur agreed that the issue of a marriage with an Udaipur
Princess
should succeed to the Raj even before an elder brother by another
Rani ;
and this promise, coupled with the rivalry of the Rajas of Jodhpur for
the
same privilege, produced endless troubles and disasters. In the time
of the
Raja Jagat Singh, Amir Khan, the notorious Pindari leader (afterwards
Nawab
of Tonk), sided first with the Raja of Jaipur against Jodhpur, and
then with
the Raja of Jodhpur against Jaipur ; and devastated each country in
turn.
At last, in 1 8 1 8, the British Government intervened ; took the
Jaipur State
under its protection, and the Raja became one of the great
feudatories.

The late Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh succeeded to the gadi in 1835.
He rendered excellent service throughout the Mutiny of 1857, and again
in
the famine of 1868. As a reward, he twice received an increase to his
salute'; he was created a Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted
Order of the Star of India ; and on the occasion of the Imperial
Assemblage
at Delhi, on the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress
of
India, he was appointed a Councillor of the Empire, and received a
suitable
addition to his titles and territory. The banner of His Highness that
was
unfurled at Delhi on that auspicious occasion was exceedingly
interesting, as
showing the close approximation of Rajput and European heraldic
devices ;
for the Rajput Pancharanga was properly rendered as " A Barry of 5
gules,
vert, argent, azure, or " ; and the solar lineage of the Kachhwaha
Prince was
indicated by the device "In chief a Sun in its splendour." The late
Maharaja died in 1880; and was succeeded by his adopted son, a scion
of
the Kachhwaha race, the present Maharaja.

The area of the State is 14,465 square miles; and its population
2,534,357, chiefly Hindus, but including more than 170,000
Muhammadans
and nearly 50,000 Jains. Jaipur is therefore larger than either
Holland or
Belgium, and more populous than Greece. The Maharaja maintains a
military force of 3578 cavalry, 16,099 infantry, and 281 guns; and is
entitled to a salute of 19 guns (including 2 guns personal). There
are
many Rajput Chiefs who are feudatories of His Highness.

Arms. Barry of 5, gules, vert, argent, azure, or; in chief a Sun in
its
splendour. Crest. A kuchnar tree proper, bearing cinquefoils argent.
Sup-
porters. A tiger and a white horse. Motto. " Jato Dharma Stato Jayo."

Residence. Jaipur, Rdjputdna.

JAISALMIR, HIS HIGHNESS MAHARAWAL SALIVAHAN
BAHADUR, Mahdrdwal of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1886; succeeded to the gadi as a minor i2th April 1891. Is the
Chief of the Jadu Bhatti Rajputs, claiming direct descent from the
divine
Krishna, and undoubtedly boasting a lineage hardly less ancient than
that of
the great Maharana of Udaipur himself. The tribe takes its name from
Bhati, who was its leader in very remote ages, when settled in the
Punjab ;
whence it appears to have been driven by conquerors from Ghazni, and
to
have gone to the oasis of the Great Indian Desert, which it has ever
since
inhabited. Deoraj, born in 836 A.D., was the first to take the title
of Rawal,
and he founded the city of Deorawal. One of his descendants, the
Rawal
Jaisal, founded the city of Jaisalmir, and built a strong fort there,
about the
year 1156 A.D. More than a century later, when Mulraj II. was Rawal,
Jaisalmir was captured and sacked by the Moslem troops of the Emperor
Ala-ud-din, in 1294 A.D., after a siege that had lasted eight years;
and this
was the occasion of one of the great Sakas so famous in Rajput
history
when Mulraj and his warriors, having slain all their women and
children,
cased themselves in armour, put on the saffron robe, bound the mor or
nuptial crown on their heads, and then sword in hand sallied forth to
die
amid the slaughtered heaps of the foe. Again a similar disaster befell
the
city in 1306 A.D., not long after it had been repaired by the Rawal
Dudu.
Finally, in the reign of the Rawal Sabal Singh, the brave Bhattis were
com-
pelled to become feudatories of the Emperor Shah Jahan. Outlying pro-
vinces were subsequently wrested from them by the neighbouring States
of
Jodhpur and Bikanir ; till at length in 1 8 1 8, under the rule of the
Rawal
Mulraj, the State came under the protection and control of the British
Power,
and has enjoyed the blessings of peace. On the death of the Rawal
Ranjit
Singh, his younger brother, the late Maharawal Bairi Sal, succeeded to
the
gadi in 1864 ; and he was succeeded in 1891 by the present Maharawal.

The area of Jaisalmir is 16,447 square miles; its population about
109,000,
chiefly Hindus, but including about 28,000 Muhammadans. In extent it
may
be compared with Switzerland or Holland ; but is larger than either.
His
Highness maintains a military force of 140 cavalry, 353 infantry, and
25
guns ; and is entitled to a salute of 1 5 guns.

Residence. Jaisalmir, Rdjputdna.

JAISINGH RAO ANGRIA, Rao Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th May 1889.
Residence. Baroda.

JALAL-UD-DIN, KAZI, Khan Bahadur.

An Extra Assistant Commissioner in Baluchistan. Granted the title of
Khan Bahadur, as a personal distinction, 2nd January 1893.
Residence. Quetta, Baluchistan.

JALAL-UD-DIN, SHAIKH, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
tne
occasion of the Jubilee of Her Most Gracious Majesty's reign.
Residence. Karndl, Punjab.

JALAM SINGH (of Amoda), Rdwat.

The title is hereditary ; and the present Rawat succeeded to the title
and
estates on the death of his father, the late Rawat Lakshmi Singh of
Amoda.
Belongs to a Tuar Rajput family, descended from Jet Singh.

Residence. Amoda, Nima"r, Central Provinces.

JALIA DBVANI, JARB JA MANSINGH JI, Tdlukddr of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1852; succeeded to the gadi as a minor 3ist December 1868.
Belongs to a Rajput (Hindu) family. The area of the State is about 36
square miles; its population 2383, chiefly Hindus. The Talukdar
maintains
a military force of 4 cavalry and 3 5 infantry.
Residence. Jdlia Deva"ni, Ka'thia'wa'r, Bombay.

JAM KHAN walad MUHAMMAD KHAN, Mir.
The title is hereditary, the Mir being a representative of one of the
Mirs
who were Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Hyderabad, Sind.

JAMIAT SINGH (of Ghoriwaha), Sarddr.

The title is hereditary, the Sardar being of a Jat family, descended
from
Sardar Sukha Singh, who in 1759 established his power at Ghoriwaha in
the
Hoshiarpur district. The family subsequently fell under the power of
the
Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Lahore. Sukha Singh's grandson was the
Sardar
Partab Singh, father of the present Sardar.

Residence. Hoshiarpur, Punjab.

JAMKHANDI, RAM CHANDRA RAO GOPAL, Chief of.

A Ruling Chief.

The Chief of Jamkhandi also bears the name of Appa Sahib Patwardhan.
Born 1834; succeeded to the gadi as a minor i8th November 1840.
Belongs to a Brahman (Hindu) family. The area of his State is 492
square
miles; its population is 83,917, chiefly Hindus, but including 7628
Muham-
madans. The Chief maintains a military force of 52 cavalry, 943
infantry,
and i gun.

Residence. Jamkhandi, Southern Mahratta Country, Bombay.

JAMMU AND KASHMIR, COLONEL HIS HIGHNESS MAHA-
RAJA PARTAB SINGH INDAR MAHINDAR BAHADUR
SIPAR-I-SALTANAT, G.C.S.I., Maharaja of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1850; succeeded to the gctdi i2th September 1885. Is the son
of the late Maharaja Ranbhir Singh, G.C.S.I. ; and grandson of the
late
Maharaja Ghulab Singh, the founder of the dynasty, who was
constituted
Feudatory Chief of the hill-territories east of the Indus and west of
the Ravi
(with certain specified exceptions) by the treaty of March 1846,
concluded
after the close of the first Sikh war. Belongs to a Dogra or Jamwal
Rajput
family (Hindu) of ancient lineage, claiming descent from that of the
former
Rajas of Jammu. The Maharaja Ghulab Singh was the great-grandson of
the Raja Dharabdeo ; and a grandson of the Mian Jorawar Singh, who was
a
brother of Raja Ranjit Deo. He began life as a cavalry soldier, and
became
a trusted officer under Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Lahore, who conferred
on
him the principality of Jammu. At the outbreak of the first Sikh war
he
had been elected Minister of the Khalsa, and was one of the most con-
spicuous Sikh leaders ; and after the battle of Sobraon he negotiated
a
separate treaty with the British Power, by which he acquired the
Feudal
Chiefship of Jammu and Kashmir on payment of a sum of 75 lakhs of
rupees. In the Mutiny of 1857 he rendered excellent service, and sent
a contingent to Delhi. He died in August 1857, and was succeeded by
his third and only surviving son, the late Maharaja Ranbhir Singh,
G.C.S.I.,
who was a munificent patron of learning, and did good service in
connection
with the British Mission to Yarkand. He had the distinguished honour
of
receiving His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales at Jammu in 1876; he
also had his salute raised to 21 guns, by the addition of 2 guns as a
personal distinction. In January 1877, on the occasion of the
Proclama-
tion of Her Majesty as Empress of India, he was gazetted a General in
the
Army, and created a Councillor of the Empress. The Maharaja died on
1 2th September 1885, and was succeeded by his eldest son, the
present
Maharaja, who was created a Knight Grand Commander of the Most
Exalted
Order of the Star of India on 25th May 1892. The area of his State is
79,784 square miles; and its population is about 1,500,000, including
nearly a million Muhammadans, about half-a-million Hindus, and over
20,000 Buddhists. In point of area, the State is more than double the
combined area of Bavaria and Saxony, and equal to that of any three or
four
of the smaller European kingdoms put together. His Highness maintains
a
military force of about 8000 cavalry and infantry, and 288 guns; and
is
entitled to a salute of 2 1 guns within the limits of the State, and
to one of 1 9
guns in the rest of India.

Residence. Srinagar, Kashmir ; and Jammu, Punjab.

JAMNIA, BHUMIA HAMIR SINGH, Bkumia of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1855 ; succeeded to the gadi in 1863 as a minor. Belongs to a
Bhilala family the Bhilalas being reputed to spring from the
intermarriage
of Rajputs and Bhils. The founder of the family was Nadir Singh, a
famous
Bhumia of Jamnia.

Residence. Kunjrod, Jamnia, Bhopa*war, Central India.

JAMSHEDJI DHANJIBHAI WADIA, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877, on the
occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress
of
India.

Residence. Bombay.

JAMSHEDJI FRAMJI PALKIWALA, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th May 1883.
Residence. Bombay.

JAMSHEDJI RUSTAMJI, Khan Saheb.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i8th August 1881.
Residence. Bombay.

JAN MUHAMMAD WALI ALI MUHAMMAD KHAN, Mtr.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a representative of one of the
Mirs
who were Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.
Residence. Sind.

JANAK PRIYA, RdnL

The title is hereditary, the Rani being the last
surviving Rani of the late Raja Narayan Singh of
Sambalpur. The Rajas of Sambalpur were Chauhan
Rajputs of very ancient lineage. Balram Das
Chauhan conquered Sambalpur about the year
1445 ; and left it to his elder son Raja Hirda
Narayan, while his younger son became Raja of
Sonpur (q.v.) The Chauhan device is the chakra
a circle with four tridents (trisut) as radii, pointing
The santak of the Chauhan north, east, south, and west, as shown in
the

Rajputs, called Chakra. used . '_.,'. . . , . , ,

in the seal and for signature, margin. 1 he Ram uses this device on
her seal,

(A circle with four Trisulas or and for signature.
Tridents as radii at the car-
dinal points.) Residence. Sambalpur, Central Provinces.

JANAKI BALLABH SEN (of Dimla), Rdjd.

. The title was conferred " for liberality and public spirit," on ist
January
1891.

Residence. Dimla, Kangpur, Bengal.

JANG BAHADUR KHAN, C.IB. (of Nanpara), Rdjd.

Born 1845. The title is hereditary ; and the Raja succeeded his
father,
the late Raja Munawar AH Khan, in 1847. Belongs to a Pathan family,
descended from Rasul Khan, Togh Pathan, a Risaldar in the service of
the
Emperor Shah Jahan, who in 1632 sent him to Salonabad to coerce the
Banjaras who had overrun the jdgir of Salona Begam, the wife of
Prince
Dara. For his performance of this duty he received the grant of
Nanpara.
In 1763 his descendant Karam Khan of Nanpara obtained the title of
Raja
from the Nawab Shuja-ud-daula. The present Raja was created a
Companion
of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire in 1886. He is an
Honorary Magistrate; and has a son and heir named Muhammad Sadiq
Khan, born 1870.

Residence. Bahraich, Oudh.

JANI BIHARI LAL, DIWAN, Rao Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 1 6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of Her Most Gracious Majesty's reign.
Residence. Bhartpur, Rajputana.

JANJIRA, NAWAB SIDI AHMAD KHAN, Nawdb of.
A Ruling Prince.

Born 1863 ; succeeded to the gadi 28th January 1879. Belongs to an
Abyssinian family of Sunni Muhammadans, claiming descent from Sidi
Sarul Khan. The family were Abyssinian admirals of the fleet of the
Muhammadan kings of Bijapur, who in 1670 transferred their allegiance
to the Emperor of Delhi, Aurangzeb. The Mahrattas often tried to
conquer
the island of Janjira ; but were always successfully resisted. The
Nawab is
also Chief of Jafarabad, a small State in Kathiawar. The area of the
State
is 324 square miles; its population is 76,361, chiefly Hindus, but
including
13,912 Muhammadans. The Nawab maintains a military force of 310
infantry and 179 guns ; and is entitled to a salute of 9 guns.

Residence. Janjira, Koldba, Bombay.

JANJIT alias NANBI RAJA (of Darri), Sawai.

The title is hereditary.

Residence. Sagar, Central Provinces.

JANKI (of Pamakheri), Thdkur.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Sdgar, Central Provinces.

JANKI KUNWAR (of Paraspur), Rani.

Born 1839. The title is hereditary; the Rani succeeded her late
husband, Raja Randhir Singh, on i6th June 1878. The head of the
family
is the chief of the six Thakurs of Chhedwara, famous for their
turbulence
in the times before the annexation of Oudh. They claim descent from
the
Kalhans Rajas of Khurasa, through Maharaj Singh, second son of Achal
Narayan Singh. A descendant, named Newal Singh, obtained the title of
Raja while on a visit to the Court at Delhi ; and it was recognised
as
hereditary in favour of the late Raja, Randhir Singh. The Rani's son
and
heir is Bikramajit Singh.

Residence. Paraspur, Gonda, Oudh.

JAORA, MAJOR HIS HIGHNESS IHTISHAM - UD - DAULA
NAWAB MUHAMMAD ISMAIL KHAN BAHADUR FIROZ
JANG, Nawdb of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1855; succeeded to the gadi 3oth April 1865 as a minor.
Belongs to a Pathan (Muhammadan) family, descended from Nawab Ghafur
Khan, an Afghan of the Swati tribe, -brother-in-law of the famous Amir
Khan
of Tonk, whom he represented at Holkar's Court. After the battle Of
Mehidpur, Nawab Ghafur Khan, being in possession of this territory as
a
grant from Holkar, was confirmed by the British Government. The
present
Nawab has been appointed an Honorary Major in the British Army. The
State, which is feudatory to Indore, has an area of 581 square miles ;
and a
population of 119,945, chiefly Hindus, but including 13,318
Muhammadans
and over 2000 Jains. His Highness maintains a military force of 63
cavalry,
177 infantry, and 15 guns ; and is entitled to a salute of 13 guns.
Jaora,
the capital of the State, is a station on the Rajputana-Malwa railway.
The
Nawab has a son and heir named Muhammad Sher Ali Khan.

Residence, Jaora, Malw, Central India.

JASDAN, KHACHAR ALA CHELA, Chief of .
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1833; succeeded to the gadi in 1852. Belongs to a Kathi
(Hindu) family. The State, which is tributary to Baroda and Junagarh,
contains an area of 283 square miles; and a population of 29,037,
chiefly
Hindus. The Chief maintains a military force of 60 cavalry, 354
infantry,
and 5 guns.

Residence. Jasdan, Kathiawar, Bombay.

JASHPUR, RAJA PRATAP NARAYAN SINGH DEO
BAHADUR, C.I.E., JRdjd of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1822 ; succeeded to the gadi 24th October 1845. Belongs to a
Kshatriya (Rajput) family, formerly feudatories of the Mahrattas of
Nagpur,
that came under British control in 1818. Rendered good service in the
military operations in 1857 against the mutineers and rebels in
Udaipur and
Palamau. Was created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the
Indian Empire, 2 ist May 1890. The area of the State is 1947 square
miles ;
its population is 90,240, chiefly Hindus. The Raja has a military
force of
2 guns.

Residence. Jashpur, Chota Nagpur, Bengal.

JASMBR SINGH, Sarddr.

Bom 1848. The title is hereditary. Belongs to a Jat family, descended
from Sardar Gurbaksh Singh, who acquired the territory of Thol
Thangor, in
the Ambala district of the Punjab, by conquest in 1759 A.D. During
the
Sikh rebellion of 1848-49, and again in the Mutiny of 1857, this
family
rendered good service to Government, and were rewarded for the latter
service. On the death of Sardar Jawahir Singh, he was succeeded by
his
two sons, the present Sardars Kishan Singh and Jasmer Singh of Thol
Thangor. The Sardar Jasmer Singh has two sons Ram Narayan Singh
(born 1863) and Sheo Narayan Singh.

Residence. Thol Thangor, Ambdla, Punjab.

JASO, DIWAN JAGATRAJ, JAGIRDAR, Diwdn of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1860 ; succeeded to \hzgadi 7th July 1889. Belongs to the great
Bundela Rajput family, descended from the founder of the Orchha State
that
has given ruling families to Panna, Dattia, Ajaigarh, Charkhari, and
most of
the other States of Bundelkhand. Bhartichand, the founder of the Jaso
State, was the fourth son of the Maharaja Chhatrasal ; and his great-
grandson,
Diwan Murat Singh, received a sanad from the British Government in
1816.
The Diwan Bhopal Singh received the additional title of Bahadur as a
personal distinction, at the Imperial Assemblage of Delhi on the
occasion of
the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress of India.
The
area of the State is 75 square miles ; its population over 80,000,
chiefly
Hindus. The Diwan maintains a military force of 2 horsemen, 60
infantry,
and 4 guns.

Residence. Jaso, Bundelkhand, Central India.

JAS WANT RAI, Rat Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of Her Majesty's reign, in consideration of
eminent
services in the Army Medical Department.

Residence. Shdhpur, Punjab.

JASWANT SINGH (of Nurpur), Rdjd.

Born 1836. The title is hereditary. Nurpur is a hill principality to
the
west of Guler. The Raja belongs to a Rajput family, descended from
Jit
Pal, who came from Delhi about 700 years ago, and established himself
at
Pathankot. Subsequently the family removed to the hills ; and Nurpur
became their capital in the time of Raja Basu, about the year 1640
A.D. At
the time of the conquests of the Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Lahore,
Raja" Bir,
father of the present Raja, was Raja of Nurpur. He endeavoured to
resist
Ranjit Singh ; but being compelled to take refuge in Chamba, was given
up
by the Raja of Chamba, and imprisoned in the fortress of Gobindgarh.
Subsequently he was ransomed by his brother-in-law, Sardar Charat
Singh,
for Rs.85,ooo ; and in 1846 raised the standard of revolt, besieged
Nurpur, and died before its walls. He was succeeded by the present
Raja,
who has received a large grant from the British Government.

Residence. Nurpur, Kdngra, Punjab.

JATH, AMRITRAO RAO SAHEB DAPHLE, Jdgirddr of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1835 ; succeeded to the gadi 28th July 1841 as a minor. Belongs
to a Mahratta (Hindu) family. The late Jagirdar, Ramrao, died in 1841
without issue ; whereon his widow, Bhagirthibai, adopted Amritrao,
the
present Jagirdar. The Daphle is also Chief of Karasgi ; and the jdgir
of
Daphlapur (or Daflapur) is also really a part of this State, and will
revert to
it on the demise of the three widows of the late Chief. The founder of
the
Jath State was the hereditary pdtel, or headman, of Daflapur village.
The
area of the State is 884 square miles; its population is 49,491,
chiefly
Hindus, but including 2842 Muhammadans.

Residence. Jath, Bijdpur, Bombay.

JAWAHIR LAL, LALA, Rai Saheb.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 2oth May 1890.
Residence. India.

JAWAHIR SINGH (of Chamdri), Rao.

Born 1845. The title is hereditary, having been originally granted by
the Raja Mori Pahlodh of Chanderi, and subsequently confirmed under
British rule.

Residence. Chamdri, Sa"gar, Central Provinces.

JAWASIA, RAWAT LAL SINGH, Rdwat of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1858; succeeded to the gadi in 1882. Belongs to a Rajput
(Hindu) family. The population of the State is about 607, chiefly
Hindus.
Residence. Jawdsia, Western Ma"lwa", Central India.

JAWHAR, PATANGSHAH VIKRAMSHAH MUKNI, Rdjd of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1855 ; succeeded to thegadi 2Qth June 1866 as a minor. Belongs
to a Koli (Hindu) family, descended from Jaya Mukni, a freebooter who
possessed himself of this territory about 1335. His son, Nim Shah,
obtained
the title of Raja from the Emperor of Delhi in the year 1341. The
late
Raja Vikramshah died in 1865 ; and his widow, the Rani Lakshmibai
Saheb,
adopted the present Raja, who was then called Malhar Rao, son of
Madhav-
rao Dewrao Mukni, a descendant of Raja Krishna Shah, ninth Raja of
Jawhar.
The State has an area of 534 square miles; and a population of
48,556,
chiefly Hindus. The Raja maintains a military force of 8 cavalry and
25
infantry. The family cognisance is an arrow, barbed, point downward.

Residence. Jawhar, Thdna, Bombay.

JBJBBBHOY, SIR JAMSETJBB, Baronet, C.S.I.

Born 3rd March 1851 ; succeeded his father, the late Sir Jamsetjee
Jejeebhoy, second Baronet, in 1877 ; when (in accordance with the
special
Act of the Indian Legislature of 1860) he assumed
the name of Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy in lieu of Manekjee
Cursetjee. Is the third Baronet ; and has been
created a Companion of the Most Exalted Order of
the Star of India. Is a merchant of the city of
Bombay, a Magistrate, and Member of the Legis-
lative Council of Bombay. Belongs to a family
that has long been regarded as the leaders of the
Parsi community of Western India. The first
Baronet, Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy, K.C.B., of Bom-
bay, was so created in 1857, in recognition of his
unbounded munificence and public spirit, and of
his undoubted loyalty. His very great wealth was
used in promoting the good of others ; and the second
Baronet, who died in 1877, also earned a similar
reputation for benevolence and liberality. In 1860, the special Act of
the
Indian Legislature, referred to above, was passed with the sanction of
Her
Most Gracious Majesty, enacting that all future holders of the title,
on
succeeding to it, shall relinquish their own names and assume those of
the
first Baronet. The present Baronet, in 1869, married Jerbai, daughter
of
Shapurji Dhanjibhai, Esq. ; and has a son and heir, Cursetjee, born
nth
November 1878. Sir Jamsetjee's brothers are: (i) Co wasjee Cursetjee,
born
25th November 1852, married, in 1869, Gulbai Rustamji Wadia ; and (2)
Jamsetjee Cursetjee, born 1860, married, 1882, Awabai Shapurji
Dhanjibhai.
The family arms are azure, a sun rising above a representation of the
Ghats (mountains near Bombay) in base, and in chief two bees volant,
all
proper. The crest is a mount vert, thereon a peacock amidst wheat,
and
in the beak an ear of wheat, all proper.

Residence. Mazagon Castle, Bombay.

JETPUR, AZAM VALA LAKSHMAN MERAN, Tdlukddr of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1849; succeeded to the gadi i;th September 1883. Jointly
rules Jetpur with several other Talukdars. The State is tributary to
Baroda
and Junagarh.

Residence. Jetpur, Ka'thia'wa'r, Bombay.

JETPUR, AZAM VALA SURAG GANGA, Tdlukddr of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1799; succeeded to the gadi ist September 1847. Joint-
Talukdar of Jetpur with several others.

Residence. Jetpur, Ka"thia"wa"r, Bombay.

JETPUR, AZAM VALA NAJA KALA DEODAN, Tdlukddr of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1865 ; succeeded to the gadi i4th June 1890. Is Joint-Talukdar
of Jetpur with several others.

Residence. Jetpur, Ka'thia'wa'r, Bombay.

JHABUA, HIS HIGHNESS RAJA GOPAL SINGH, Rdjd of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 22nd February 1841 ; succeeded to ft&gadi as a minor in October
1841. Belongs to the great Rathor Rajput family of the Maharajas of
Jodhpur, Idar, etc. The title of Raja was bestowed on Kishan Das, a
remote ancestor of the present Raja, by Ala-ud-din, the Emperor of
Delhi,
as a reward for a successful campaign in Bengal, and for punishing the
Bhil
Chiefs of Jhabua, who had murdered an Imperial Viceroy of Gujarat.
The
State, which was at one time tributary to Indore, has an area of 1336
square
miles ; and a population of 92,938, chiefly Hindus, but including
nearly
50,000 belonging to the aboriginal Bhil and other tribes. The State
flag is
red. The Raja maintains a military force of 64 cavalry, 253 infantry,
and
4 guns ; and is entitled to a salute of 1 1 guns.

Residence. Jhabua, Bhopdwar, Central India.

JHALARIA, Thdkur of. See Jhalera.

JHALAWAR, HIS HIGHNESS MAHARAJ RANA ZALIM
SINGH, BAHADUR, Mahdrdj Rand of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1864 ; succeeded to the gadi 24th June 1876 as a minor. Is a
Chief of the Jhala Rajputs, whose ancestors came from Jhalawar in
Kathia-
war. In 1709 A.D. Bhao Singh, a younger son of the Chief of Halwad in
Kathiawar, took some retainers with him and went to Delhi. His son
Madhu Singh rose to high favour and rank in the service of the
Maharaja of
Kotah ; his sister was married to the heir, and his descendants thus
acquired
the title of Mama (" maternal uncle ") in Kotah. Ultimately, in 1 838,
a portion
of the State of Kotah was cut off, with the consent of the Maharaja
and of
the British Government, and erected into the State of Jhalawar, under
one
of Madhu Singh's descendants, Madan Singh, son of Zalim Singh, who
had
long been the successful administrator of Kotah. Madan Singh received
the
title of Maharaj Rana. His son, Prithi Singh, did good service during
the
Mutiny ; and was succeeded in 1876 by his adopted son, the present
Maharaj
Rana, as a minor. His Highness was educated at Mayo College, Ajmir;
and was invested with full powers of government on attaining his
majority in
1884. The State has an area of 2694 square miles; and a population of
340,488, chiefly Hindus, but including 20,863 Muhammadans. His High-
ness maintains a military force of 403 cavalry, 3873 infantry, and 94
guns ;
and is entitled to a salute of 15 guns.

Residence. Jhalra Patan, Rdjputdna.

JHALBRA, THAKUR HATTB SINGH, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1858 ; succeeded to the gadi 22nd May 1884. This is a Girdsia
State, connected with Gwalior.

Residence. Jhalera, Bhopa*!, Central India.

JHARI GHARKHADI, NAIK SUKRONA walad
CHAMBARYA RBSHMA, Chief of .

Born 1850. Belongs to a Bhil (aboriginal) family. The State (which is
one of the Dang States of Khandesh) has an area of 8 square miles ;
and a
population of 167, chiefly Bhils.

Residence. Jhari Gharkhadi, Khdndesh, Bombay.

JIGNI, RAO LAKSHMAN SINGH BAHADUR, Rao of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1860; succeeded to the gadi as a minor i6th September 1871.
Belongs to the great Bundela Rajput family, descended from the founder
of
the Orchha State, which has given ruling families to Panna, Dattia,
Ajaigarh,

Charkhari, Jaso, and most of the States of Bundelkhand. The founder
of
Jigni was the Rao Padam Singh, one of the sons of the great Maharaja
Chhatarsal. His great-grandson was the Rao Prithi Singh, who received
a
sanad from the British Government in 1810. His grandson by adoption
(being adopted from the kindred ruling family of Panna) is the present
Rao,
who received the additional title of Bahadur at the Imperial
Assemblage of
Delhi, on the occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious
Majesty as
Empress of India. The area of the State is 2 2 square miles : its
population
is 3427, chiefly Hindus. The Rao Bahadur maintains a military force of
47
infantry and 3 guns.

Residence. Jigni, Bundelkhand, Central India.

JIND, HIS HIGHNESS FARZAND-I-DILBAND RASIKH-UL-
ITIKAD DAULAT-I-INGLISHIA RAJA-I-RAJAGAN RAJA
RANBHIR SINGH BAHADUR, Rdjd Bahadur of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1878 ; succeeded to the gadi as a minor 7th March 1887. Belongs
to the famous Phulkian family of Sidhu Jats, descended from Phul, the
common ancestor of the ruling families of Patiala, Jind, Nabha, and
other
Punjab States. Phul was twenty-ninth in descent from the Rawal Jaisal
Singh, the head of the Jadu Bhati Rajputs, who founded Jaisalmir in
1156 A.D. A great-grandson of Phul, named Gajpat Singh, obtained the
title
of Raja of Jind from Shah Alam, Emperor of Delhi in 1772. His son,
Raja Bhag Singh, aided Lord Lake in his pursuit of Holkar in 1805,
and
was accordingly confirmed by the British Government in his
possessions. In
1857 Raja Sarup Singh of Jind was the first to march against the
mutineers
of Delhi ; and he and his troops took a prominent part in the siege
and
capture of the city, for which services he received large extensions
of his ter-
ritory. He died in 1864, and was succeeded by his son, the Raja
Ragbir
Singh, who was created a Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted
Order of the Star of India; and at the Imperial Assemblage at Delhi,
ist
January 1877, on the occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most
Gracious
Majesty as Empress of India, he was appointed a Councillor of the
Empress.
The present Raja succeeded in 1887. The area of his State is 1259
square
miles; and its population is 249,862, chiefly Hindus, but including
34,247
Muhammadans and 4335 Sikhs. His Highness maintains a military force
of 379 cavalry, 1571 infantry, and 12 guns; and is entitled to a
salute of n
guns.

Residence. Jind, Punjab.

JIND WADO walad AMIR ALI KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a representative of one of the
Mirs or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation.

Residence. Shika~rpur, Sind.

JIT SINGH (of Maheru), Sarddr.

The title is hereditary. Belongs to a Jat family, descended from
Sardar
Ramdas Singh and Sardar Gurdas Singh, two brothers, who took
possession *
of Maheru at the time of the decline of the Mughal Power. In 1799 A -
D ->
when the Maharaja Ranjit Singh became all-powerful in the Punjab,
Sardar
Charat Singh of Maheru made his submission to him, and retained his
pos-
sessions. His son, Sardar Jawahir Singh, succeeded, and was confirmed
in
eleven villages. But on his death, and the succession of Sardar
Jaimal
Singh, these were resumed with the exception of Maheru. The Sardar
Jaimal Singh did good service in the time of the Mutiny in 1857, and
on his
death was succeeded by the present Sardar.

Residence. Maheru, Jdlandhar, Punjab.

JIWAN SINGH, C.I.B. (of Buruja), Sarddr.

Born 1842. The title is hereditary. Belongs to a Jat family,
descended
from Sardar Nanu Singh, who came from Jhawal Mandan, in the Manjha or
central tract of the Punjab, in 1759 A.D., and took possession of
Buruja and
the surrounding territory. The present Sardar did good service, both
in the
war of 1845-46, when he was a minor, and also in the Mutiny of 1857.
For
the latter he received a considerable reward. He has a son and heir,
named
Gajindar Singh.

Residence. Ambala, Punjab.

JIWAN SINGH, C.S.I, (of SMhzddpur), Sarddr.

Born 1860. The title is hereditary. Belongs to a Jat (Sindhu) family,
descended from Sardar Dip Singh, who was the Mahant of the " Damdama
Saheb" or resting-place, which was the retreat of the Guru Govind
Singh, the
tenth and last Sikh Guru, after his defeat by the Imperial army of
Delhi. A
large number of Sikhs assembled around Dip Singh, who was ultimately
slain
in a battle with the Governor of Lahore. Dip Singh was succeeded by
Sudha Singh, who fell in a battle with the Governor of Jalandhar, and
has
always been known among Sikhs as " Shahid," or the Martyr, which
became
a family name. His successor was Sardar Karam Singh, who took
possession
of some territory in the Singhpura district, which, with the other Cis-
Sutlej
territories, came under British control in 1808-9. Sardar Sheo Kirpal
Singh,
Shahid, did good service in the time of the Mutiny of 1857, and was
re-
warded by Government ; and his son is the present Sardar, who was
created
a Companion of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India on ist
January
1891.

Residence. Shdhzddpur, Ambdla, Punjab.

JIWAN SINGH (of Atari), Sarddr.

Born 1835. The title is hereditary. Belongs to a Sidhu Jat (Rajput)
family, descended from Kanh Chand. His great-grandson was the famous
Sardar Sham Singh, whose daughter was betrothed to the Prince Nau
Nihal

Singh, grandson of the Maharaja Ran] it Singh. When the Sikh army in-
vaded the Cis-Sutlej territory, Sardar Sham Singh disapproved of the
war, but
being reproached with his inaction he joined the camp, and fell in
battle in
01846. His sons were Sardar Thakur Singh and Sardar Kanh Singh, and
after the annexation much of the family estate was confirmed to the
latter.
He died without issue in 1872, and his estates were allowed to devolve
on
Sardar Ajit Singh, son of Sardar Thakur Singh, and a younger brother
of the
Sardar Jiwan Singh. The latter is the eldest son of the late Sardar
Thakur
Singh. He has two sons, named Partab Singh and Changa Singh.
Residence. Ata"ri, Amritsar, Punjab.

JIWAN SINGH, THAKUR (of Jakhnoda), Rao Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 20th May 1890.
Residence Alira"jpur, Central India.

JOi3AT, RANA SARUP SINGH, Rand of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1866 ; succeeded to the gadi in 1874 as a minor. Belongs to the
Rahtor tribe of Rajputs (Hindu) ; occupies a fort picturesquely
situated on
the summit of a steep rocky hill, shut in on three sides by forest-
clad moun-
tains, and overlooking the town of Jobat. The area of the State is
132
square miles; its population 9387, chiefly Hindus, but including 3916
belonging to Bhii and other aboriginal tribes. The Rana maintains a
mili-
tary force of 5 cavalry and 44 infantry.

Residence. Jobat, Bhopdwar, Central India.

JODH SINGH (of Chapa), Sardar.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Amritsar, Punjab.

JODHA SINHA (of Kakhauta), Rao.

Born 1838. The title is hereditary. The Rao belongs to an old Sengar
family, who settled in Pargand Auraiya in Etawah. He has a son and
heir,
named Lala Guman Singh, born 27th February 1870.

Residence. Kakhauta, Eta"wah, North- Western Provinces.

JODHPUR, HIS HIGHNESS SIR JASWANT SINGH
BAHADUR, G.C.S.I., Maharaja of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1837; succeeded to the gadi i3th February 1873. ^ s tne Chief
of the great Rahtor tribe or clan of the Rajputs, claiming direct
descent

from the legendary hero Rama, and, like
the Sesodias of Udaipur and the Kachhwahas
of Jaipur, representing the royal line of the
Surya Vansa or Solar race. His full titles
are His Highness Raj Rajeshwar Maharaj-
Adhiraj Sir Jaswant Singh, Bahadur, Knight
Grand Commander of the Most Exalted Order
of the Star of India. The proper name of
the State, the capital of which is Jodhpur
(from the name of its founder), is Marwar
anciently Marusthdn, "the land of death,"
a term applied formerly not only to the
country of Marwar, but to the whole of the
Great Indian Desert from the Sutlej to the
Indian Ocean. Tod, in his learned Annals
of Rdjdsthdn, says of the family of the
Jodhpur Maharaja "It requires neither Bhat nor Bard to illustrate its
nobility; a series of splendid deeds which time cannot obliterate has
emblazoned the Rahtor name on the historical tablet. Where all these
races have gained a place in the Temple of Fame it is almost
invidious
to select, but truth compels me to place the Rahtor with the Chauhan
on the very pinnacle." In Tod's work the Annals of Mdrwdr occupy a
place only second to those of Mewar (or Udaipur), and present a most
in-
teresting view of feudalism in India. Even to the present day the
feudal
Thakurs of Rajputana feudatories of their Highnesses the Maharana of
Udaipur, the Maharajas of Jodhpur and Jaipur, and the other Princes of
this
territory are nobles of high account and great local power. Up to
1194 A.D. the Rahtor family were rulers of the vast Empire of Kanauj.
The
famous Jai Chand was the last King of Kanauj, and his grandson,
Sivaji,
migrated westward to Marwar. Scions of the family became rulers of
Bikanir
and Kishangarh in Rajputana, of Idar and Ahmadnagar in Gujarat, and
else-
where. Mandor, the ancient capital of Marwar, was conquered by Rao
Chanda, who was tenth in descent from Sivaji, about the year 1382
A.D.
His grandson Jodh, the eldest of twenty-four sons of Rinmal, moved
the
capital from Mandor to Jodhpur in 1459 A.D. After resisting the
Emperor
Babar and the Afghan Sher Shah, Jodh ultimately had to submit to the
Great Mughal, Akbar, and sent his son Udai Singh to take service at
Delhi ;
and ultimately Udai Singh's sister, the famous Jodh Bai, became the
consort
of the Mughal monarch. When Udai Singh's son, Raja Sur Singh,
succeeded
to the gadi of Jodhpur, he rose to high favour with his Imperial
uncle, and
was the general of Akbar's troops who added Gujarat and the Deccan to
the
Mughal Empire. His son, Raja Jaswant Singh, was the general whom the
Emperor Shah Jahan sent against his rebellious son Aurangzeb, and was
defeated by the latter. The successor of Jaswant Singh was a
posthumous
son, the famous Ajit Singh. In his time Aurangzeb in person attacked
Rajputana, sacked Jodhpur, and ordered the conversion of the Rajputs
to
Muhammadanism. But Ajit Singh formed a league with Udaipur and
Jaipur, and the combined forces of the three great Rajput States held
in
check the armies of Aurangzeb. One stipulation of this league is
famous,
and was disastrous to Jodhpur and Jaipur by reason of the domestic
feuds it
caused. It was to the effect that the Jodhpur and Jaipur families, who
had
lost the privilege of marrying Princesses of Udaipur because they had
given
their own daughters to the Mughal Emperors, should recover this
privilege,
on condition that the issue of any marriage with an Udaipur Princess
should
succeed to the Raj before all other children. Ajit Singh was murdered
by
his son Bakht Singh, and heavy troubles thereafter befell the Rahtor
family.
There was a long war between the Rajas of Jaipur and Jodhpur, who
were
rival suitors for the hand of a Princess of Udaipur. Amir Khan, the
great
Pindari leader (afterwards Nawab of Tonk), took sides, first with
Jaipur, then
with Jodhpur, and plundered and utterly exhausted both States in turn.
At
last the British Government intervened, and by a treaty in 1818
Jodhpur
became a feudatory of the Paramount Power. Raja Man Singh died in
1843, leaving no son, and the nobles and Court officials, with the
consent of
the British Government, elected Takht Singh, Raja of Ahmadnagar, a
descendant of Ajit Singh, to the vacant gadi. The Raja Takht Singh
did
good service during the Mutiny of 1857. He died in 1873, an d was
suc-
ceeded by the present Maharaja. His Highness has been created a Grand
Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. The area of
his State is 37,000 square miles ; its population is 1,750,403,
chiefly Hindus,
but including about 155,000 Muhammadans and about 172,000 Jains. In
point of extent the Jodhpur State is larger than any of the smaller
European
States, and is somewhat larger than Bavaria and Saxony combined ; in
popu-
lation it surpasses the Grand Duchy of Baden. The Maharaja maintains
a
military force of 3162 cavalry, 3653 infantry, and 121 guns; and is
entitled
to a salute of 2 1 guns (including 4 guns personal). The family
cognisance
is the falcon, the sacred garur of the Solar Rajputs. The arms of His
Highness, as displayed on the banner presented to him by the Empress
of
India at the Imperial Assemblage of Delhi in January 1877, on the
occasion
of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress, are
shown
in the margin.

Residence. Jodhpur, Ra"jputa"na.

JOGESH CHANDRA CHATTARJI (of Anuliya, RdndgMt),

Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of Her Majesty's reign.

Residence. Assam.

JOG-INDRA NATH RAI (of Ndtor), Kumdr.

The title is personal. The Kumar is the son of the late Raja Anan-
danath Rai Bahadur, C.S.I.

Residence. Ra"jshdhi, Bengal.

JOTINDRA MOHAN TAGOR, SIR, K.C.S.I., Maharaja Bahadur.

See Tagore.

JUBBAL, RANA PADAM CHAND, Rand of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1 86 1 ; succeeded to the gadi as a minor iyth March 1877.
Belongs to a Rahtor Rajput family (see Jodhpur), claiming descent from
the
ruling family of Sirmur, which preceded the present dynasty.
Originally
tributary to Sirmur, this State (which is one of the Simla Hill
States) was
freed by the British after the conclusion of the Gurkha war, and the
Rana,
Puran Singh, received a sanad from Lord Lake in 1815. After great
vicissi-
tudes of fortune, Puran Singh (who had given up his State to the
British
Government) died in 1849, an d it was then resolved to restore the
State to
his son, Rana Karm Chand. The latter died in 1877, and was succeeded
by his son, the present Rana. The area of the State is 257 square
miles;
its population is 19,196, chiefly Hindus. The Rana maintains a
military
force of 50 infantry.

Residence. Jubbal, Simla Hills, Punjab.

JUMKHA, BECHARBHA BARYAL, Chief of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1836. Belongs to an aboriginal tribe.
Residence. Jumkha, Rewa" Kdntha, Bombay.

JUMMOO AND CASHMERE,
His Highness the Maharaja Bahadur of. See Jammu and Kashmir.

JUNAGARH, HIS HIGHNESS SIR BAHADUR KHANJI
MUHABAT KHANJI, G.C.I.E., Nawdb of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1856 ; succeeded to the gadi 29th September 1882. Belongs to a
Babi Pathan (Muhammadan) family. Is ninth in succession from Sher
Khan
Babi, the founder of the State, who about the year 1735 expelled the
Mughal
Governor and established his own power. The late Nawab, Sir Muhabat
Khanji, was created Knight Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the
Star of India in 1871. He died in 1882, and was succeeded by his son,
the present Nawab, who was invested with the insignia of a Knight
Grand
Commander of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire on 2oth
November 1890. The area of the State is 3279 square miles; and its
population is 387,499, chiefly Hindus, but including 76,401
Muhammadans.
His Highness maintains a military force of 251 cavalry, 1972 infantry,
and
66 guns ; and is entitled to a salute of 1 1 guns.

Residence. Juna"garh, Ka"thidwdr, Bombay.

JWALA PERSHAD, Rai Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 7th January 1876.
Residence. Ujjain, Central India.

JWALA SINGH (of Jharauli), Sarddr.

Born 1846. The title is hereditary. Belongs to a Sindhu Jat (Rajput)
family, descended from Dip Singh, the Mahant of the " Damdama Saheb,"
or resting-place of the Guru Govind Singh (see Jiwan Singh, Shahid,
Sardar).
His successor, Sudha Singh, falling in battle with the Governor of
Jalandhar,
the family have since been known by the name of Shahid ("Martyr").
Sardar Jwala Singh, son of Sardar Jit Singh of Jharauli, is the
present head
of the Jharauli Shahids. He has two sons Devindar Singh and Mohindar
Singh.

Residence. Jharauli, Ambala, Punjab.

JWALA SINGH (of Wazirabad), Sarddr.

Born 1822. The title is hereditary. The Sardar is the youngest son ot
the Sardar Ganda Singh, who was in attendance on the Maharaja Sher
Singh
when that prince was assassinated, and was severely wounded in the
endeavour to defend him. Sardar Ganda Singh was killed at the battle
of
Firuzshahr. Sardar Jwala Singh is an Honorary Magistrate.

Residence. Gujrdnwcila, Punjab.

JYOTI PRASAD GARGA (of Maisadal), Rdjd.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1890, for his
" liberality and public spirit." The Raja is the present
representative of

the Maisadal family. Their title of Raja is said to have been
conferred by
the old Nawabs of Bengal. The first Raja was the Raja Janardhan Upad-
hyaya. Two ladies of this family at different periods the Rani Janaki
Devi
and the Rani Mathura Devi have been in charge of the Raj. The late
Raja, Lakshman Prasad Garga of Maisadal, is recorded to have rendered
good service during the Orissa famine of 1866.
Residence. -Maisadal, Midnapur, Bengal.

KABIL SHAH, SAYYID, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877, on the
occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress
of
India.

Residence. Thar and Parkar, Sind.

KACHI BARODA, THAKUR DALBL SINGH, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1839; succeeded to the gadi 1864. The State is tributary to
Dhar, to which it is adjacent, and contains a population of about
3000.
Residence. Kachi Baroda, Bhopdwar, Central India.

KADATTANAD, MANA VARMA RAJA, Valiya Rdjd of.

Born 1820. The title is hereditary, the present Raja being the
twenty-
sixth in descent. Belongs to a Samanda family, which originally held
the
rule over a district named Vatakumpuram. One of his ancestors was
driven
out of Vatakumpuram by the Zamorin of Calicut, and thenceforward the
family ruled a district on the Malabar coast, extending originally
from Mahe
to Badagara, where the Raja now lives. This territory is said to have
been granted by the Cherakal Raja of Kolathiri. In 1766 Haidar AH of
Mysore invaded the country, and the Raja took refuge with the East
India
Company's officers in Tellicheri ; and again, when the Sultan Tippu
invaded
the country, the Raja and his family took refuge with the Maharaja of
Travancore. In 1792 the Raja entered into an agreement with the
British
Government to receive an annuity as compensation for the estates of
his
ancestors. Like the other Malabar Rajas, the family follows the
Marumak-
katayam law of inheritance, by which the succession is with the
offspring of
its female members, the next eldest male to the Raja being always his
heir.
The late Raja Udaya Varma was born in 181 1, and succeeded to the
title on
23rd June 1858. He died recently, and was succeeded by his heir under
the Marumakkatayam law, the present Raja.

Residence. Badagara, Malabar District, Madras.

KADIR BAKHSH, MUNSHI, Khdn Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of Her Majesty's reign.
Residence. Lahore, Punjab.

KADIR HUSAIN, Khan.

The title is personal, and was originally conferred by the Nawab of
the
Carnatic, and recognised in 1891.
Residence. Madras.

KADIR HUSAIN, Khan Bahadur Ausif Jang Itimad-ud-daula.

The titles are personal, and were conferred originally by the Nawab
of
the Carnatic, and recognised on i6th December 1890.
Residence. M adras.

KADIR MOHI-UD-DIN, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, it was conferred originally by the Nawab of
the
Carnatic, arid recognised on i6th December 1890.
Residence. M adras.

KADIRDAD KHAN GUL KHAN, C.I.E., Khan Bahadur.

The Khan Bahadur is a Deputy Collector in Sind ; and for his services
to
the State was created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the
Indian
Empire on 25th May 1892.

Residence. Sind.

KAHLUR, HIS HIGHNESS RAJA BIJE CHAND, Rdjd of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1872; succeeded to the gadi as a minor 3rd February 1889.
Belongs to a Rajput (Hindu) family, claiming descent from Argok, a
Raja
whose territory was situated in the Deccan. Harihar Chand, a
descendant
of Argok in the fourteenth generation, came on a pilgrimage to
Jwalamukhi,
a sacred place in the Kangra district of the Punjab ; he saw
Jhandbhari, in
the Hoshiarpur district, and, attracted by the place, conquered it and
settled
down there. One of Harihar Chand's sons conquered and took possession
of the Chamba State (q.v.) ; another carved out a principality for
himself in
Kanidon; while a third son, Bir Chand, founded the State of Kahlur or
Bilaspur. From 1803 to 1815 the State was overrun by the Gurkhas, and
after their expulsion it was confirmed to the then Raja by a sanad
from the
British Government, dated 6th March 1815. The Raja Hira Singh, pre-
decessor of the present Raja, rendered good service during the Mutiny
of
1857, and was rewarded with a salute of n guns. The area of the State
(which is one of the Simla Hill States) is 448 square miles ; its
population is
86,546, chiefly Hindus. The Raja maintains a military force of 40
cavalry,
620 infantry, and n guns, and is entitled to a salute of n guns.

Residence. Kahlur, Simla Hills, Punjab.

KAHN. See Kanh.

KAILASH CHANDAR MUKHARJI, Red Bahddur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1887, for
"long
and meritorious service in the Bengal Secretariat."
Residence. 20 Durjipara Street, Calcutta, Bengal.

KAISAR MIRZA, Nawdb Bahddur.

The title is personal, the Nawab Bahadur being the grandson of a
daughter of the late Muhammad Ali Shah, King of Oudh. He is the son
of
the Nawab Abul Hasan Khan.

Residence. O udh.

KAKARKHERI (BHOPAL), Thdkur of. See Dhabla Dhir.

KAKKU MAL, Rai Bahddur.

Born 28th February 1849. The title is personal, and was conferred on
1 6th February 1887, on the occasion of the Jubilee of Her Majesty's
reign.
Belongs to a family that migrated from the Punjab in 1751, and settled
at
Ajudhya. His father was Treasurer under the Kings of Oudh, and was
subsequently appointed Peshkar by the British Government. He has
rendered
loyal and meritorious service as Chairman of the Fyzabad Municipal
Board.

Residence. Fyzabad, Oudh.

KALAHANDI, Rdjd of. See Karond.

KALAHASTI, KUMARA MADDU VENKATAPPA, Rdjd oj.

Born 1850; succeeded recently to the gadi on the death of his father,
the Raja Damarakumara Maddu Venkatappa Nayudu Bahadur Garu, C.S.I.
Belongs to an ancient family, that acquired importance in the i5th
century
under the Government of the Rajas of Vijayanagar, and increased in
con-
sequence of the decline of that dynasty. Under the Muhammadan Govern-
ment the head of the family held the position of a Mansabddr of 5000
foot ; and a sanad granted by the Emperor Aurangzeb of Delhi made the
family directly subordinate to the Nawab of Arcot. An ancestor of the
Raja was the local Naik who procured for the English from the Raja of
Chandragiri the privilege of settling at Madras and of building a fort
there ;
and his father's name being Chenappa, he stipulated that the place
should be
called Chenappa-patnam. The late Raja received the Companionship of
the
Most Exalted Order of the Star of India from His Royal Highness the
Prince
of Wales, at the Darbar held at Calcutta on ist January 1876. The
family
banner is the " Hanumadwajam," or flag bearing the device of Hanuman
(the sacred monkey) in five colours. The Raja owns large estates in
Nellore
and North Arcot districts, Madras.

Residence. Kalahasti, Nellore, Madras.

KALAT, HIS HIGHNESS BEGLAR BEGI MIR SIR MUHAM-
MAD KHODADAD KHAN, G.C.S.I, Walt of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1838; succeeded to the gadi in 1857. The title of Beglar Begi
was conferred on one of His Highness's ancestors, named Nasir Khan,
by
the great Persian invader Nadir Shah in 1739. Nasir Khan subsequently
was embroiled in wars with the King of Kabul, Ahmad Shah Abdali, and
later on became a trusted leader of that monarch's troops. Nasir Khan
died in extreme old age in 1795, and was succeeded by his son Mahmud
Khan. In 1839, at the time of the first Afghan war, Mehrab Khan was
the Wali of Kalat and ruler of Baluchistan; on account of his
supposed
treachery (which was afterwards discovered to have been falsely
attributed to
him by his Wazir\ the town and fort of Kalat were stormed by General
Willshire, and the unfortunate Mehrab Khan was among the slain. In
1841,
however, his son Nasir Khan was reinstated by the British, whose army
thereon evacuated the country; and in 1854 a treaty was concluded,
stipulating for the protection of the State by the British Power.
Nasir Khan
died in 1856, and was succeeded by his brother, the present Wali. His
Highness had an interview with the Viceroy of India (Lord Lytton) in
1876
at Jacobabad, when the treaty of 1854 was renewed and extended; and,
with his great vassals, he attended the Imperial Assemblage at Delhi
in 1877,
on the occasion of the Proclamation of Her Majesty as Empress of
India,
and was created a Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted Order of
the Star of India. Throughout the Afghan war of 1878-79 the Wali
rendered the most valuable aid to the Government -placing all the
resources
of his country at its disposal, and sending his son and heir -apparent
to
accompany the General in command of the army passing through his
territory. The area of the State is about 91,000 square miles; its
popula-
tion is about 150,000, chiefly Muhammadans. His Highness maintains a
military force of 300 cavalry, 1500 infantry, and 6 guns; and is
entitled to a
salute of 2 1 guns (including 2 guns personal).

Residence. Kalcit, Baluchistan.

KALB ALI KHAN, MIRZA, Khdn Bahddur.

Born 22nd June 1828. The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th
May 1889, for his " distinguished loyalty in the Mutiny and his good
services."
The Khan Bahadur was formerly Sub-Judge of Unao, and has had a long
and
distinguished service in the Judicial Department.

Residence. Unao, Oudh.

KALE KHAN, MAJOR, Khan Bahddur.

Governor of Gilgit. Granted the title of Khan Bahadur, as a personal
distinction, 2nd January 1893.
Residence. Gilgit, Kashmir.

KALI BAORI, BHUMIA SHER SINGH, Bhumia of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1859; succeeded to the gadi in 1874. The Bhumia receives
allowances both from Dhar and from Gwalior, on condition of
preserving

order in certain territory. The State contains about 1700
inhabitants,
chiefly Hindus. The Chief belongs to a Bhilala family.
Residence. Ka"li Ba"ori, Bhopdwar, Central India.

KALI KISHAN GHOSH, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist June 1888, in
recognition
of highly meritorious service in the Army Medical Department, in which
the
Rai Bahadur has been an Assistant-Surgeon.

Residence. Na"gpur, Central Provinces.

KALI KUMAR DB, Rai Bahadur.

Granted the title of Rai Bahadur, as a personal distinction, 2nd
January
1893, for eminent services in the Currency Department.
Residence. Calcutta.

KALI PADA MUKHARJI, Rai Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1890.
Residence. Orissa, Bengal.

KALIKA DAS DATT, Rai Bahadur.

Born 3rd July 1841 ; son of the late Rai Golak Nath Datt. Educated
at the Krishnagar and Presidency Colleges of the Calcutta University
(B.A.,
1860 ; B.L., 1861). Appointed to the Judicial Service in 1861, and
became
Diwan of the State of Kuch Behar in August 1869. Was formally
invested
with insignia of office in 1870, and became Member of the Kuch Behar
State
Council. Has rendered long and meritorious service as Minister of the
Kuch
Behar State, and in recognition thereof was granted the title of Rai
Bahadur
on ist January 1891. Has three sons (i) Charu Chandra Datt, born i6th
June 1876 j (2) Atal Chandra Datt, born 5th June 1878 ; (3) Nirmal
Chandra
Datt, born 23rd January 1881.

Residences. The Dewa~nkha"na, Kuch Behar, Bengal ; Meral, Burdwan,
Bengal ; and 4 Ganga"dhar Babu's Lane, Calcutta.

KALIYAN SINGH (of Jhawaro) Rao.

Born 1863. The title is hereditary, having been originally conferred
by
the old Mahratta Government of Deori, and subsequently recognised by
the
British Government.

Residence. Jhawaro, Sa"gar, Central Provinces.

KALIYAN SINGH, THAKUR, Rao Saheb.

The title of Rao Saheb is personal, and was conferred on ist January
1877.

Residence. Junian, Ajmir.

KALIYANA SUNDAEAM CHETTIYAR, Rao Bahadur.

Born 1837. The title is personal, and was conferred on ist June 1888.
Was appointed a Deputy-Collector in 1878.
Residence. Cuddalore, Madras.

KALSIA, SARDAR RANJIT SINGH, Sarddr of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1 88 1 ; succeeded to the gadi as a minor 28th August 1886.
Belongs to a Jat (Sikh) family, originally of Kalsia in the Lahore
district,
whose founder, Sardar Gurbakhsh Singh, conquered this territory in the
last
century. His son, Jodh Singh, was a brave and able man, who made con-
siderable conquests in the neighbourhood of Ambala towards the close
of the
century. When the Cis-Sutlej States came under British protection,
Sardar
Jodh Singh followed the general example. His grandson, Sardar Lahna
Singh, was the grandfather of the present Sardar. The area of the
State is
169 square miles; its population is 67,708, chiefly Hindus, but
including
19,930 Muhammadans and 5923 Sikhs. The Sardar maintains a military
force of 48 cavalry, 181 infantry, and 3 guns.

Residence. Kalsia, Punjab.

KALU KHAN (of Kuldchi), Khan Bahadur.

The title was conferred on nth March 1859. The Khan Bahadur
belongs to the family of the Chief of the Gandapur clan of the
Kulachi
country in the Dera Ismail Khan district of the Punjab, and belongs to
the
Bira Khel (Afghan) tribe. In the Multan campaign of 1848-49 Kalu Khan
and his father AH Khan raised a force of several hundred men of the
Bira
Khel tribe of Afghans, and rendered excellent service throughout the
second
Sikh war, for which Kalu Khan received a large pension from
Government.
When the Mutiny of 1857 broke out, he immediately raised a force of
200
horse and 400 foot, and leaving 200 foot with the Deputy-Commissioner
of
Dera Ismail Khan for the posts on the Sulaimani border, he joined Sir
Herbert Edwardes with the remaining 200 horse and 200 foot at
Peshawar,
where he served throughout the crisis with distinguished loyalty. For
this
he received a valuable khilat^ a perpetual jdgir, and the title of
Khan
Bahadur.

Residence. Dera Ismail Khdn, Punjab.

KALU KHERA, RAO UMED SINGH, Rao of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1830 ; succeeded to the gadi 1843. The Rao belongs to a Rajput
family, and his title is hereditary. The State contains a population
of about
1000.

Residence. Kalu Khera, Western Mdlwa", Central India.

KAMADHIA, MIR ZULFIKAR ALI, Tdlukddr of.

A Ruling Chief.

Belongs to a Muhammadan family in the Gohelwar Prant, Kathiawar.
The area of the State is 4 square miles; its population about 772,
chiefly
Hindus.

Residence. Kamadhia, Kathidwar, Bombay.

KAMALPUR, THAKUR MADAN SINGH, Thdkur of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1850; succeeded to the gadi nth October 1881. Receives an
allowance, in lieu of land rights, from Gwalior. Belongs to a Rajput
(Hindu)
family.

Residence. Kamalpur, Bhopal, Central India.

KAMATA PATI GHOSAL, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1889, for
dis-
tinguished service in the Bengal Police.

Residence. Naihdti, Bengal.

KAMBAKHSH HASAN MIRZA BAHADUR, Prince.

The Prince is the tenth son of the late Wajid Ali Shah, King of Oudh,
and bears the title of Prince as a personal or courtesy title.
Residence. Calcutta, Bengal.

KAMR KADR MIRZA. See Abid Ali Bahadur.

KAMRAN SHAH, Rdjd.

Born 1840. The title is hereditary, having been originally conferred
by
the ancient Gond Rajas of Deogarh and Nagpur, and subsequently
recognised
by the British Government. Belongs to a family of Gond (aboriginal)
origin,
that is, a younger branch of the family of Raja Sulaiman Shah of
Deogarh
and Nagpur. The family became Muhammadan about 200 years ago. In
1860 the British Government confirmed his jdgirs in perpetuity to
Raja
Kamran Shah, in consideration both of his own loyal services during
the
Mutiny, and of his father's good services previously rendered. The
Raja is
an Honorary Magistrate, and Member of the local Municipal and School
Committees. He has two sons, named Kuar Omri Shah and Kuar Sultan
Shah.

Residence. Ramangan, Hoshangabad, Central Provinces.

KAMR-UD-DIN, FAKIR, Khdn Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of Her^Majesty's reign.

Residence. Lahore, Punj ab.

KAMTA RAJAULA, BAG BHARAT PARSHAD, Jagirdar of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1 8th July 1847; succeeded to the gadi 23rd October 1874.
Belongs to a Kayastha (Hindu) family, descended from Sardar Ajudhya
Parshad, an agent of the State of Charkhari (q.v.\ who became an agent
of the
Kalinjar Chaubes, and obtained from them the jdgir of Kamta. His son,
Rao Gopal Lai, received a sanad from the British Government, and,
dying in
1874, was succeeded by the present Jagirdar. The area of the State is
4
square miles; its population is about 1500, chiefly Hindus. The
Jagirdar
maintains a military force of 1 5 infantry and i gun. He has sons, of
whom
the eldest is named Bhaya Ram Parshad.

Residence. Kamta Rajaula, Bundelkhand, Central India.

KANGSEU, Myoza of.

A Ruling Chief.

This Chief rules over one of the Shan States, on the frontiers of
Burma.
Residence. Kangseu, Shan States, Burma.

KANH CHAND, Rat Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist June 1888.
Residence. Kdngra, Punjab.

KANHAI LAL DB, C.I.B., Rat Bahadur.

Born 24th September 1831. The title of Rai Bahadur is personal, and
was conferred on 6th June 1872, for distinguished medical services.
The
Rai Bahadur is a son of the late Radha Nath De, Rai Bahadur, and the
name is very commonly spelt " Kanny Lall Dey." He was educated at the
Medical College of Bengal, where he graduated with distinction in
1854, and
in the same year was appointed to a Professorship of Chemistry in the
Cal-
cutta Medical College, and a Chemical Examiner to Government. In 1862
he was appointed Professor of Chemistry in the Presidency College of
the
University of Calcutta, and from that time his honours professional,
scien-
tific, and other have been exceedingly numerous. He was appointed
suc-
cessively Member British Medical Association, 1863; Honorary Member,
Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 1863; additional Chemical
Ex-
'aminer to Government, 1867-72 ; teacher of Chemistry and Medical
Juris-
prudence to the Vernacular Classes, Calcutta Medical College,
1869-84;
Fellow of the University of Calcutta, 1870; Member Faculty of
Medicine,
University of Calcutta, 1871; Rai Bahadur, 1872; Justice of the
Peace,
1872; Member Committee of the Economic Museum, 1874; Professor of
Chemistry and Government Chemical Examiner, Calcutta Medical College,
1877-78; Municipal Commissioner, 1877-85; Member Central Committee
for the Selection of the Vernacular Text-Books, 1887 ; Certificate of
Honour
in recognition of services to the State on the occasion of Her
Majesty's
assumption of the Imperial title, 1877 ; Examiner in Medical
Jurisprudence,

1878; Fellow Chemical Society, London (F.C.S.), 1880; Vice-President
of
the Calcutta Medical Society, 1881 ; Presidency Magistrate for
Calcutta,
1 88 1 ; Member of Committee and Juror at the Calcutta Exhibition of
Indian
Art Manufactures, 1881-82; Juror at the Jaipur Exhibition, 1883, also
Cal-
cutta International Exhibition, 1883-84; created a Companion of the
Most
Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, 1884; appointed Member of the
Syndicate, Calcutta University, 1886; Member District Charitable
Society,
Calcutta, 1886; Honorary Fellow College of Physicians, Philadelphia,
1886.
The Rai Bahadur is the author of treatises on chemistry, physics, and
medical jurisprudence in Bengali. He has helped to develop the drug
resources of India, and written an elaborate descriptive catalogue of
same.
He represented India at the International Exhibition, London, 1862 ;
Uni-
versal Exposition of Paris, 1867 and 1878; Vienna Universal
Exhibition,
1872; Melbourne Exhibition, 1880; Amsterdam Exhibition, 1883; World's
Industrial Cotton Centennial Exposition, New Orleans, U.S.A.,
1884-85;
and Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 1886, for which received
certificates
and medals, also thanks of the Government. The Rai Bahadur has a
son, named Priyalal De (the name is very frequently spelt Preo Lall
Dey),
born 24th July 1855 ; a Fellow of the Chemical Society of London
(F.C.S.),
1886 ; Presidency Magistrate for Calcutta, 1890.

Residences. 1 1 Beadon Street and 62 Aheritola Street, Calcutta,
Bengal.

KANHAI LAL JHA, PANDIT, Mahdmahopddhydya.

The title is a personal one, and was conferred on ist January 1890
for
eminence in Oriental learning. It entitles him to take rank in Darbar
imme-
diately after titular Rajas.

Residence. Darbhanga, Bengal.

KANHAYA LAL, Rai Bahddur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 3oth March 1876.
Residence. Lahore, Punjab.

KANHAYA LAL, Rai Bahddur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1890.
Residence. Amritsar, Punjab.

KANKBR, MAHARAJ-ADHIRAJ NARHAR DEO, Maharaja of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1 3th May 1850; succeeded to the gadi as a minor 5th December
1853. Belongs to a very ancient Rajput family, whose ancestors,
according
to tradition, were raised to the gadi by a popular vote in very early
times.
During the dominion of the Haihai Vansi dynasty in Chhattisgarh the
Kanker Zamindars were rich and prosperous. The area of the State is
639
square miles; its population is 63,610, chiefly Gonds (aboriginal
tribe).

Residence. Kanker, Raipur, Central Provinces.

KANNAYYA CHBTTI, K.V., Rao Bahadur.

Born 1857. The title is personal, and was conferred on ist June 1888
for eminent services to the State. Was elected a member of the Madras
Municipal Commission in 1885.

Residence. Madras.

KANNY LALL DEY, C.I.B., Rai Bahadur. .Sk.Kanhai Lai De.

KANTARAWADI, SAWLAWI, Myoza of.
A Ruling Chief.

The Myoza is the chief of one of the Karen States in Eastern Karenni,
Burma. The population consists chiefly of Karens.
Residence. Kantarawadi, Eastern Karenni, Burma.

KANTI CHANDAR MUKHARJT, C.I.B., Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty.
The
Rai Bahadur was created a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the
Indian Empire on ist January 1891, for distinguished services as Diwan
or
Prime Minister of the State of Jaipur in Rajputana.

Residence. Jaipur, Rajputdna.

KANTIGYI, Chief of.
A Ruling Chief.

This Chief rules over one of the Shan States on the frontier of
Burma.
Its population consists almost entirely of Shans.
Residence. Kantigyi, Shan States, Burma.

Listed Alphabetically. More to follow...

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KANTIT, RAJA BHUP INDRA BAHADUR SINGH, Rdjd of.

Born 1863; as a minor succeeded his father, Raja Rajendra Bahadur
Singh, in the year of his birth. Belongs to an ancient family of
Gaharwar
Rajputs, said to be a branch of that of the Rahtors of Kanauj, and
descended
from Gudan Deo. In ancient times, for a long series of years it
appears
that there was a Gaharwar Raj of the Kantit family, settled at
Benares, and
owning domains in Mirzapur district, south of the Ganges. In 1758 the
Raja Vikramaditya Singh of Kantit was driven out by Balwant Singh,
the
first Raja of Benares (g.v.); but after the flight of Raja Chet Singh
of
Benares in 1781, Raja Govinda Singh, son of Raja Vikramaditya,
recovered
his possessions. He was succeeded by his nephew and adopted son, Ram
Ghulam Singh, whose son was Raja Mahipal Singh ; and the latter in
turn
was succeeded by his son, Jagat Bahadur Singh. He died in 1850,
leaving
two minor sons, of whom the elder, Raja Rajendra Bahadur Singh,
succeeded his father, but hardly lived to attain his majority. On his
death
he was succeeded by the present Raja.

Residence. Bijaipur, Mirzapur, North-Western Provinces.

KAPILAS KUMARI (of Phulghar), Rani.

The title is hereditary. The Rani belongs to a very ancient Gond
family, descended from the Chanda stock of Gond Rajas, 800 years ago.
It
is said that the title of Raja was conferred on an ancestor by one of
the
ancient Kings of Delhi, before the family left Chanda. Until recently
the
Phulghar Zamindari was classed as a Gurjhat feudatory State ; but the
late
Raja Jagsai died without legitimate heirs in 1867, and the State
lapsed into
the form of a Zamindari, in the hands of the late Rani Sagan Kumari
of
Phulghar, who was the lawful wife of the Raja Prithi Singh. The Rani
Sagan Kumari was more than seventy years of age when she succeeded to
the
estate, as she was born before the commencement of the present
century ; she
was succeeded by the present Rani.

Residence. Phulghar, Sambalpur, Central Provinces.

KAPURTHALA, His Highness the Rdjd of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born September 1872 ; succeeded to the gadi as a minor 5th
September 1877. The Raja's full title is His Highness Farzand-i-
Dilband
Rasikhul-Iti-kad Daulat-i-Inglishia Raja-i-Rajagan Raja Jagatjit
Singh
Bahadur. Belongs to a Jat Kalal (Sikh) family, well known under the
distinguished name of Ahluwalia, from the village of Ahlu near
Lahore.
The Sardar Jassa Singh was one of the most conspicuous of the leaders
who
consolidated the Sikh Power during the disorders and weakness of the
Mughals, consequent on the invasions of Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah
Durani. He died without issue, and was succeeded by Sardar Bagh
Singh,
a descendant of his uncle. The Chiefs of Kapurthala largely extended
their
territories and power; and the name of Sardar Bagh Singh's successor,
Sardar Fateh Singh, was associated with that of the Maharaja Ranjit
Singh
in the first Sikh treaty concluded with the British Government. In
1826
Sardar Fateh Singh sought the protection of the British Power against
Ranjit
Singh ; but in the first Sikh war his troops fought against the
British at the
battle of Aliwal, and on this account his Cis-Sutlej territories were
confiscated.
In the second Sikh war his son Sardar Nihal Singh rendered good
service ;
and in recognition of it he was created a Raja in 1849. On the
outbreak
of the Mutiny in 1857, the Raja Sir Randhir Singh, G. C.S.I., of
Kapurthala,
volunteered the services of himself and all his followers. He
strengthened
the hold of Government in the Jalandhar Doab, and then volunteered to
aid
in the subjugation of the rebellious Province of Oudh. His offer was
accepted ; and accompanied by his brother, the brave Sardar Bikrama
Singh
Bahadur, C.S.I., he marched to Oudh at the head of 2000 horse and
foot
and four guns. This force fought no less than six actions with the
rebels, with
conspicuous valour on the part alike of the Chief, his brother, and
his
followers. They held most important positions first at Bani to protect
the
Lucknow and Cawnpur road, and afterwards at Daryabad ; and captured
ten
guns from the rebels. The Kapurthala troops remained in Oudh for a
whole year ; and the Raja Sir Randhir Singh received as a reward for
his
loyalty and bravery large estates there, confiscated from the
rebellious Rajas
of Bhitauli, Baundi, and Ikauna, as well as a khilat of Rs. 10,000,
and
many other honours. In 1870 he set out to visit England, but
unfortunately
died at Aden on the way. He was succeeded by his son, the Raja Kharak
Singh, father of the present Raja ; leaving also a younger son, the
Kunwar
Harnam Singh, C.I.E. (q.v.\ and a daughter married to the Sardar Buta
Singh of Sirnanwa. The area of the State is 598 square miles; its
population is 252,617, chiefly Muhammadans, but including 82,900
Hindus
and 26,493 Sikhs. In addition to this, the Oudh estates of His
Highness
have an area of 700 square miles, and a population of 253,000. The
Raja
maintains a military force of 197 cavalry, 829 infantry, and 13 guns;
and is
entitled to a salute of 1 1 guns.

Residences. Kapurthala, Punjab ; and Bhitauli, Baundi, and Ikauna,
Oudh.

KARA AHMAD. See Muhammad Jam Jah Ali.

KARAM HUSAIN walad ALI GAUHAR KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the Mirs
or
Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation (see Khairpur).
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

KARAM KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a descendant of one of the Mirs
or
Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation (see Khairpur).
Residence* Shika~rpur, Sind.

KARAMDAD KHAN (of Pharwala), Rdjd.

The title is hereditary, and the Raja succeeded his father in March
1865, as the foremost of the Gakkar Chiefs of the Punjab. The Gakkars
trace their descent from Kai Gohar, of Ispahan in Persia, whose son,
Sultan Kaid, is said to have conquered Badakshan and a part of Tibet.
For
many hundreds of years the Gakkars were undoubtedly possessed of
great
power and a wide extent of territory ; they overran Kashmir in very
early
times, and traces of their occupation are still to be found in the
north and
west of that country. They are usually of the Shia sect of
Muhammadans.
When the Emperor Babar invaded India, Hati Khan was the Chief of the
Gakkars ; and in the Emperor's Autobiography there is a notice of his
contest with that Chief. Babar marched against Pharwala then, as now,
the capital of the Gakkars in 1526 A.D., and captured it after a
gallant
resistance, Hati Khan making his escape from one gate of the town as
Babar's troops entered by another. Sultan Mukarrab Khan was the last
independent Gakkar Chief, and in his day the power of the Gakkars was
very
great. He defeated the Yusufzai Afghans and the Chief of the
Khattaks,
and captured Gujrat, overrunning the Chib country as far north as
Bhimbar.
He joined Ahmad Shah Durani on his several invasions of India, and
was
treated by that monarch with the greatest consideration, being
confirmed in
the possession of his large territories, which extended from the
Chinab to the
Indus. Mukarrab Khan was at last defeated by the powerful Sikh Chief,
Sardar Gujar Singh, Bhangi, and compelled to retire across the
Jhelum,
giving up his possessions in the Chaj Doab. His power being thus
broken,
the rival Chiefs of his own tribe declared against him, and he was
treacherously put to death. He left four sons, of whom the youngest
was
Sultan Shadman Khan, grandfather of the present Raja. The family were
greatly impoverished, weakened, and stripped of most of their
possessions, by
the attacks first of Sardar Gujar Singh, and subsequently of Anand
Singh,
Thipuria, grandson of the famous Sardar Milkha Singh of Rawalpindi.
In
1826 the family was conceded some proprietary rights in Pharwala, the
ancient cradle and home of their race. Shadman Khan's eldest son was
Hayat-ulla-Khan, who became Raja ; he rendered excellent service
under
Captain Abbott in 1848-49, and again during the Mutiny of 1857. He
was
succeeded by the present Raja in 1865.

Residence. Pharwdla, Rawalpindi, Punjab.

KARAN SINGH, Rao.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Aligarh, North- Western Provinces.

KARASGI, Chief of. See Jath.

KARAULI, HIS HIGHNESS MAHARAJA BONWAR PAL DEO
BAHADUR YADUKUL CHANDRA BHAL, Maharaja of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1862 ; succeeded to the gadi i4th August 1886. Is the head 01
the great Jadun clan of Rajputs, who claim descent from Krishna, and
are
called the Chandravansi or Children of the Moon. The title of
Maharaja
has descended to them from the remotest antiquity. Probably the first
historical personage in the pedigree is Bijai Pal, who built the fort
of Biana
in 995 A.D. Arjan Deo, in 1348 A.D., established the State, and
founded
the capital of Karauli in Rajputana. The Maharaja Dharm Pal became
Maharaja of Karauli in 1644 A.D. ; and the present Maharaja Bahadur
is
ninth in succession from Dharm Pal. The Maharaja Madan Pal rendered
good service during the Mutiny of 1857, sending a body of his troops
against
the Kotah mutineers ; and for these services he received an addition
of two
guns to his salute as a personal distinction, and was created a Knight
Grand
Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. The area of
the State is 1208 square miles; its population is 148,670, chiefly
Hindus,
but including 8836 Muhammadans. His Highness maintains a military
force of 281 cavalry, 1640 infantry, and 56 guns; and is entitled to a
salute
of 1 7 guns. The family banner is coloured yellow.

Residence. Karauli, Ra"jputa"na.

KARENNI, WESTERN, PO BYA, Chief of.
A Ruling Chief.

Po Bya is Chief of one of the Karen States in Burma. Its population
consists almost entirely of Karens. It has three feudatory
dependencies
Bawlake, Kyetpogyi, and Naungpale.

Residence. Western Karenni, Burma.

KARIM KHAN, Sarddr Bahadur.

Born 1813; belongs to a Pathan (Afghan) family settled in Unao, Oudh.
He was distinguished for his bravery and loyalty during the Mutiny of
1857,
when he held the military rank of Subahdar ; and in recognition
thereof he
received the title of Sardar Bahadur as a personal distinction, by a
sanad
dated i8th September 1860.

Residence. Unao, Oudh.

KARIM-UD-DIN AHMAD, Khan Bahddur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 20th May 1890.
Residence. Meerut, North- Western Provinces.

KABODIA, THAKUR CHAIN SINGH, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1864; succeeded to the gadi 26th October 1880. Belongs to a
Rajput (Hindu) family.

Residence. Karodia, Indore, Central India.

KAROLI, THAKUR BHAWANSINGH JI, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1856; belongs to a Koli (aboriginal) family. The area of the
State is 12 square miles; its population about 1500, chiefly Hindus.
Residence. Karoli, Mdhi Kdntha, Bombay.

KAROND, RAJA RAGHU KBSHAR DEO, Rdjd of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1871 ; succeeded to the gadi 7th April 1881. Belongs to an
ancient Rajput family of the Nagbansi (snake-race) clan the cognisance
of
the Nagbansi clan is the sacred Serpent descended on the female side
from
the original Gangabansi dynasty of Karond, and on the male side from
the
Rajas of Satrangarh in Chota Nagpur. The late Raja, Udit Partab Deo,
for
his good services to Government, received the honour of a personal
salute of
nine guns, which was conferred on ist January 1877, on the occasion of
the
Proclamation of her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress of India. The
present Raja is thirty-first in descent from the founder of the
dynasty. The
area of the State is 3745 square miles; and its population is
224,548,
chiefly Gonds (an aboriginal tribe). The Raja is entitled to a salute
of
9 guns.

Residence. Karond, Sambalpur, Central Provinces.

KARVETNAGAR, Rdjd of.
See Kumara Venkata Perumal Raz, Rdjd.

KASHI CHANDAR DATT, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty.

Residence. Joinshar, Dacca, Bengal.

KASHI NATH BISWAS, Rai Bahadur.

Born October 1830. The title was conferred on i6th February 1887,
on the occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious
Majesty.
The Rai Bahadur's great-grandfather was in the service of the Nawab
Nazim
of Bengal; and his father and grandfather were employed under the
Governor-General's agent at Benares. He entered the Judicial Service
in
1856; became a first-grade Subordinate Judge in 1875, an d received a
Silver Medal of Honour at the Imperial Assemblage at Delhi in January
1877, on the occasion of the Proclamation of Her Majesty as Empress
of
India. He received the title of Rai Bahadur in recognition of his long
and
meritorious services as a Judge.

Residence. Benares, North- Western Provinces.

KASHINATH LAKSHMAN, Rao Bahadur.

Born 1 6th July 1833. The title was conferred on 24th May 1883, for
long and distinguished service in the Police Department, in Khandesh,
Bombay. The Rao Bahadur belongs to a Karhada Brahman family, and
was the son of Lakshuman Krishna, of the Political Department and
Police
of Khandesh. Was invested with the title of Rao Bahadur at a Darbar
held
at Dhulia on i5th June 1883. In 1846 he married Ganga, the only
daughter of the late Jagirdar of Waroda ; and has issue four sons
(i) Martand, born 3oth July 1865, married Lakshmibai, daughter of
Purushotam Pant Khandekar; (2) Waman, born 27th July 1867, married
Jankibai, daughter of Prathad Pant Shahane, Mamlatdar of Tasgaon ;
(3)
Govinda, born 28th August 1871, married Gopikabai, daughter of
Madhava
Rao Khandekar Phadnis, late Mamlatdar of Satara; (4) Gopal, born 24th
June 1878, married Rukhminibai, daughter of Narayan Rao Bhopatkar of
Azvi.

Residence. Jalgaon, Khdndesh, Bombay.

KASHINATH TRIMBAK TBLANG-, C.I.E., The Hon.

A distinguished member of the Bombay Bar. Was created a Companion
of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, 23rd May 1884.

KASHMIR, His Highness the Mahdrdjd Bahddur of.
See Jammu and Kashmir.

KASIM HUSAIN TAJ-UL-MULK MIRZA BAHADUR, Prince.

The Prince is the ninth son of the late Wajid AH Shah, King of Oudh ;
and accordingly bears this title as a personal or courtesy title,

Residence. Calcutta, Bengal.

KASSALPURA, THAKUR MANAJI, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1823; belongs to a Koli (aboriginal) family. The population of
the State is about 400.

Residence. Kassalpura, Mahi Kantha, Bombay.

KASTUR CHAND, SETH, Rai Bahddur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty.

Residence. Kamthi, Central Provinces.

KASTUR CHAND, Seth.

The title is personal ; it was originally conferred by the Nawab of
the
Carnatic, and was recognised on i6th December 1890 by the British
Government.

Residence. Jaipur, Madras.

KATARI SUBBARAYUDU NAYUDU, Rai Bahddur.

Born in 1837. The title was conferred on 25th June 1884, for
meritorious services rendered in the Madras Police. Son of the late
K.
Subbarayudu Nayudu. Educated at Masulipatam. After four years'
service
in the Inam Commission, was appointed to the Madras Police in the
Kistna
district in 1866. Received a Gold Medal from the Mysore State for
courage
and ability shown in suppressing a notorious gang of dakaits. In 1891
received a jewelled Sword of Honour for similar services from the
British
Government. Has two sons Katari Narayanaswami and Katari Subbarao.

Residence. Nandigama, Kistna, Madras.

KATHI, CHANDRA SINGH RAHI PADRI, Chief of .
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1866; belongs to a Bhil (aboriginal) family. The area of the
State, which is one of the Mewas States in Khandesh, is about 500
square
miles; its population rather over 10,000, chiefly Bhils. The Mewas
Chiefs
maintain a force of irregulars, called Sibandis, who collect the
revenue, attend
the Chiefs, and keep order on the frontier and perform other police
duties
under the Khandesh Superintendent of Police. Besides these irregulars,
a
considerable number of Bhil headmen, naiks, are bound, if called upon
by
their Chiefs, to furnish from 30 to 50 bowmen apiece.

Residence. Kathi, Khandesh, Bombay.

KATHIWARA, THAKUR BAHADUR SINGH, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1839 ; succeeded to the gadi in 1865. Belongs to a Rajput
(Hindu) family. The area of the State is 68 square miles ; its
population
is 2376, Hindus and Bhils. The Thakur maintains a military force of
39
infantry.

Residence. Kathiwara, BhopaVar, Central India.

KATOSAN, THAKUR KARANSINGHJI RANAJI, Thdkur of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1850 ; succeeded to the gadi 2 ist January 1869. Belongs to a
Koli
(Hindu) family. The population of the State is about 1743.
Residence. Katosan, Mahi Kdntha, Bombay.

KAWARDHA, THAKUR RAJPAL SINGH, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1 3th November 1849 > succeeded to fatgadi i ith December 1874.
Belongs to a Raj Gond (aboriginal) family, claiming descent from Sham
Chand, from whom the present Thakur is thirteenth in descent. His
father
was the Thakur Ram Singh of Pandaria. The area of the State is 887
square
miles ; its population is 86,362, chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Kawardha, Bildspur, Central Provinces.

KAWASJI HORMASJI DADA CHARJI, Khan Saheb.
The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1889.
Residence. Aden.

KAWASJI JAMSHBDJI LALKAKA, Khdn Bahadur.

Bora ^i 9th September 1851. The title was conferred on 2 ist February
1884, for!eminent services rendered to the State in the Postal
Department.
Belongs to a Parsi family, son of Jamshedji Dosabji Lalkaka. Is a
Justice
of the Peace, April 1881. Acted as Deputy Postmaster- General of the
Central Provinces and Berar in 1889, and of Rajputana in 1890.
Married,
3rd December 1873, Manikbai, daughter of Nasarwanji Khurshidji
Sabavala
of Surat; and has issue two sons Jahangir, born 29th May 1875,
Kaikhushro, born 27th June 1878.

Residence. Ahmadabad, Bombay.

KAWASJI KAIKHUSRU, Khdn Saheb.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th May 1889.
Residence. Bombay.

KAYATHA, THAKUR SHBODAN SINGH, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1848 ; succeeded to the gadi 1863. Belongs to a Rajput (Hindu)
family.

Residence. Kayatha, Indore, Central India.

KAZIM ALI, Mirza Bahadur.

The Mirza Bahadur is the grandson of the late Muhammad Ali Shah,
King of Oudh, being a son of the Mirza Azim-us-Shan Bahadur, son of
that
monarch.

Residence. Oudh .

KAZIM ALI KHAN (1), Nawdb Bahadur.

The Nawab Bahadur is a grandson of the late Muhammad Ali Shah,
King of Oudh, being a son of the Nawab Muazzam-ud-daula Bahadur, by a
daughter of that monarch.

Residence. Lucknow, Oudh.

KAZIM ALI KHAN (2), Nawdb Bahadur.

The Nawab Bahadur is a great-grandson of the late Saadat Ali Khan,
King of Oudh, being a son of the Nawab Ikhtiar-ud-daula Bahadur, who
was a grandson of that monarch.

Residence. Lucknow, Oudh.

KBDAR NATH CHATTARJI, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 6th June 1885.
Residence. Bali, Bengal.

KBDAR NATH KUNDU CHAUDHRI, Rai Bahddur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 24th May 1884.
Residence. Howrah, Bengal.

KEHAR SINGH (of Khiva), Sarddr.

The title is hereditary. Belongs to a Sikh family descended from the
Sardar Rai Maha Singh ; who, with his son, Sardar Laha Singh, fell in
battle
in the service of Sardar Charat Singh, head of the Sikh misl or
confederacy
known as Sukarchakia, and grandfather of the Maharaja Ranjit Singh of
Lahore. Sardar Amar Singh, son of Laha Singh, was taken into the
service
of Sardar Charat Singh, received a jdgir, and served with distinction
under
Charat Singh's son, Sardar Dayal Singh, and under his grandson the
Maha-
raja. After his death his three sons, Sardars Fateh Singh, Dayal
Singh, and
Mohar Singh, rose into favour with the Maharaja ; and the last
especially
distinguished himself in an action with the Afghans at Khiva in the
Gujrat
district. Mohar Singh subsequently retired to Benares, and the
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh confiscated lusjdgirs. His brother, Sardar Dayal Singh
(grand-
father of the present Sardar), fought in the battle of Attock, 1813,
where he
was severely wounded; and he was again wounded in the expedition to
Kashmir,
for which he received some valuable jdgirs. He died in 1832 ; and his
son,
Sardar Bishan Singh, died two years afterwards, leaving Kishan, a
child of
two years of age. Sardar Kishan Singh was loyal in the time of the
Multan
rebellion of 1848-49; and later, in the time of the Mutiny of 1857,
he
rendered good service to Government, and was rewarded for it. He died
in
1860, and Sardar Kehar Singh is the surviving member of the family.
He
is also known as the Sardar Nand Singh.
Residence. Khiva, Gujra"t district, Punjab.

KEONTHAL, RAJA BALBIR SAIN, Rdjd of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1852; succeeded to the gadi 23rd August 1882. Belongs to a
very ancient Rajput family, that bore the title of Rana from early
times till
1857, when the title of Raja was conferred on Rana Sansar Sain for
his
services in the time of the Mutiny. After the expulsion of the Gurkhas
a
portion of the State was made over to the Maharaja of Patiala, and
the
remainder was confirmed to the then Rana by a sanad of the British
Govern-
ment in 1815. He has six feudatory Chiefs subordinate to him, viz.
the
Chiefs of Thiog, Koti, Ghund, Kheri, Madhan, and Ratesh; and of these
the first four are tributaries. The area of the State is 1 1 2 square
miles ; its
population is 31,154, chiefly Hindus. The Raja maintains a military
force
of 1 08 infantry and 2 guns.

Residence. Keonthal, Simla Hills, Punjab.

KERALA VARMA RAJA, Rdjd. See Chirakal, Valiya Rdjd of.

KERALA VARMA RAJA, Rdjd. See Kottayam, Valiya Rdjd of.

KEROWLEE, His Highness the Maharaja of. See Karauli.

KESHAB KANTA SINGH, Rdjd.

Bom November 1852. The title is personal, and was conferred on 2nd
February 1861, the Raja being the grandson and representative of the
late
Raja Chandra Kanta Singh, the last reigning Raja of Assam. Belongs to
the historical Ahom dynasty, who were rulers in Assam for many
centuries,
and are said to have been originally Shans from Burma. The first Raja
of
the dynasty who adopted Hinduism is stated to have been Chuhum-Pha,
who
succeeded to the gadi in 1497 A.D. From him the fourth in succession,
Raja Chutum-Hla, adopted the Hindu name of Jayadhajiya Singh and he
was reigning at the time of the Mughal invasion by Mir Jumla under
the
orders of the Emperor Aurangzeb. The invasion was unsuccessful, and
the
Ahom Raja extended his frontier to Goalpara. The greatest of the
dynasty
was Raja Rudra Singh, who succeeded to the gadi in 1695 ; and in the
next
century their power decayed. Raja Gaurinath Singh was the titular
Raja
when the British first sent a force into Assam in 1792 to restore him
after
his expulsion by the Koch Raja of Darrang. Then followed an invasion
of
the Burmese, who ruled the country till the first Burmese war ; at the
close
of which Assam was ceded by Burma to the British Power. Raja
Gaurinath
Singh had been succeeded in title by his brother, Raja Chandra Kanta
Singh ;
and the grandson of the latter is the present Raja. The family
cognisance is
an Arowan (Royal Umbrella) and Sripus Kalki (Golden Head-dress).
Residence. Gauha~ti, Assam.

KESHAVRAO BHASKARJI, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877, on the
occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress
of
India.

Residence. Bombay.

KESRI SINGH (of Lakhnadon), Thdkur.

The title is hereditary, the Thakur being the representative of one of
the
ancient Chiefs of the Seoni district.

Residence. Lakhnadon, Seoni, Central Provinces.

KESRI SING-H, C.I.E. (of Kucha-wan), Rao Bahddur.

The title of Rao Bahadur is personal, and was conferred on i st
January
1877, on the occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious
Majesty
as Empress of India. He has subsequently been created a Companion of
the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire.

Residence. Mdrwdr, Rajputa~na.

KET, MAUNG, Kyet Thaye zaung shwe Salwe ya Min.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist June 1888. It means
"Recipient of the Gold Chain of Honour," and is indicated by the
letters
K.S.M. after the name.

Residence. Yaw, Burma.

KEUNJHAR, MAHARAJA DHANURJAI NARAYAN BHANJ

DEO, Rdjd of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 27th July 1849 ; succeeded to \hzgadi as a minor 4th September
1 86 1. Belongs to a Rajput (Hindu) family, claiming descent from
Joti

Bhanj, a brother of Adi Bhanj, the founder of the Moharbhanj State
(q.v.\
thirty-four generations back. The following is the local tradition as
to the
way in which the Keunjhar Rajas got the patronymic of Bhanj , in which
the
State got the name of Keunjhar, and in which its borders were
enlarged :
Jai Singh, a son of Man Singh, the Maharaja of Jaipur in Rajputana,
came to
visit the shrine of Jagannath in Puri. He married Padmavati, the
daughter of
the Gajapati King of Puri, Pratapendra Deb, and received as her dowry
the
State of Hariharpur, which then comprised the two States of Moharbhanj
and
Keunjhar. Two sons were born to him, the elder of whom was named Adi
Singh and the younger Joti Singh. In mauza Rarua in killa Hariharpur
there was a petty Zamindar named Mayura Dhwaja in possession of five
pirs.
He was conquered by Prince Adi Singh, and deprived of his Zamindari.
The
Gajapati King of Puri, hearing of the success of Prince Adi Singh,
conferred
on him the title of Bhanj. Since that time the above title has been
hereditary in the Moharbhanj and Keunjhar Raj families. Adi Singh on
his
accession to the gadi changed the name of Hariharpur into Moharbhanj,
and
in commemoration of his conquest of the territory of Mayura Dhwaja,
called
it and the villages comprised in it Adipur Pir, after his own name.
Prior to
his death, Jai Singh separated from his killa a portion of land which
at
present goes by the name of Nijgarh zillah, and left it in possession
of his
younger son, Joti Bhanj. Thereupon the latter left Moharbhanj, and
established a garh (fort) at Jotipur, where he dwelt. Subsequently he
removed his headquarters to a place where there was a spring (jhar) in
an
ebony (kendu) forest ; and since then the headquarters and the killa
itself
are called Kendu-Jhar or Keunjhar. Jotipur Garh, with its adjoining
villages,
was annexed to killa Keunjhar and called Jotipur Pir. The boundaries
of
killa Keunjhar since its foundation by Joti Bhanj up to the reign of
Govind
Bhanj are laid down in the topographical maps which were prepared by
Government between 1850 and 1862. Govind Bhanj being offended for
some reason or other with his father, Trilochan Bhanj, retired to Puri
and
lived there. He was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the army of the
Gajapati King of Puri, and gained a victory for him in the battle of
Kanchi-
Cavery in the Madras Presidency. Soon after, being informed of his
father's
death, he got the permission of the Puri Raja to return home. Before
his
departure he obtained as a reward from the Raja the Zamindari of
Athgarh,
which adjoined the eastern border of the Keunjhar State, and on his
return
from Puri he was installed on the Keunjhar gadi. Since that date the
zillah
of Athgarh has remained annexed to killa Keunjhar. It is commonly
known as Anandpur. In 1794 A.D. Janardan Bhanj married Krishnapriya,
the daughter 01 Manipal and grand-daughter of Arnapurna, the Rani of
Pal
Lahera, and received as dowry the Zamindari of Pal Lahera. On the
death
of Krishnapriya in 1825, the petty Zamindars of Pal Lahera combined
with
the ryots of that State and opposed Janardan Bhanj 's possession of
Pal
Lahera. From 1794 to 1825 the Raja of Keunjhar had full authority
over
Pal Lahera ; and though the latter was subsequently made independent,
it
still pays its tribute through the former. The title of Raja is
hereditary in
this family, and dates from the period of the Mahratta dominion in
Orissa ;
it was formally conferred by the British Government in 1874. The title
of
Maharaja was conferred on the present Chief as a personal
distinction,
ist January 1877, on tne occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most
Gracious Majesty as Empress of India. The cognisance of the family is
a

peacock with the tail spread. The area of the State, which is one of
the
Orissa Tributary Mahals, is 3096 square miles; its population is
215,612,
chiefly Hindus, but including nearly 20,000 belonging to various
aboriginal
tribes. The Maharaja maintains a military force of 2949 infantry and
32
guns.

Residence. Keunjhar, Orissa, Bengal.

KHADIJA BEGAM SAHIBA, Princess.
The title is personal, and was conferred on nth March 1866.
Residence. Madras.

KHAIR-UN-NISA BBGAM, Her Highness the Nawdb.

The title is personal ; it was originally conferred by the Nawab of
the
Carnatic, and recognised on i6th December 1890. Her Highness is the
Shadi
widow of His Highness the late Nawab Ghulam Muhammad Ghaus Khan,
last titular Nawab of the Carnatic.

Residence. M adras.

KHAIRAGARH, KAMAL NARAYAN SINGH, Zaminddr of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1879; succeeded to the gadi on the death of Lai Umrao Singh,
1 9th February 1891. Belongs to a Raj Gond (aboriginal) family,
claiming
descent from the ancient royal family of Garha Mandla. The area of
the State is 940 square miles; its population is 166,138, chiefly
Hindus.

Residence. Khairagarh, Raipur, Central Provinces.

KHAIRPUR, HIS HIGHNESS MIR SIR ALI MURAD KHAN,

G.C.I.R, Mir of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 28th June 1815; succeeded to the gadi 2oth December 1842.
Is the representative of the historical Baluch family called Talpur,
that con-
quered Sind in 1783 A.D. In that year Mir Fateh AH Khan Talpur
established himself as Rais of Sind; and subsequently his nephew, Mir
Sohrab Khan Talpur, with his two sons, named respectively Mir Rustam
and
Ali Murad the last-named being the present Mir of Khairpur founded
the
Khairpur branch of the Talpur rulers of Sind. Mir Sohrab Khan
gradually
extended his dominions until they extended from the Jaisalmer Desert
on the
east to Kachh Gandava in Baluchistan on the west. In 1 8 1 3 he ceased
to pay
tribute to Afghanistan; and in 1832 Khairpur was recognised as a
separate
State from the rest of Sind, in a treaty with the British Power.
During the
first Afghan war, when most of the Sind Mirs were believed to be
hostile, the
Mir Ali Murad Khan cordially supported the British policy.
Consequently,
when, after the close of that war, the victory of Miani (Meeanee)
effected
the conquest of Sind, and the rest of Sind was annexed and
incorporated
in the British territory, the State of Khairpur retained its political
existence
as a feudatory of the Empire. In 1866 a sanad was granted to His
High-
ness, guaranteeing the succession according to Muhammadan law ; and
he
has recently been created a Knight Grand Commander of the Most
Eminent
Order of the Indian Empire. His Highness's sons are Mir Faiz Muhammad
Khan, Mir Jan Muhammad Khan, and Mir Ghulam Haidar. The area
of the State is 6109 square miles; its population is 129,153, chiefly
Muhammadans, but including more than 26,000 Hindus. His Highness
maintains a military force of 700 cavalry, 774 infantry, and 32 guns;
and is
entitled to a salute of 19 guns (including 4 guns personal).

Residence. Khairpur, Sind, Bombay.

KHAJURIA, MIAN KARIM BAKSH, Mian of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1859; succeeded to \htgadi 24th December 1863. Belongs to a
Pindari (Muhammadan) family. The population of the State is 467,
chiefly
Hindus.

Residence. Khajuria, Bhopal, Central India.

KHALTHAUN, THAKUR HARGAYAN SINGH, Thdkur of.

A Ruling Chief.

Bom 1864; succeeded to the gadi in 1883. Belongs to a Kshatriya
Yadav (Hindu) family. The area of the State is 5 square miles ; its
popula-
tion is about 8000, chiefly Hindus. The Thakur maintains a military
force
of 15 cavalry and 50 infantry.

Residence. Khalthaun, Gwalior, Central India.

KHAN BABA KHAN, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of Her Majesty's reign.

Residence. Peshdwar, Punjab.

KHAN MUHAMMAD walad WALI MUHAMMAD KHAN,

Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being a representative of one of the
Mirs
or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation (see Khairpur).

Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

KHANDBRAO APPAJI, GUPTE, Rao Saheb.
The title is personal.
Residence. Thdnd, Bombay.

KHANDBRAO SIDRAMAPA DESAI NADGAODA (of Kurbet),

Shrimdn Maha Naik Nadgauda Nagnuriebirada Himori.

The title is hereditary, having been originally conferred by the Chief
of
Anigundi on an ancestor, for having cleared the jungles of Gokak of
the
bandits who frequented them and having been recognised by the British
Government. Belongs to a Mahratta (Hindu) family claiming descent
from
Jogi Nikumbi Naik, through a long series of generations. Khanderao
Baba
Saheb succeeded his father Sidramapa Balapa Desai.

Residence. Belgaum, Bombay.

KHANDBRAO VISHWANATH EASTS, Rao Bahddur.

Born 1845. The title of Rao Bahadur is personal, and was conferred
on ist January 1877, at the Imperial Assemblage at Delhi, on the
occasion
of the Proclamation of Her Majesty as Empress of India when he also
received a Medal of Honour. Is also a First Class Sardar of the
Deccan ;
and claims the hereditary rank of Sardar. Belongs to a Konkanasth
Brahman family, resident from early times in Velneshwar, in the
district of
Ratnagiri ; originally the family name was " Gokhle," changed at a
later date
for " Raste." The founder of the family was named Ballah. His
descend-
ant, Shamji Naik, had three sons, who entered the service of the
Shahu
Raja of Satara, in which they acquired important positions. The second
of
these, named Bhikaji, had a daughter married to the Peshwa Narayan
Rao ;
the eldest, named Haribaji Naik, was the ancestor of this family. His
great-
grandson, Khanderao Nilkant Raste, was appointed to a military
command
by the celebrated Nana Farnavis under the Peshwa Mahadeo Rao
Narayan ;
he served with great success in many campaigns, and rose to high
honours,
with considerable grants of land. His son, Vishwasrao Khanderao, was
a
Sardar of the Deccan of the second class ; he was granted a pension by
the
Government in 1819, and was succeeded by his son, the present title-
holder.
The Rao Bahadur was educated at the Poona College ; was a Member of
the
Bombay Legislative Council, 1884-86; is a Magistrate for Poona, and
also
for Kolaba, and a Justice of the Peace for the town and island of
Bombay.

Residence. Poona, Bombay.

KHANDPARA, RAJA NATOBAR SINGH MARDRAJ
BHRAMARBAR RAI, Rdjd of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1837 ; succeeded to the gadi 28th February 1867. Belongs to a
Rajput (Hindu) family, claiming descent from a younger son of the
Nayagarh
family, seventy-one generations ago. The Raja Raghunath Singh of
Nayagarh had two sons. The elder son, Harihar Singh, became Raja of
Nayagarh, and the younger, Jadunath Singh Mangraj, retained possession
of
four Garhs, or forts, as his share, viz. Kadua, Ghuntsahi, Sardhapur,
and Khed-
pada, all in Nayagarh. There was at that time a Chief ruling over a
tract from
Ogalpur to Harichandanpur in Khandpara. Him the said Mangraj
defeated,
and took possession of his territory. Gradually in course of time and
by
dint of arms, his son Pitabas Singh, his grandson Narayan Singh, and
his great-grandson Balunkeswar Singh extended their dominions, and
strengthened the State of Khandpara. The petty chiefs who ruled
within
the jurisdiction of this State during these times, and their subjects,
were
savage aborigines. The Rajas of Khandpara defeated these petty
Chiefs,
gave education to the savages, cleared the jungles, formed villages,
and
civilised the country. Up to the reign of Raja Narayan Singh Mangraj,
Khandpara extended on the east up to Banki, on the west to
Balaramprasad
in Daspalla, on the north to Kantilo, and on the south up to Jogiapali
in
Nayagarh. During the reign of Banamali Singh Mardraj Bhramarbar Rai,
son of Raja Balunkeswar Singh Mangraj, the Raja of Bod did not give
the
State to his adopted son Makund Deb Bhanj, whom he had brought from
Moharbhanj, but gave it to another person whom he subsequently adopted
as

his son. This gave offence to Makund Deb Bhanj, and he consequently
sought help from the Raja of Khandpara, Banamali Singh Mardraj
Bhramarbar
Rai. This Banamali was a brave and powerful Raja, and expert in war.
He engaged the Raja of Bod, and after defeating him made the said
Makund
Deb Bhanj Raja over a part of Bod territory, and gave the new State
the
name of Daspalla. Raja Jadunath Singh Mangraj, the founder of the
Khandpara State, got the title of Mangraj from the Maharaja of Orissa,
and
it was enjoyed from his time down to Balunkeswar Singh. Banamali
Singh,
the son of Balunkeswar Singh, was a very powerful Chief, and defended
the
Maharaja of Orissa from the attacks of his enemies. The latter gave
him as
a reward the title of Bhai Mardraj Bhramarbar Rai, which has been
enjoyed
by successive Chiefs to the present day. During the reign of Raja
Niladri
Singh Mardraj Bhramarbar Rai, Raghuji Bhonsle, the Maharaja of
Nagpur,
gave the Raja a flag, which is still used. When Orissa was first
conquered
by the British Government, Raja Narsingha Singh Mardraj Bhramarbar
Rai
gave assistance to the chief military officers of the British
Government, and
received an elephant and a cannon in recognition thereof. The present
Raja
is a son of the late Raja Krishna Chandra Singh Mardraj Bhramarbar
Rai ;
and succeeded his brother, the late Kunja Vihari Singh Mardraj
Bhramarbar
Rai, who died without issue in 1867. The title of Raja is hereditary
in the
family, and dates from the period of the Mahratta dominion in Orissa ;
it was
formally recognised by the British Government in 1874. The cognisance
of the family is a tiger's head. The State, which is one of the Orissa
Tributary
Mahals, has an area of 244 square miles, and a population of 66,296,
chiefly
Hindus. The Raja maintains a military force of 1085 infantry and 12
guns.
Residence. Khandpdrd, Orissa, Bengal.

KHANIADHANA, RAJA CHHATAR SINGH, Jdgirddr of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1863; succeeded to the gadi 1 3th December 1869. Belongs to
the great Bundela (Rajput) family of Orchha, that has given ruling
families to Panna, Datia, Ajaigarh, and most of the States of
Bundelkhand.
Amresh was a younger son of the Maharaja Udit Singh of Orchha, and
received the territory of Khaniadhana as his portion. Much of this
territory
was taken away by the Mahrattas. Fourth in descent from Amresh was
the
Rajd Guman Singh, who received a sanad from the British Government in
1863. Guman Singh died in 1869, and was succeeded by the present
Jagirddr; who on ist January 1877, at the Imperial Assemblage at
Delhi,
on the occasion of the Proclamation of Her Majesty as Empress of
India,
received the title of Rajd as a personal distinction. The area of the
State is
84 square miles; its population is 13,494, chiefly Hindus. The Raja
maintains a military force of 5 cavalry, 65 infantry, and 2 guns.

Residence. Khaniddhdna, Bundelkhand, Central India.

KHARAL, MIAN SURSINGHJI SARDARSINGHJI, Mian of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1860; succeeded to the gadi 2oth April 1884. Belongs to a
Koli (Muhammadan) family. The area of the State is 1 6 square miles ;
its
population 3189, chiefly Hindus.

JRest<tence.Kharl, Mdhi Kdntha, Bombay.

KHARSEDJI BUSTAMJI, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877, on the
occasion of the Proclamation of Her Majesty as Empress of India.
Residence. Baroda.

KHARSIA, THAKUR BALWANT SINGH, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1855 ; succeeded to the^W/ 26th September 1876. Belongs to a
Rajput (Hindu) family.

Residence. Kharsia, Bhopa"!, Central India.

KHARSOWAN, THAKUR MAHBNDRA NARAYAN SINGH

DEO, Thdkur of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1869; succeeded his father, Thakur Raghunath Singh Deo, 2nd
March 1884, as a minor. Belongs to a Rajput (Hindu) family, descended
from a younger son of the ancient Porahat family, that came into
Orissa in
very early times from Jodhpur in Rajputana. The title of Thakur was
originally bestowed by the Raja of Porahat, and has been conferred on
the
Chief as a personal distinction. The State (which is one of the Chota
Nagpur Tributary Mahals) has an area of 149 square miles, and a
population
of 31,051, chiefly Hindus. The Thakur has a military force of 3 guns.

Residence. Kharsowan, Singhbhum, Chota Nagpur, Bengal.

KHERAWARA, THAKUR VAJESINGHJI, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1847. Belongs to a Koli (aboriginal) family. The area of his
State is 27 square miles; its population is over 1300, chiefly
Hindus.
Residence. Kherawara, Mdhi Kdntha, Bombay.

KHERI, Chief of.

Is a feudatory of the Raja of Keonthal (q.v.\ and rules over one of
the
Simla Hill States.

Residence. Kheri, Simla Hills, Punjab.

KHERWASA, THAKUR PARTAB SINGH, Thdkur of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1880 ; succeeded to the gadi as a minor in 1887. Belongs to a
Rajput (Hindu) family. The population of the State is about 500,
Hindus
and Muhammadans.

Residence. Kherwasa, Western Mdlwa", Central India.

KHBT SINGH (of Gobra), Rdjd.

Born 4th February 1842. The title is hereditary, having been
originally
conferred by one of the old Gond Rajas of Garha-Mandla, and confirmed
by
Government. Is a descendant of Raja Karan ; and rendered good service
in
the campaigns that followed the Mutiny of 1857.

Residence. Gobra, Damoh, Central Provinces.

KHETTAR (KSHBTTBA) CHANDAR BANARJI, Rai Bahddur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 6th December 1884, for
services rendered in the Public Works Department.
Residence. Calcutta, Bengal.

KHIANDA, MADAN SINGH, Chief of .
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1880; succeeded to the gadi as a minor 2yth December 1889.
The population of the State is about noo, chiefly Hindus.
Residence. Khianda, Guna, Central India.

KHILAWAN SINGH (of Bilehra), Rdjd.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Sa"gar, Central Provinces.

KHILCHIPUR, RAO BAHADUR AMAR SINGHJI,

Rao Bahddur of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1834 ; succeeded to the gadi 2yth November 1868. Belongs to a
Khichi Rajput (Hindu) family, descended from Durjan Sal, a Khichi
Chief.
The area of his State is about 272 square miles; its population
36,125,
chiefly Hindus. The Rao Bahadur maintains a military force of 45
cavalry,
202 infantry, and 2 guns;- and is entitled to a salute of 9 guns. The
family has a white banner (with black silk tassel), bearing the effigy
of
Hanuman, the monkey-god. The Rao Bahadur's eldest son is named Lalji
Bhawani Singh.

Residence. Khilchipur, Bhopdl, Central India.

KHIRASRA, JAREJA RAISINGHJI JIJIBHAI, Tdlukddr of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1850; succeeded to the gadi ist January 1872. Belongs to a
Rajput (Hindu) family. The area of his State is 13 square miles ; its
popu-
lation is 4377, chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Khirasra, Kdthidwdr, Bombay.

KHITABAT KHAN. See Muhammad Ghaus, Shaikh.

KHITISH (KSHITISH) CHANDAR RAI (of Nadiya),
Maharaja Bahadur.

Born i6th April 1868. The title was conferred on ist January 1890, as
a personal distinction, when the Maharaja Bahadur came of age after a
long
minority ; and it has been enjoyed by the Rajas of Nadiya (or Nuddea)
for
many generations, having been first conferred by the Emperor of Delhi
on
the Maharaja Rudra ten generations ago. Belongs to a Kulin Brahman
family of the highest caste, claiming descent from the famous Bhatta
Narayan, one of the five Brahman apostles whom King Adisur brought to
Bengal from Kanauj. A farmdn bearing the seal and signature of the
Emperor Alamgir is extant, in which the Raja Rudra is addressed as
Raja.
His great-grandson, the Maharaja Krishna Chandra Rai, received
twofarmdns
from the Emperor Shah Alam, conferring on him the title of Maharaja.
Since the establishment of British rule in Bengal each Raja of Nadiya
in
succession has been created a Maharaja Bahadur. The late Maharaja
Satis
Chandra Rai Bahadur, Raja of Nadiya, was eminently loyal to the
Govern-
ment, and exceedingly liberal, especially to his tenants and to
educational
institutions. He presented a beautiful park as the site for the
Krishnagar
State College of the Calcutta University, at the town of Krishnagar,
which is
the capital of Nadiya ; and he subscribed largely to the funds, both
for the
building and for the endowment of that important institution. The
present
Maharaja Bahadur was his son by adoption, and has only recently
(1890)
attained his majority.

Residence. Krishnagar, Nadiya", Bengal.

KHOJANKHERA, THAKUR BAKHTAWAR SINGH,

Thdkur of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1860; succeeded to the gadi in 1878. Belongs to a Rajput
(Hindu) family. The population of the State is about 500.
Residence. Khojankhera, Western Malwa", Central India.

KHORY, A. M., Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February 1887, on
the
occasion of the Jubilee of Her Majesty's reign.
Residence. Mhow, Central India.

KHUDA BAKHSH, MAULAVI, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1883, as a
reward for highly meritorious service as Government Pleader.
Residence. Patna, Bengal.

KHUDA BAKHSH KHAN walad JAM NINDO, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being the representative of one of
the
Mirs or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation. He is the only
son of the
Jam Nindo Khan, a member of the Sohrabani branch of the Talpur
family.

Residence. Hyderabad, Sind.

KHUDA BAKHSH KHAN, USHTARANA, Khan Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 2oth May 1890.
Residence. Punjab.

KHUDADAD KHAN walad KHAN MUHAMMAD
KHAN, Mir.

The title is hereditary, the Mir being the representative of one of
the
Mirs or Chiefs of Sind at the time of the annexation (see Khairpur).
Residence. Shikdrpur, Sind.

KHUDADAD KHAN, Khan Saheb.

The title is personal, and was conferred on 2nd January 1888.
Residence. Sukkurri, Sind.

KHUMAN SINGH (of Ghatakheri), Thdkur.

The title is hereditary.

Residence. Nima"r, Central Provinces.

KHURSHID JAH, BAHADUR, K.C.I.B., SIR,

Nawdb) Shams-ul-Umara) Amir-i-Kabir.

One of the Premier Nobles of the Hyderabad State.

The Nawab Bahadur, who was born about the year 1838, is the present
representative (with his brother, the Vikar-ul-Umara, q.v., and his
cousin, Sir
Asman Jah, q.v.) of the great and powerful Shamsiya family, the first
among
the noble families of Hyderabad, which has been frequently connected
by marriage with the Ruling House, and entrusted with the hereditary
command of the Paigah or Household Troops of the Nizam. Descended
from the famous captain, Shaikh Abul Khair Khan, Ima"m Jang, Shamsher
Bahadur, who was a Mansabddr in Malwa under the Emperor Aurangzeb.
He attached himself to the fortunes of the great Asaf Jah, the founder
of the
Hyderabad dynasty, under whose banner he rose to the highest
commands.
In 1745 he defeated a Mahratta force, and under the successors of
Asaf
Jah, the Nizams Nasir Jang and Salabat Jang, he continued his
successful
career. In 1752 he died at Burhanpur; and was succeeded by his son,
Abul Fateh Khan Teg Jang, who became the first Noble of the Nizam
Ali,
obtaining the command of the Paigah or Household Troops, immense
territorial possessions, and the titles of Shams-ud-daula, Shams-ul-
Mulk, and
Shams-ul-Umara. He died in 1786, when campaigning in Panghul ; and
was succeeded by his son, who at the early age of four had received
from
the Nizam the titles of Ba-ud-din Khan, Imam Jang, Khurshid-ud-daula,
and
Khurshid-ul-Mulk. He succeeded to all the honours of his father, and
became a famous scholar and savant, receiving at various times the
titles of
Teg Jang, Shams-ud-daula, Shams-ul-Mulk, Shams-ul-Umara Bahadur, and
in
1827 the title of Amir-i-Kabir. In 1849 ne became for a short time
Prime
Minister of Hyderabad. He died in 1862, leaving two sons, Umdat-ul-
Mulk
(who became Amir-i-Kabir) and Ikhtidar-ul-Mulk (who became Vikar-ul-
Umara). The former died in 1877, when the latter succeeded him in the
family honours, and as Co-Regent of the State, adding the title of
Amir-i-
Kabir to that of Vikar-ul-Umara. He died in 1881, leaving two sons,
the
Nawab Sir Khurshid Jah Bahadur and the Nawab Vikar-ul-Umara (Ikbal-
ud-
daula, Bahadur). Sir Khurshid was created a Knight Commander of the
Most
Eminent Order of the Indian Empire on i6th February 1877, on the
occasion
of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty ; and he has
held
the offices of Member of the Council of Regency, and Member of the
Council of State. The Nawab is a fine Persian and Urdu scholar, and
has
travelled in many parts of India. Like their noble kinsman Sir Asman
Jah,
both Sir Khurshid Jah and his brother the Vikar-ul-Umara have shared
the
fortune of their ancestor, in allying themselves in marriage with
Princesses of
the Royal House of Hyderabad. In his palace at Hyderabad are to be
seen the sword and armour of his ancestor, Abul Fateh Khan Teg Jang,
a
warrior of great size and height.

Residences. Hyderabad ; Shams-ul-Umara"'s Baradari, Hyderabad.

(A circle with four Trisuias or
dS e p S ims.) radi ecar "

KHUSHAL SINGH (of Rajaur), Rdjd.

Born 1846. The title is hereditary; the Raja being one of the Chiefs
of the Chauhan Rajputs, and boasting a direct descent from Prithiraj,
the
last Chauhan Rajput Emperor of Delhi, whose
romantic history is sung by every Hindu bard, and
whose fall virtually transferred the sovereignty of
India from the Hindus to the Muhammadans.
Prithiraj perished in battle with Shahab-ud-din
Ghori in 1193 A.D. Eighth in descent from him
was the famous Bhoj Raj of Hansi, who re-
conquered Ajmir, the old home of the Chauhan
Rajputs Prithiraj having been the son of a
Chauhan Raja of Ajmir by a daughter of the

The Santak of the Chauhan Tomara Rajput Raja of Delhi, Anang Pal, and
having been adopted by his maternal grandfather at
Delhi. Fifth in descent from Bhoj Raj was Dhira
Raj, who migrated from Hansi to Bilram; and
fourth in descent from him was Sakit Deo, who
founded Sakit, and whose descendants were the Chauhan Rajas of
Sakit and Rajaur. His grandson, Bhupal Deo, had two sons, Yahani
Sahai and Udaicharan ; the latter founded the family of the Chauhan
Rajas of Mainpuri, the former remained as Raja of Sakit and Rajaur.
Seven generations later Raja Sawant Sen was driven out of these
ancestral possessions by the army of Ibrahim Shah Lodi, Sultan ot
Delhi; but after the subversion of the Lodi dynasty by the invasion
of
Babar and his Mughals, Sawant Sen's grandson, named Chakra Sen, was
enabled to return to Sakit and Rajaur as a feudatory of the Mughal
Emperor.
Eight generations followed each other in peaceful possession of the
Raj
under the strong arm of the Mughals ; and Raja Hari Singh in the time
of
Aurangzeb was famous for his prowess, won many battles, and was high
in
the favour both of that Emperor and of his successors, the Emperors
Farukh-
siyar and Muhammad Shah. But in the time of Hari Singh's son, Raj
Singh, the country was given up to anarchy ; and during this disturbed
period
Sakit was seized by the Nawab of Farukhabad, and was lost for ever, to
the
Chauhan Rajas of Rajaur. Raj Singh's grandson was Raja Datta Singh ;
and
the grandson of the latter was the late Raja Drigpal Singh, father of
the
present Raja. Raja Khushal Singh has two sons, Kunwar Lai Jagmohan
Singh, born 1873 ; and Kunwar Lai Dharm Singh, born 1883.

Residence. Rajaur, Etah, North- Western Provinces.

KHUSHALRAI SARABHAI, Rao Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist January 1877, on the
occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress
of
India.

Residence. Ahmadabad, Bombay.

KHYRIM, A. KHUR SINGH, Seim of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1843; succeeded to the gadi 4th December 1871. The Seim is
Chief of one of the Khasi and Jaintia Hill States, the population of
which
is about 24,000, and consists of Khasis and Christian converts.

Residence. Khyrim, Khasi Hills, Assam.

KINNU RAI, Rai Bahadur.

Born 1829. The title is personal, and was conferred on 6th June 1885,
in recognition of his loyal services during the time of the Mutiny in
1857,
when he protected the Stud property of the Government at the risk of
his
own life.

Residence. Ghdzipur, North- Western Provinces.

KIRALI, CHOLU walad APSINGH NAIK, Chief of.
A Ruling Chief.

Bom 1 86 1 ; succeeded to the gadi ist November 1886. Belongs to a
Bhil (aboriginal) family. The State (which is one of the Dang States
of
Khandesh) has an area of 12 square miles; and a population of 1671,
chiefly
Bhils.

Residence. Kirali, Khandesh, Bombay.

KIRAT CHAND (of Lambagraon), Mian.

The title is hereditary, the Mian being the brother of the late Raja
Partab Chand of Lambagraon, and the uncle of the present Raja, Jai
Chand
(q.v.) of Lambagraon, who is the head of the great Katoch Rajput
family of
Kangra. The Mian is the younger son of Mian Rudra Chand of Lamba-
graon, who was the grandson of the Raja Tegh Chand of Kangra, and who
became the head of the Kangra family on the failure of the elder
branch.

Residence. Lambagraon, Kdngra, Punjab.

KIRPAL SINGH (of Dhin), Sarddr.

Born 1836. The title is hereditary. The Sardar is the head of a Jat
family of Sikhs, descended from Sardar Parsa Singh. The latter was
the
nephew and heir of Sardar Sham Singh, who at the time of the decline
of
the Mughal Empire came from the district of Amritsar, conquered the
terri-
tory of Dhin in the Ambala district of the Punjab, and settled there.
Parsa
Singh's grandson was the Sardar Ranjit Singh, who was slain by Kanh
Singh,
and who was succeeded by his son, the present Sardar.

Residence. Ambala, Punjab.

KIRPAL SINGH, KUNJAHIA (of Botala), Sarddr.

Born 1832. The title is hereditary. Belongs to a Kshatriya family of
Sikhs, descended from Sardar Dhanna Singh. The latter was an associate
of
Sardar Nodh Singh, the great-grandfather of the Maharaja Ranjit Singh,
and
he and his descendants followed the fortunes of the ancestors of
Ranjit
Singh. Sardar Kirpal Singh's father, Sardar Ganda Singh, was in
attendance
on the Maharaja Sher Singh when that prince was assassinated, and was
severely wounded in the endeavour to defend him, and was subsequently
killed at the battle of Firuzshahr, where Sardar Kirpal Singh was
also
wounded. But at the time of the outbreak at Multan, Sardar Kirpal
Singh
was at Hazara, and remained faithful to the British Government, and
was
subsequently confirmed in hisjdgirs. His brother, Sardar Partab Singh
(q.v.)
of Botala, is an Extra Assistant Commissioner of the Punjab.

Residence. Guj rdn wa" la, P unj ab.

KIRPAL SINGH, Sarddr, Rai Bahadur.

These titles are personal. The first (Sardar) was conferred on 2nd
January 1888, and the second (Rai Bahadur) on 24th May 1889.
Residence. Rawalpindi, Punjab.

KISHAN. See Krishan and Krishna.

KISHAN DATT SINGH (of Oel), Rdjd.

Born 1 86 1 ; succeeded his father, the late Raja of Oel, on the i8th
of
October 1879. The title is hereditary, having been originally
conferred by
the late King of Oudh in 1849, an d recognised by the British
Government
ji December 1877. Belongs to the Jan war family of Kheri, Oudh, of
which the elder branch is represented by the Raja Achal Singh (q.v.)
of
Kaimahra. But the late Raja of Oel, Raja Anrudh Singh, was recognised
as
the head of the Kheri Janwars on account of his great wealth and
ability.
The family were originally Chauhan Rajputs in the service of the
Sayyids of
Pihani, having migrated from Rajputana in the i6th century. In the
time
of Sayyid Khurd, Jamni Khan Janwar became Chaudhri of Kheri in
1553 A.D., with the right to levy a cess on all the lands in that
Pargana. His
descendants gradually increased their possessions, the Chaudhri Parbal
Singh
Janwar owning Oel, Kaimahra, and Khogi ; and his descendant, the Rai
Than Singh, of Oel, owning many more villages. In 1838 Rai Umrao
Singh was the head of the family. The Rai Bakht Singh, grandfather of
the
late Raja Anrudh Singh, built a large and handsome temple at Oel. The
Raja has a son and heir, named Kunwar Baldeo Singh.

Residence. Oel, Kheri, Oudh.

KISHAN KUMAR, RAI (of Sahaspur), Rdjd.
Born 25th December 1848. The title of Raja is personal, and was con-
ferred on 24th May 1882, the family title being Rai. Belongs to a
Kshatriya
(Rajput) family, said to have come from the Punjab, and settled in the
district
of Moradabad, in the reign of the Emperor Muhammad Shah, by whom the
title of Rai was conferred on its then head. On the cession of
Rohilkhand,
Rai Atma Ram, great-grandfather of the present Raja, was chakladdr of
Bijnor, and subsequently he entered the service of the British
Government.
His grandson, the late Rai Pardaman Kishan, rendered good services
during
the Mutiny of 1857-58, assisting the British officers who had taken
refuge at
Naini Tal by sending them money and information. For these services
he
was rewarded with a grant of estates. The present Raja received a
Medal of
Honour at the Imperial Assemblage of Delhi on ist January 1877, on
the
occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress
of
India; and a khilat at the Agra Darbar of loth February 1879. He is
an
Honorary Magistrate. He has a son and heir, Kunwar Raj Kumar.
Residence. Sahaspur, Moradabad, North- Western Provinces.

KISHAN KUNWAR (of Rdmpur), Rdni.

Born September 1857. The title is hereditary, the Raja of Rampur
being the acknowledged head of the Rahtor Rajputs in Northern India,
and
boasting direct descent from the famous Jaichandra, the last Rahtor
Raja of
Kanauj, who was slain in 1191 A.D., when the Empire of Kanauj was
sub-
verted by Shahab-ud-din Ghori. Their Highnesses the Maharajas of
Jodh-
pur and Bikanir (q*v.) are descended from the eldest son of
Jaichandra, the
former being the head of the whole Rahtor clan ; and the Raja of
Rampur is
descended from his second son, who was named Jaipal. Prajanpal, the
fifth
in descent from Jaipal, left Kanauj, and established himself at Khor,
where
the family remained for many generations. There Jaideo, fourteenth in
descent from Jaipal, was attacked by Altamsh, and driven out after a
siege of
twelve years. Eight generations later Karan Singh settled in the
district of
Budaun. His great-grandson, Raja Pratap Rudra, received a grant of
terri-
tory from the Nawab of Farukhabad for assisting him against the
Rohillas ;
and subsequently the Raja Ramsahai, twenty-eighth in descent from
Jaipal,
established the family residence at Rampur in Etah, where it still
remains.
At the time of the cession of the territories of the Nawab to the
British,
Nawal Singh was the Raja of Rampur, and his grandson, the late Raja
Ram
Chandra Singh, was the husband of the present Rani. He died on 2oth
May 1883, and was succeeded by his widow. The Rani has a grandson and
heir, named Lai Jagmohan Singh, born in 1877.

Residence. Azamnagar, Etah, North-Western Provinces.

KISHAN PARTAB BAHADUR SAHAI (of Tamkuhi), Rdjd.

Born 1848. The title is hereditary. Belongs to a Bhuinhar Rajput
family, claiming descent from Mayur Bhat, more than a hundred
generations
back. A descendant, named Raja Fateh Sahai, Bhuinhar Raja of Hoshidr-
pur in Saran, after the battle of Baksar in 1764, was driven from his
Raj by
the troops of the East India Company, and settled on the Tamkuhi
estates,
previously purchased by him, in Gorakhpur. Raja Fateh Sahai's
grandson
was the father of the present Raja, and obtained from the British
Govern-
ment the recognition of his title as hereditary. The Raja has a son
and
heir, named Kunwar Satrajit Partab Bahadur Sahai, born 27th July
1864.

Residence. Tamkuhi, Gorakhpur, North- Western Provinces.

KISHAN SINGH (of Bad), Mian.

The title is hereditary. Belongs to a Rajput family, descended from
Raja Indar Singh, who ruled in Shahpur in the Kangra district. He
married
a daughter of the Katoch Raja of Kangra (see Jai Chand, Raja of
Lamba-
graon, Kangra), whither he fled when driven out of his own territory
by Raja
Pirthi Singh; and his grandson, Mian Ishri Singh, father of the
present
Mian, obtained a considerable jdgir from the Raja Sansar Chand of
Kangra,
son of Raja Tegh Chand. Ishri Singh's sister was married to the Jammu
Raja, Dhian Singh.

Residence. Rai, Kdngra, Punjab.

KISHAN SINGH, Sarddr.

Born 1847. The title is hereditary. Belongs to a Jat (Sikh) family,
descended from the Sardar Gurbakhsh Singh, who acquired some territory
in
the Ambala district by conquest in 1759 A. D. The representatives of
the
family rendered good service during the first Sikh war of 1845-46, and
also
at the time of the Mutiny in 1857.

Residence. Arabia, Punjab.

KISHAN SINGH, MILMYAL, Rai Bahadur.

Born 1 3th August 1850. The title was conferred on i2th December
1884, in recognition of his remarkable services to the State, and to
science,
as an explorer in Nepal, Great Tibet, Mongolia, and elsewhere. Belongs
to
a Rajburah family of Rajputs long settled in Kumaun, who, during the
rule
of the Chands and Gurkhas there, held lease of the Parganas of Johar
and
Dhanpur. In 1812 his father, Deo Singh, procured the release of two
British subjects from Tibet. The Rai Bahadur has been deputed on
explora-
tion duty four times ; and has received honours from the Royal
Geographical
Society, and the Geographical Society of France, as well as
substantial
rewards from the Government.

Residence. Kumdun, North- Western Provinces.

KISHANGARH, HIS HIGHNESS MAHARAJ-ADHIRAJ

SARDUL SINGH BAHADUR, G.C.I.E., Maharaja of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born loth December 1857; succeeded to the gadi 25th December 1879.
Is one of the Chiefs of the great Rahtor clan of Rajputs (see
Jodhpur), and

belongs to the Kishansinghot sept or
sub-clan, so-called from Kishan Singh,
who was the founder of this State and
city, and was the second of the twelve
sons of Raja Udai Singh of Jodhpur,
nicknamed Mota Rdjd (the Fat Raja)
by the Emperor Akbar. His Highness
is a Hindu of the Ballabhkul Vaish-
nava sect, and was the son and successor
of the late Maharaja Pirthi Singh.
He was married in 1870 A.D. to the
eldest daughter of the Maharao Umed
Singhji of Sirohi, and on ist January
1892 was created a Knight Grand
Commander of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire. His High-
ness has only one son, the Maharaj-Kunwar Madan Singh, born 2nd
November 1884, who is now the heir-apparent, as in March 1880 the
Maha-
raja had the sorrow of losing an elder son when only five years old.
The
Maharaja has two younger brothers Maharaj Jawan Singhji, and Maharaj
Raghunath Singhji. The families most nearly related to His Highness
are the
Rdjwin (or royal) family groups of Fatehgarh and Ralaota, which are,
how-
ever, connected with him only in the seventh and eighth degree of
relation-
ship respectively. As descendant of the Mota Raja, Udai Singh of
Jodhpur,
the Maharaja has sub-clan relationship with the Chiefs of Jodhpur and
Bikaner in Rajputana ; Ratlam, Jhabua, Sailana, Sitamau, and other
Rdhtor
chiefs in Central India ; and Idar in Gujarat. By marriage His
Highness is
related to all the other great Rajput Houses, being himself the head
of one of
the greatest and most illustrious ; viz., with the Sesodias of Udaipur
and
Partabgarh, with the Kachhwahas of Jaipur and Alwar, the Kara houses
of
Bundi and Kotah, the Bhatis of Jaisalmir, and the Jhalas and
Shekhawats.
Among the more important of these matrimonial connections, which are
interesting as illustrating the inter-marriages of the most
illustrious Rajput
Houses, may be mentioned the following :

With the Sesodias of Udaipur (the family of" The Sun of the Hindus").

1. His Highness's grandmother (widow of the Maha'raja" Mokham
Singh of Kishangarh) is a daughter of the Maha'ra'na" Amar Singhji of
Udaipur.

2. His Highness's eldest sister is Dowager Maha'ra'ni of Udaipur,
being
a widow of the late Maha"ra"na" Sajan Singhji.

3. His Highness's son and heir-apparent, the Maha'raj-Kunwa'r Madan
Singh, has been recently betrothed to the fourth daughter of His
High-
ness the present Maha'ra'na" Fateh Singhji.

The Kachhwahas of Jaipur.

His Highness's third sister is married to the present Maha'raja"
Sawai
Madho Singhji, Chief of Jaipur, and is the Maha'ra'ni of Jaipur.

The Kachhwdhas of Alwar.

His Highness's second sister was married to the late lamented Maha"-

ra"j Mangal Singhji, late Chief of Alwar, and was the (Pt) head
Maha"-

rdni of Alwar.
The Haras of Bundi .

1. The late Maha"ra"ja" Ramsingh of Bundi's mother was a Kishangarh
Princess.

2. His Highness's niece, a daughter of Maha'ra'j Jawan Singhji, has
been recently betrothed to the younger brother of the present
Mahdraja"
of Bundi.

Thejhdlds ofjhdldwdr.

His Highness's fourth and youngest sister is married to the Mahdraj
Rdna Zalim Singhji, present Chief of Jha"la"wa~r, and is the (Pt)
head
Maha'ra'ni of Jhalawdr.

To the above may be added that His Highness's mother was a Princess
of the " Ranawat " (Sesodia) clan, being a daughter of the late Raja
Dhiraj
Madho Singhji of Shahpura. In addition to the titles given above,
formally
recognised by the Government as belonging to the Maharaja of
Kishangarh,
His Highness also bears those of Umdai Rajhai and Buland Makan. The
area of the State is 724 square miles; its population is 112,633,
chiefly
Hindus, but including 8492 Muhammadans and 6295 Jains. The Maha-
raja maintains a military force of 499 cavalry, 2000 infantry, and 51
guns;
and is entitled to a salute of 15 guns.

Arms. Argent, three towers proper, two and one ; in chief a Barry of
5 gules, vert, argent, aztire, or. [This is the Rajput Pancharanga,
see Jaipur.]
Supporters. Two horses. Crest. A falcon rising, proper. [This is the
sacred Garur, the cognisance of the Rahtor Rajputs, see Jodhpur.]
Motto.
The Hindi words Niti Riti, meaning " Law and Usage."

Residence. Kishangarh, Rajputdna.

KISHOR SINGH (of Fatehpur), Rdjd.

Born i st August 1834; succeeded his father i6th March 1861. The
title is hereditary, having been originally granted by the Raja Kamal
Nain,
Raj Gond Raja of Mandla. Belongs to an ancient Raj Gond family, that
claims an antiquity of more than 900 years in their present jdgir of
Fateh-
pur. The tradition in the family is that the jdgir was granted to them
in
939 A.D. An ancient sanad'm the possession of the Raja records the
grant
(or possibly the confirmation) of the jdgir to the family by the Raj
Gond
Raja of Mandla in 1500 A.D. The Raja is an Honorary Magistrate, and
has
two sons Lai Thakur Singh and Lai Mahip Singh.

Residence. Fatehpur, Hoshangabad, Central Provinces.

KISHOR SINGH (of Chamari), Rao.

Born 1840. The title is hereditary, and the Raos of Chamari formerly
held great possessions in the Sagar district. The title was originally
con-
ferred by the Raja Mori Pahludh of Chanderi, andj has been recognised
by
the British Government. The Rao has two sons, the elder (who has the
courtesy title of Diwan) being Diwan Parichhat Singh Jangjit, and the
younger being Jujhar Singh.

Residence. Chamdri, Sa"gar, Central Provinces.

KODB NARAYANASWAMI NAYUDU, Rai Bahadur.

Born 1846. The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th February
1887, on the occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Most
Gracious
Majesty. Entered the Government 'service in 1874; has rendered good
service both in the Central Provinces and in Madras. During the Rumpa
and Gudiem disturbances, 1879-86, served with much distinction in the
Madras Police, and again in the Golugonda Hill disturbances of 1891.

Residence. Vizianagram, Vizagapatam, Madras.

KOLHAPUR, HIS HIGHNESS SHAHU CHHATRAPATI
MAHARAJ, Rdjd of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1875 i succeeded to the gadi as a minor on i7th March 1884. Is
a descendant of the Mahratta family of Sivaji the Great, the founder
of the
Mahrafta Empire, being descended from Raja Ram, his second son, and
husband of the famous Tara Bai. Sivaji's elder son Sambhaji was taken
prisoner by the Emperor Aurangzeb, and ultimately executed ; and his
son
Shahu was long detained in prison by the Mughals, but obtained his
liberty
in 1707, fixed his capital at Satara, and asserted his rights as the
heir of
his grandfather Sivaji. Meanwhile Raja Ram had died, and his widow,
Tara
Bai, a woman of great ability and courage, assumed the administration
of
Kolhapur in the name of her elder son Sivaji II., who was an idiot
child of ten
years, and proclaimed him Raja of the Mahrattas. The latter died in
1712,
when his half-brother Sambhaji (son of Raja Ram by another wife)
succeeded
him, and removed Tara Bai from the administration. The contending
claims of Shahu, Raja of Satara, and Sambhaji, Raja of Kolhapur, were
at
length settled in 1731, when precedence was surrendered to Satara, and
the
independence of Kolhapur acknowledged. In 1 8 1 1 a treaty with the
British
Power was concluded, by which Kolhapur became a feudatory ; and as
the
Raja remained faithful to the British cause in the war against the
Peshwa in
181 7, he received some additional territory. A descendant, Sivaji
III., died in
1866, and on his deathbed was allowed to adopt his sister's son, Raja
Ram.
In 1870 Raja Ram visited Europe, and died at Florence on his return
journey. His adopted son was Sivaji Maharaja Chhatrapati IV., who was
made a Knight of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. He
became
insane, and the Government appointed a relative, the Chief of Kagal,
as
Regent. Sivaji IV. died in December 1883, and was succeeded, by adop-
tion, by His Highness the present Raja, who was the eldest son of the
Regent. The area of the State is 2816 square miles; and its population
is
800,189, chiefly Hindus, but including 33,022 Muhammadans and 46,732
Jains. The Raja has eleven feudatory Chiefs subordinate to him, of
whom
the most important are those of Vithdlgarh, Bdvda, Kapshi, Kagal,
Ichal-
karanji Torgal, and Datva. His Highness, with his feudatories,
maintains a
military force of 255 cavalry, 1902 infantry, and 67 guns; and is
entitled to
a salute of 19 guns.

Residence. Kolhdpur, Bombay.

KONDKA, MAHANT SHAM KISHOR DAS, Mahant of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1838; succeeded to the gadi i3th December 1887. Belongs to
a Bairagi (Hindu) family of Mahants^ or Chief Priests, the regulations
of his
order permitting marriage. The area of the State is 174 square miles;
its
population is 32,979, chiefly Hindus.

Residence. Kondka, Raipur, Central Provinces.

KOREA, RAJA PRAN SINGH DEO, Rdjd of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1857 ; succeeded to the gadi 4th April 1864 as a minor. Belongs
to a Rajput (Hindu) family, claiming descent from a Chauhan Rajput
Chief
named Dhawal Singh, who came to Korea from Rajputana about 600 years
ago, and conquered the country. The title of Raja is hereditary in
the
family from early times, and was formally conferred by the British
Govern-
ment in 1875. The area of the State (which is one of the Chota Nagpur
Tributary Mahals) is 1631 square miles; and its population is 29,846,
chiefly
Hindus.

Residence. Korea, Mdnbhum, Chota Ndgpur, Bengal.

KOTAH, HIS HIGHNESS MAHARAO UMED SINGH

BAHADUR, Mahdrao of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1873; succeeded to the gadi nth June 1889. Like His High-
ness the Maharao Raja of Bundi, the Maharao is one of the chiefs of
the
Hara sept of the great Chauhan clan of Rajputs Kotah forming with
Bundi
the tract known for centuries as Haraoti, after the name of that sept.
Is
descended from Madhu Singh, the second son of the Rao Ratan of Bundi,
who about the year 1625 A.D. was granted the feudatory Chiefship of
Kotah
and its dependencies, for his services to the Emperor Jahangir against
his re-
bellious son, who afterwards became the Emperor Shah Jahan. Similar
services
to the latter Emperor were rendered by Madhu Singh's son and
successor,
Mokand Singh ; who, with three of his brothers, fell in a battle at
Ujjain
against Shah Jahan's rebellious son, who afterwards became the
Emperor
Aurangzeb. Mokand Singh was succeeded by his son Jagat Singh. Early
in the present century, Kotah, greatly weakened by intestine
dissensions, was
attacked by Jaipur and by the Mahrattas, to whom it became tributary.
It
was only saved from ruin by the extraordinary abilities of its great
Minister,
Zalim Singh, to whom the Maharao gave up the active task of ruling
the
State. During a Ministry of forty-five years Zalim Singh raised the
State of
Kotah to great prosperity Ultimately, in 1838, it was arranged that
Zalim
Singh's descendants should receive independent charge of a part of the
State,
as feudatories of the Empire ; and this part became a separate
Principality,
under the name of Jhalawar (q.v.) The late Maharao, Chhatra Sal
Singh,
succeeded his father in 1866; and on his death in 1889 was succeeded
by
his adopted son, the present Maharao, as a minor. His Highness is at
present a student in the Mayo College, Ajmir ; he is as yet unmarried,
but
is betrothed to a daughter of His Highness the Maharana of Udaipur,
which
is the most illustrious marriage that can be made by a Hindu Prince.
The
area of the State is 3797 square miles; its population is 517,275,
chiefly
Hindus, but including 32,866 Muhammadans and 4750 Jains. His Highness
maintains a military force of 949 cavalry, 5756 infantry, and 148
guns, and is
entitled to a salute of 17 guns. The family banner is orange in
colour,
displaying a figure of the Garur or sacred falcon of the Hara
Rajputs.

Residence. Kotah, Rajputdna.

KOTHARIA, JAREJA JBTHIJI, Tdlukddr of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1828 ; succeeded to the gadi 8th January 1857. The State, which
is tributary to the Nawab of Junagarh, has an area of 6 square miles,
and
a population of 2366, chiefly Hindus. The Chief maintains a military
force
of 4 cavalry and 38 infantry.

Residence. Kothdria, Kdthia"wa~r.

KOTHI, RAJA BAHADUR BHAGWAT BAHADUR SINGH,

Rdjd of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1852; succeeded to the gadi 5th June 1887. Belongs to a
Baghel Rajput family (Hindu) ; his father was Raja Ran Bahadur
Singh ;
and the family have been seated in Kothi for a great many years, and
were confirmed in possession by the British Government. The area of
the
State is 90 square miles; its population is 18,386, chiefly Hindus.
The
Raja maintains a military force of 35 cavalry, 210 infantry, and 4
guns.

Residence. Kothi, Baghelkhand, Central India.

KOTHIDB, BHUMIA MOTI SINGH, Bhumia of.
A Ruling Chief.

Born 1850; succeeded to the gadi in 1860. Belongs to a Bhilala
family. The population of the State is about 500.
Residence. Kothide, Bhopdwar, Central India.

KOTI, Chief of.

Is a feudatory of the Raja of Keonthal (<?.v.), and rules over one of
the
Simla Hill States.

Residence. Koti, Simla Hills,' Punjab.

KOTRA SANGANI, THAKUR MULVAJI TOGAJI, Thdkur of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 1873; succeeded to the gadi as a minor 23rd November 1887.
Belongs to a Jareja Rajput family. The area of his State is 74 square
miles; its population is 8642, chiefly Hindus. The Thdkur maintains a
military force of 8 cavalry, 142 infantry, and 4 guns.

Residence Kotra Sangani, Ka"thia~war.

KOTTAYAM, KERALA VARMA RAJA, Valiya Rdjd of.
Born 1842. Belongs to a family that claims to be of Kshatriya origin,
and to have come from the east and acquired sovereignty in Wainad.
Subsequently they appear to have acquired some territory from the Raja
t)f

Chitrakal in Malabar, either by a gift or in war. On Haidar's invasion
of
Malabar the Raja and all his family fled to Travancore ; returned in
1782,
but fled to Travancore a second time on Tippu's invasion in 1789, and
died
there. The family, like that of the Zamorin of Calicut and other
Chiefs of
Malabar, follows the Marumakkatayam law of inheritance, by which the
succession is to the offspring of its female members, among whom the
next
eldest male after the Raja is his heir-apparent. The late Valiya Raja
of
Kottayam was called Shangara Varma Raja ; and he was succeeded by the
present Valiya Raja under the Marumakkatayam law. He receives an
allowance from Government in compensation for the estate that
belonged
to his ancestors.

Residence. Malabar, Madras.

KOURE KHAN, JATOI, Khan Bahadur.

Honorary Magistrate of Muzaffargarh. Created a Khan Bahadur, as a
personal distinction, 2nd January 1893.
Residence. Muzaffargarh, Punjab.

KRISHAN DATT RAM (of Singha Chanda), Raja.
The title is personal, and was recognised in 1877.
Residence. Gonda, Oudh.

KRISHNA CHANDAR RAI, Rai Bahadur.

Born in 1823. The title is personal, and was conferred on i6th July
1885, "for long and meritorious service under Government." The Rai
Bahadur rendered excellent service as Deputy-Magistrate and Deputy-
Collector
of Diamond Harbour. Belongs to an old Baidya family, formerly of Mur-
shidabad, now settled in the Dacca district, and known as the Baira
Rais ;
descended from Sri Chandra Rai, who served under the Nawab Shaista
Khan, and received from him a khilat. Educated at * Dacca College ;
appointed to the service of the Government of Bengal in 1841. Is an
Honorary Presidency Magistrate of Calcutta, Vice-President of the
East
Bengal Association, etc. He has five sons Lalit Chandra Rai,
physician,
born 1852 ; Vipina Chandra Rai, D.L., of the Judicial Service, born
1854;
Hem Chandra Rai, M.A., B.L., born 1864; Sarat Chandra Rai, B.L., born
1867 ; Gnan Chandra Rai, B.A., born 1870.

Residence. Baira, Mdnikganj, Dacca, Bengal.

KRISHNA NATH, PANDIT, NYAYAPANCHANANA,
Mahdmahopddhydya.

The title was conferred, as a personal distinction, on 24th May 1892,
in recognition of his eminence as a Sanskrit Scholar. It entitles him
to
take rank in Darbar immediately after titular Rajas. The title
Nydyapan-
chdnana is a literary title or degree, conferred by the learned
Pandits of the
Sanskrit University of Navadwipa or Nadiya, and refers to proficiency
in the Nydya school of logic.

Residence. Purbasthali, Nadiya", Bengal.

KRISHNA PERTAP SINGH SAHI, K.C.I.B. (of Hutwa),
Maharaja Bahadur. See Hatwa.

KRISHNA SAH, LALA, Rai Bahadur.

Born 1 8th March 1856. The title was conferred on 2nd January 1888,
as a personal distinction, in recognition of his services as an
Honorary
Magistrate and Member of the Municipal Commission of Nainital. Is the
son of the late Lala Moti Ram Sah, the well-known banker, who
rendered
distinguished services to the Government in the time of the Mutiny in
1857,
and received a handsome reward for them. Belongs to a Rajput family
of
the North- Western Provinces.

Residence. Nainita"!, North- Western Provinces.

KRISHNA SAHAI, LALA, Rai Bahadur.

Born 2nd April 1824. The title was conferred on 2nd January 1888, as
a personal distinction, in recognition of his services as an Honorary
Magistrate
and Member of the District Board of Meerut. The family has from time
immemorial been bankers and landowners in the North-Western
Provinces.

Residence. Meerut, North-Western Provinces.

KRISHNA SINGH, PANDIT (Thakur of Bhoar), Mahdmahopddhydya.

The title is a personal one, and was conferred on ist January 1890,
for
eminence in oriental learning. It entitles him to take rank in Darbar
immediately after titular Rajas.

Residence. Bhoar, Madhubani, Darbhanga, Bengal.

KRISHNAJI LAKSHMAN NALKAR, C.I.E., The Hon.

A Member of the Viceroy's Legislative Council. Was created a
Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, ist January
1888.

Residence.- Calcutta.

KRISHNALAL OCHAVRAM, Rao Saheb.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 3oth July 1886.
Residence. Ahmadabad, Bombay.

KRISHNARAO GAJANAND, Rao Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred on 3oth July 1886.
Residence. Ratnagiri, Bombay.

KRISHNARAO MALHARRAO, Vishwasrao.
The title is hereditary.
Residence. Kha"ndesh, Bombay.

KEISTBNDRA RAI (of Bolihar), Rdjd Bahadur.

The title was conferred on i6th February 1887, as a personal
distinction,
on the occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of Her Majesty. He belongs
to
an old Kulin Brahman family, originally called Sanyal, and long
settled at
Bolihar in the district of Rajshahi, Bengal. Is descended from Ram
Rai
Sdnyal, whose grandson was Ram Chandra Rai. His grandson was the Raja
Rajendra Rai, whose adopted son was the Raja Shiva Prasad Rai, father
of
the present Raja Bahadur. He rendered good service to the Government
during the scarcity of 1874.

Residence. Bolihar, Rajshdhi, Bengal.

KRISTO CHANDAR GHOSH, Rai Bahadur.

The title is personal, and was conferred on ist June 1888, for good
service in the Opium Department.
Residence. Bankipur, Bengal.

KSHETRA CHANDRA ADITYA, Rai Bahadur.

The Rai Bahadur has rendered good service in the Military Accounts
Department, and received the title as a personal distinction on 25th
May 1892.

Residence. Simla.

KUCH BBHAR, LIEUT. - COLONEL HIS HIGHNESS MAHA-
RAJA SIR NRIPENDRA NARAYAN BHUP BAHADUR,
GKC.I.E., Maharaja of.

A Ruling Chief.

Born 4th October 1862; succeeded his father, the late Maharaja
Narendra Narayan Bhup Bahadur, in August 1863. Belongs to a Kochi
family that has held uninterrupted sovereignty for the last 382 years
in this
territory, since their first settlement in the plains; from which
family also
descend the Bijni and Darung Houses of Assam, the Raikats of
Baikanthapur
(g.v.) in Jalpaiguri, and the Panga family in Rangpur. His Highness
was
educated, first^ in the Wards Institute at Benares ; secondly, under
the guardian-
ship of Mr. H. St. J. Kneller, in the Bankipur College, Patna, and
next as a
Law Student in the Presidency College, Calcutta. During his minority
the
State rendered good service in the Bhutan war 1863-65, for which two
guns were presented to His Highness by the British Government. Was
presented with medal and sword in 1877 at the Imperial Assemblage at
Delhi, on the occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious
Majesty as
Empress of India. Married, in March 1878, the eldest daughter of the
famous Reformer, Kesub Chander Sen. Was sent to England the same year
to complete his education, under the joint guardianship of Surgeon -
Major
(now Sir) Benjamin Simpson and Mr. Kneller. Returned to India. in the
spring of 1879, and was formally installed on his ancestral gadi on
the 8th
November 1883, by the Lieutenant - Governor of Bengal. The titles of
Maharaja Bhup. Bahadur were recognised as hereditary by the
Government
of India in 1885. His Highness was appointed Honorary Major in the
British Army in the same year. He visited England in the Jubilee year
1887, to take part in the rejoicings on the occasion of the Jubilee of
the
reign of Her Most Gracious Majesty, with the Maharam and children,
and
was invested with the Insignia of Grand Commander of the Most Eminent
Order of the Indian Empire by Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen
Empress herself, the Maharani being invested with the Imperial Order
of the
Crown of India in the same year. Was made Honorary Aide-de-camp to
His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, with the rank of Lieutenant-
Colonel
in the British Army. The Maharaja in 1888 established the Brahmo
Somaj
or the Reformed Church in the State of Kuch Behar. He founded the
Victoria College for higher education therein, and granted a long
term
settlement of revenue to his subjects for thirty years, assessments
being
made on the most approved principles. His Highness established the
India
Club at Calcutta in 1882, founded Nripendra Narayan Hall at Jalpaiguri
in
1883, and presented house and lands at Darjiling, wherewith the Lewis
Jubilee Sanitarium was started at that station in 1887, and
established the
"Anandamayi Dharmasala" (almshouse) in 1889. The Maharaja's age is
now thirty, and he has issue, four sons and two daughters. While in
England in 1887 he received the distinguished masonic honour of Past
Grand Senior Warden of England at the hands of the Most Worshipful
the
Grand Master, made District Grand Master of Bengal in 1890, installed
District Grand Mark Master of Bengal, 1891.

The area of the State is 1307 square miles; its population is
602,624,
chiefly Hindus, but including 174,539 Muhammadans. His Highness main-
tains a military force of 9 cavalry, 176 infantry, and 4 guns, and is
entitled
to a salute of 13 guns. The ancestral banner of the family displays a
sword
and a blade of grass (with which, according to tradition, one of the
Maharaja's
ancestors cut off the head of an enemy as an offering to the Goddess
Kali).
The supporters are a tiger and an elephant. The crest is a "
Hanuman,"
holding a club in each hand.

Residences. Kuch Behar, Bengal ; Calcutta ; Darjiling.

KUDRAT AZIZ. See Muhammad Kudrat Aziz.

KUDRAT-ULLA, SHAIKH, Khan Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred, on i2th October 1860.
Residence. Birbhum, Bengal.

KUMARA VENKATA PERUMAL RAZ (of Karvetnagar), Raja.

The title is hereditary, having been in the family from early times,
and
confirmed by the British Government in 1802. Is the son of the late
Raja
of Karvetnagar, Raja Kumara Bomma Raz. Belongs to a family that was
called the Bomma Raz (or " Bomrauze ") family, that rose to power in
the
district of North Arcot about 200 years ago, in consequence of the
decline of
the Vijayanagar dynasty. The family cognisance is a white flag with
the
device of a boar on its field ; the family motto, borne on its seal,
is Kdrvet-
nagar Venugopdlaswdmi Sahdyam, meaning "May Venugopalaswami the
deity of Karvetnagar assist."

Residence. Karvetnagar, North Arcot, Madras.

KUMHARSAIN, RANA HIRA SINGH, Rand of.
A Ruling Chief.

Bom 1851 ; succeeded to \hzgadi i2th November 1874. Belongs to a
Rajput family, whose founder, Kirat Singh, came from Gaya about 1000
A.D.,
and acquired possession of the State by conquest. The State, formerly
a
feudatory of Bashahr, was taken under direct British protection after
the
expulsion of the Gurkhas in 1 8 1 5, by a sanad dated February 1 8 1
6. Rana
Kehr Singh died without issue in 1839, and in consideration of his
early
attachment to British interests during the Gurkha war, the Government
confirmed the State to a collateral heir of the family named Rana
Pritam
Singh. His successor was the Rana Bhawani Singh, who was succeeded in
1874 by the present Rana, The area of the State, which is one of the
Simla
Hill States, is 94 square miles; its population is 9515, chiefly
Hindus. The
Rana maintains a military force of 45 infantry and i gun.

Residence. Kumharsain, Simla Hills, Punjab.

KUMUD KRISHNA SINGH (of Susang), Mahdrdjd.
See Susang, Mahdrdjd of.

KUN KYI (SAWBWA), Kyet Thaye zaung shwe Salwe ya Min.

The title is personal, and was conferred on i7th April 1890. It means
" Recipient of the Gold Chain of Honour," and is indicated by the
letters
K.S.M. after the name.

Residence. Mone, Burma.

Listed Alphabetically. More to follow...

...and I am Sid Harth
bademiyansubhanallah
2010-02-04 22:54:37 UTC
Permalink
The Sepoy War of 1857
Mutiny or First Indian War of Independence?

The profound hypocrisy and inherent barbarism of bourgeois
civilization lies unveiled before our eyes, turning from its home,
where it assumes respectable forms, to the colonies, where it goes
naked. Did they not, in India, to borrow an expression of that great
robber, Lord Clive himself, resort to atrocious extortion, when simple
corruption could not keep pace with their rapacity? While they prated
in Europe about the inviolable sanctity of the national debt, did they
not confiscate in India the dividends of the rajahs, who had invested
their private savings in the Company's own funds? While they combated
the French revolution under the pretext of defending "our holy
religion," did they not forbid, at the same time, Christianity to be
propagated in India, and did they not, in order to make money out of
the pilgrims streaming to the temples of Orissa and Bengal, take up
the trade in the murder and prostitution perpetrated in the temple of
the Juggernaut? These are the men of "Property, Order, Family, and
Religion."

-Karl Marx, The New-York Daily Tribune. 22 July, 1853.

The story of the Sepoy (sepáhí) War of 1857, (an attempt at a
compromise between two more controversial titles, 'the Sepoy Mutiny of
1857' and 'the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857,' though "insurgency" might
also fit) began long before March of 1857. The history of the war
delves deep into the colonization and conquest of India and the
cultural and religious oppression imposed on Indians by British rule.
Furthermore, the telling of the history of the war is, to this day, an
ongoing battle between two competing narratives, the history belonging
to the British that won the war, and the history claimed by the
Indians who were defeated. In a time when the history of India is
being retold everyday, this web page is an attempt to present a
history of the Sepoy War that is derived from various points of view,
accounting for the context of the histories related, and the points of
view of the historians relating them.

The East India Company was a massive export company that was the force
behind much of the colonization of India. The power of the East India
Company took nearly 150 years to build. As early as 1693, the annual
expenditure in political "gifts" to men in power reached nearly 90,000
pounds (Marx 23). In bribing the Government, the East India Company
was allowed to operate in overseas markets despite the fact that the
cheap imports of South Asian silk, cotton, and other products hurt
domestic business. By 1767, the Company was forced into an agreement
that is should pay 400,000 pounds into the National Exchequer
annually.

By 1848, however, the East India Company's financial difficulties had
reached a point where expanding revenue required expanding British
territories in South Asia massively. The Government began to set aside
adoption rights of native princes and began the process of annexation
of more than a dozen independent Rajes between 1848 and 1854 (Marx 51;
Kaye 30). In an article published in The New York Daily Tribune on
July 28, 1857, Karl Marx notes that "... in 1854 the Raj of Berar,
which comprise 80,000 square miles of land, a population from four to
five million, and enormous treasures, was forcibly seized" (Marx 51).

In order to consolidate and control these new holdings, a well-
established army of 200,000 South Asians officered by 40,000 British
soldiers dominated India by 1857. The last vestiges of independent
Indian states had disappeared and the East India Company exported tons
of gold, silk, cotton, and a host of other precious materials back to
England every year.

Religion

Historians like J.A.B. Palmer and John Kaye trace the origins of the
soldiers' rebellion at Meerut, in which South Asian soldiers rose up
against their colonial officers, to the Lee-Enfield Rifle. It was
developed at the Enfield arsenal by James P. Lee and fired a .303
caliber ammunition that had to manually loaded before firing. Loading
involved biting the end of the cartridge, which was greased in pig fat
and beef tallow. This presented a problem for native soldiers, as pig
fat is a haraam, or forbidden, substance to Muslims, and beef fat is,
likewise, deemed inauspicious for certain Hindus. Thus, the revolt
occurred as a reaction to this particular intrusion into Hindu and
Muslim culture, and then caught on as a national rebellion. Palmer
dramatically relates this discovery, according to Captain Wright,
commanding the Rifle Instruction Depot:

Somewhere about the end of the third week in January 1857, a khalasi,
that is to say a labourer, accosted a high Brahmin sepoy and asked for
a drink of water from his lotah (water-pot). The Brahmin refused on
the score of caste. The khalasi then said, "You will soon lose your
caste, as ere long you will have to bite catridges covered with the
fat of pigs and cows," or, it is added, "words to that
effect." (Palmer 15)

Furthermore, historians taking similar positions argue that British
legislation that interfered with traditional Hindu or Muslim religious
practices were a source of antagonism. Palmer and Kaye also argue
throughout their respective work that the prohibition practices such
as saathi (often transliterated "sati"), or the ritual suicide of
widows on their husbands' funeral pyres, became a source of outrage.
In other words, the growing intrusion of western culture became the
impetus for rebellious soldiers, fearful that their culture was being
annihilated.

The long-belabored significance of the Lee-Enfield cartridge is
challenged by the work of historians like Marx, Collier, Majumdar,
Chaudhuri, and Malleson (see citations below). These historians argue
that the actions of soldiers at Meerut was the "last straw" for South
Asians who had been victims of British cultural and class based
oppression and antagonism, and discard the notion that religion played
an overwhelmingly vital role in fomenting revolt. For them, the root
causes of the insurgency cannot be traced to a single, well-defined
set of events and causes, but rather stemmed from an on-going set of
conflicts.

Divide and Conquer

Col. G.B. Malleson argues that forcing Western ideas on an Eastern
people fundamentally backfired, and the "divide and conquer" tactics
employed by the British in India ultimately sowed the seeds of the
rebellion. He notes, "action of a different character ... so dear to
the untravelled Englishman, or forcing the ideas in which he has been
nurtured upon the foreign people with whom he has brought into
contact, assisted ... to loosen the bonds of discipline, which, up to
that period, had bound the [Sepoy] to his officer" (Malleson 8). In
other words, the Sepoy soldiers found themselves constantly pit
against their countrymen in an army governed by what common soldiers
came to feel were outside influences. In a colonial setting, this is
the prime breeding ground for a coup, (or in this case, a revolt)
because any soldier's allegiance is governed by competition with other
soldiers in currying favor and accumulating power, not by discipline
or obedience to the orders of superior officers, and he begins to
affiliate himself with his own people rather than the military ethics
forced on him.

Expansionism

Greater still was the influence of British expansionism on the Sepoy
Rebellion. Richard Collier explains how rapidly increasing territorial
conquest also intesified Indian unrest:

... these annexations were a source of discontent and anxiety to many
people besides the sepoys. In eight years, Canning's predecessor, the
despotic Lord Dalhousie, at 35 the youngest Governor-General India had
ever known, had annexed over 250,000 square miles-- an area three
times the size of England and Ireland. The Punjab, Sattara, Nagpur--
Dalhousie's hands had stretched out to embrace them all. 'An Indian
Governor General,' stormed The Hindu Patriot, 'is chartered to destroy
dynasties with a scratch of his quill.' Indignities were heaped upon
crowned heads: the jewels of the Royal Family of Nagpur were publicly
auctioned in Calcutta. (Collier 19)

Partcipating in the military conquest of local authorities, then, and
having first-hand knowledge of the effects of British expansionism
would have fomented resistance in the Sepoys.

Torture and Oppression

On August 28, 1857, Marx published an article in The New York Daily
Tribune in order to "[show] that the British rulers of India are by no
means such mild and spotless benefactors of the Indian people as they
would have the world believe" (Marx 72). Marx cites the official Blue
Books -- entitled "East India (Torture) 1855-57"-- that were laid
before the House of Commons during the sessions of 1856 and 1857. The
reports revealed that British officers were allowed an extended series
of appeals if convicted or accused of brutality or crimes against
Indians. Concerning matters of extortion in collecting public revenue,
the report indicates that officers had free reign of any methods at
their disposal (Marx 73).

Torture became a financial institution in colonial India, and was
challenged by a petition from the Madras Native Association presented
in January of 1856. The petition was dismissed on the basis of a lack
of evidence, despite the fact that, according to the Marx, "there was
scarcely any investigation at all, the Commission sitting only in the
city of Madras, and for but three months, while it was impossible,
except in very few cases, for the natives who had comnplaints to make
to leave their homes" (Marx 74). Marx also refers to Lord Dalhousie's
statements in the Blue Books that there was "irrefragable proof" that
various officers had committed "gross injustice, to arbitrary
imprisonment and cruel torture" (76).

In addition to torture, the Company levied extremely large taxes on
the Indian people. Collier describes taxes as "a cynical outrage. A
man could not travel twenty miles without paying toll at a river
ferry, farmed out by the Company to private speculators. Land Tax,
often demanded before the crop was raised, was made in quarterly
installments ... the annual rent for an acre of land was
3s[hillings]., yet the produce of that acre rarely averaged
8s[hillings]. in value." (Collier 20)

Marx's position, as illustrated by the introductory quote to this
page, is that the Indians were victims of both physical and economic
forms of class oppression by the British. In Marx's analysis, the
clash between the soldiers and their officers is the inevitable
conflict that is the result of capitalism and imperialism.

The Rebellion

The military history of the rebellion is straightforward. Prior to the
"mutiny" at Meerut on May 9th, 1857, fires broke out on January 22nd
near Caclutta. An incident occurred on February 25th of that year when
the 19th regiment mutinied at Berhampore, and the 34th Regiment
rebelled at Barrackpore on the 31st of March. At Berhampore, the
regiment allowed one of it's men to advance with a loaded musket upon
the parade-ground in front of a line and open fire on his superior
officer; a battle ensued. April saw fires at Allahabad, Agra, an
Ambala, but the spark that lit the powder keg went off on May 9th in
Meerut.

Members of the 3rd regiment of light cavalry were awaiting sentencing
and imprisonment for refusal to obey orders and put the Lee-Enfield .
303 caliber cartridge into their mouths. Once imprisoned, the 11th and
20th cavalry assembled and broke rank and turned on their commanding
officers. After liberating the 3rd regiment, chaos ensued in Meerut,
and the rebels engaged the remaining British Troops. Meerut was the
single-most evenly balanced station in India in terms of the numbers
of British and Indian soldiers. Troops and rebels were on near-even
terms with 2,028 European Troops versus 2,357 sepoys, which certainly
made the British side's capacity to defend its interest and defeat the
Sepoys that much more likely. Furthermore, the British had 12 field
guns and the sepoys had no artillery. Both Collier and Marx indicate
that the rebellion would have ended there had Major-General William
Hewitt cut off the rebel army at the bridge between Meerut and Delhi,
some 40 miles away, with added weapons. (Collier 40)

As the 38th, 54th, and 74th regiments of infantry and native artillery
under Bahkt Khan (c.1797- c.1859) joined the rebel army at Delhi in
May. June 1857 marked the battle of Kanpur (Cawnpore). The last
Maratha prince, Baji Rao II, decreed his title and 80,000 pound annual
pension to his son Nana Sahib (c.1820- c.1859) and was refused twice.
Despite Sahib's attempts to push his claim, Lord Dalhousie refused the
Hindu nobleman. Thus, in June 1857, Nana Sahib led the sepoy
battalions at Crawnpore against the British. Nana Sahib sent word to
Sir Hugh Wheeler, commander of the Britsh forces at Cawnpore warning
of the attack, guaranteeing him safe passage. On June 27, Nana Sahib
broke the pact and trapped Wheeler in his palace. The events leading
up to Wheeler's surrender and death have been recorded as the Cawnpore
Massacre.

(An engraving depicting Nana Sahib)

The Cawnpore Massacres

In the words of Sir Colin Campbell, leader of the British forces
during the war:

never was devised a blacker scheme than that which Nena Sahib had
planned. Our miserable countrymen were conducted faithfully enough to
the boats- officers, men, women, and children. The men and officers
were allowed to take their arms and ammunition with them, and were
escorted by nearly the whole of the rebel army. It was about eight
o'clock a.m. when all reached the riverside- a distance of a mile and
a half. Those who embarked first pushed off from the shore; but others
found it difficult to get their boats off the banks, as the rebels had
placed them as high as possible. At this moment the report of three
guns was heard from the NenaÕs camp. The mutineers suddenly levelled
their muskets, guns opened from the banks, and the massacre commenced.
Some of the boats were set on fire, volley upon volley was fired upon
the poor fugitives, numbers of whom were killed on the spot ... A few
boats crossed over to the opposite bank, but there a regiment of
native infantry (the 17th), just arrived from Azimghur, was waiting
for them; and in their eagerness to slay the "Kaffirs," rode their
horses belly deep into the river to meet the boats, and hack our
unhappy country men and women to pieces. (Campbell 112)

Andrew Ward's historical narrative, Our Bones Are Scattered, also
relates an account of the terrible and bloody massacre that followed
the rebellion at Cawnpore, as well as Delhi and Meerut. By July, when
Nana Sahib had captured Gwalior, he was reinstated as prince.

The Siege of Delhi

The siege of Lucknow lasted roughly from July 1st to August 31st. The
commanding British officer, Sir Henry Lawrence, died early on during
the siege. By July 25th two-thirds of the Britsh forces had retreated
across the river and Delhi had been taken by early September. Bahadur
Shah, the last surviving Mogul ruler was installed as ruler and the
devastating battle between rebel and British forces for control Delhi
ensued. Soldiers faced down the horrific sight of the impregnable
walls of Delhi and "more than fifty guns and mortars belching fire at
Delhi's northern walls from the water bastion on the east to the Mori
bastion on the west." (Collier 246)

As the siege wore on the Punjabi forces fighting for the British began
to weary and there was talk of a retreat. Under General John Nicholas,
Delhi had toppled by September 20th, at the cost of 3,835 soldiers,
British and Indian, and 378 horses (Collier 264). Rebel forces
retreated to Lucknow where the siege was approaching three months in
length. There the war lasted until late November, until the rebels
were driven to defeat in the Ganges Valley in December and January by
Hugh Rose and Colin Campbell. By July 8, 1858, a peace treaty was
signed and the war ended. By 1859, Rebel leaders Bahkt Khan and Nana
Sahib had been slain in battle.

(A photograph of Bhadur Shah)

Conclusion

Though the Sepoy War has been dismissed as a chaotic, disorganized
peasant uprising, several facts go undisputed that offer a counter-
argument. The "unorganized peasants" of India fought one of the most
powerful empires in the world to near defeat with limited resources
and even more limited training. Nevertheless, the lesson of the Sepoy
War is not one of victory or justice, but failure. Though the exact
cause of the Sepoy War has yet to be agreed upon, and it is likely
that there were many complex causes rather than one, it is clear that
British interference governments and the oppression of the Indian
people, religious and economic, created a bloody revolution. If there
is a lesson to be learned from any of this, it is that a people, once
pushed into a corner, will fight for nothing more than the freedom to
fight, and live, if not for religion then for their basic right to
live in freedom. Furthermore, in the desperate vengeance of a people
reduced to pure indignity, lives a coldness that rivals that of their
oppressors.

Fictional & Narrative Literature on the Sepoy War

Alavi, Seema. The Sepoys and the Company: Tradition and Transition
1770-1830. New York: Oxford U P, 1995.

Farrell, J.G.. The Siege of Krishnapur. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1985
(orig. 1973; Booker Prize winner).

Fenn, Clive Robert. For the Old Flag: A Tale of the Mutiny. London:
Sampson Low, 1899.

Grant, James. First Love and Last Love: A Tale of the Mutiny. New
York: G. Routledge & Sons, 1869.

Kaye, Mary Margaret. Shadow of the Moon. New York: St. Martin's
Press, 1979.

Masters, John. Nightrunners of Bengal. New York: Viking Press, 1951.

Raikes, William Stephen. 12 Years of a Soldier's Life In India.
Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1860.

Works Cited

"Indian Mutiny." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Online.
http://www.eb.com:180/cgi-bin/g?DocF=micro/342/91.html. 23 Mar. 1998.

"Lee-Enfield Rifle." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Online.
http://www.eb.com:180/cgi-bin/g?DocF=index/in/dia/73.html. 23 Mar.
1998.

Campbell, Sir Colin. Narrative of the Indian Revolt. London: George
Vickers, 1858.

Collier, Richard. The Great Indian Mutiny. New York: Dutton, 1964.

Kaye, John William. A History of the Sepoy War In India (3 vols).
London: W.H. Allen & Co., 1878.

Keene, H. George. British Administration During the Revolt of 1857.
New Delhi: Inter- India Publications, 1985.

Malleson, Colonel G.B. The Indian Mutiny of 1857. New York: Scribner &
Sons, 1891.

Marx, Karl & Freidrich Engels. The First Indian War of Independence
1857-1859. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1959.

Palmer, J.A.B. The Mutiny Outbreak at Meerut In 1857. Cambridge:
University Press, 1966.

Stokes, Eric. The Peasant Armed: The Indian Revolt of 1857. Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1986.

Ward, Andrew. Our Bones Are Scattered. New York: Holt & Co., 1996.

Author: Nilesh Patel, Spring '98.

http://www.english.emory.edu/Bahri/Mutiny.html

The Sepoy Mutiny

The growing Indian discontent with British rule erupted on May 10,
1857. The sepoys, who were Indians trained by the British as soldiers,
heard rumors that the cartridges for their new Enfield rifles were
greased with lard and beef fat. Since the cow is sacred to Hindus, and
the pig is abhorrent to Muslims, all the sepoys were outraged, and
they mutinied. Although initially the mutiny was spontaneous, it
quickly became more organized and the sepoys even took over the cities
of Delhi and Kanpur.

This mutiny was harshly crushed by the British. On September 20, 1857,
the British recaptured Delhi, and in the following months, the British
recaptured Kanpur and withstood a Sepoy siege of Lucknow. The British
victories were accompanied by widespread recrimination, and in many
cases, unarmed sepoys were bayonetted, sown up in the carcasses of
pigs or cows, or fired from cannons.

http://asms.k12.ar.us/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/india/sepoy.htm

The Portuguese

The first Europeans to establish roots in India since the fall of the
Roman Empire were the Protuguese. Led by Vasco da Gama's landing at
Calicut in 1498, they established themselves along the Malabar Coast,
trading with the rest of the subcontinent from there. (The Portuguese
maintained some holdings in India as late as 1961.)

The English

In 1600, the British East India Company was given the right to a
monopoly to trade with India. While the company's primary objective
was to get spices from Indonesia (East Indies), they needed goods to
trade for spices. The good they wanted was cotton, and they got it
from India. In 1612, the English won a battle against the Portuguese.
Because of this victory, they were able to gain the right to trade and
establish factories in India from the Mughal Emporer. Because the
Dutch controlled the East Indies, the English focused all their
attention on India. The company traded for silk, sugar, and opium
among other goods.

The French

In 1664, French finance minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert launched the
French equivalent of the English East India Trading Company. The
French obtained a few cities such as Pondicherry and Chandernagore,
and gradually expanded their trade. By 1740, however, this company's
sales were only half those of the English East India Company.

Others

The Danish, the Austrians, the Swedes, and the Prussians all tried
unsuccessfully to get a piece of the action in India.

http://asms.k12.ar.us/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/india/early.htm

The British and French Battle for Control of India

When Frederick II of Prussia siezed Silesia in 1740, France sided with
him, the British with Austria. As a result of this, The War of
Austrian Succession, the British decided that France's power in India
was too great to be left alone. After the French quickly cornered the
English in a naval battle, a treaty was signed trading Madras for Cape
Breton Island in North America.

Relations between the British and French worsened as each became mired
in local Indian politics. After the nizam, a major Mughal noble and
power-broker, died, the French took advantage of this time to pick
sides in a dispute over who would be Karnatic nawab (governor).
(Karnataka was a dependancy of the nizam. The nizam chose a nawab in
1743, but rivals for the nawab-ate weren't satisfied. Is this clear?
Good.) The French chose Chanda Sahib for nawab and Salabat Jang for
nizam. The British, not to be outdone, responded by saying that
Muhammad Ali (the Indian, not the boxer) should be nawab.

The nawab-ship wasn't really all that important, but it made a good
excuse for a war. The British/Muhammad Ali, led by Robert Clive,
gained control of Arcot (the capital of Karnataka) in 1751, and the
French/Chandra Sahib were forced to surrended in 1752.

Peace and tranquility reigned for . . . four years. Then, the Seven
Years' War began in Europe in 1756, and the British and French in
India were at it again. The British, with their naval superiority, won
victories in the Bengal, at Madras, at Ponicherry, and at Wandiwash.
The French surrendered for the second time in 1761.

http://asms.k12.ar.us/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/india/britfren.htm

The Rise of the English East India Company

In 1786, Lord Cornwallis became British governor of Inida. He
strengthened the sepoy armies that the East India Company had raised.
Also, under Cornwallis and his successor Lord Wellesley, the British
slowly expanded their holdings. In 1813, the monopoly of the English
East India Company was broken and all British citizens were allowed to
trade with India. Over the next 30 years, the British continued to
acquire new lands and strengthen their grip on those already under
their rule.

From 1838 until 1857, however, the British were weakened by the
failure of their attempts to keep Russia out of Afghanistan. The
defeat of the British in the First Afghan War caused the Indians to
become aware that the British were not invincible. However, the
British continued to annex more Indian territory throughout the
1850's.

The British also aggravated the Hindu population of India during this
time period. They made English, instead of Persian, the official
language. They prohibited suttee (in which Hindu widows threw
themselves on their husbands' funeral pyres) and infanticide. They
also allowed Hindu widows to remarry and sanctioned missionary
activity.

http://asms.k12.ar.us/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/india/risebrit.htm

The British Take Control

On August 2, 1858, the British Parliament passed the Government of
India Act. This act transferred autority for India from the East India
Company to Queen Victoria. In 1876, Queen Victoria declared herself
"Empress of India." In 1869, the Suez Canal was completed, reducing
the time for sea passage to India from 3 months to 3 weeks. Because of
this, British women began to come to India, and the British developed
their own society in India separate from the native society. Another
effect of the opening of the Suez Canal was that more and more British
goods were imported to India, effectively destroying many Indian
crafts. By the end of the nineteenth century, approximately 90% of the
Indian population were farmers. This number was even larger at the
beginning of the century. Despite this, however, an increasing number
of factories, railroads, hospitals, schools, and roads were built.

http://asms.k12.ar.us/classes/humanities/worldstud/97-98/imper/india/power.htm

Indian Rebellion of 1857
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Indian Rebellion of 1857/8

A 1912 map of 'Northern India The Mutiny 1857-9' showing the centres
of rebellion including the principal ones: Meerut, Delhi, Cawnpore
(Kanpur), Lucknow, Jhansi, and Gwalior.

Date 10 May 1857

Location India (cf. 1857)[1]

Result Rebellion Suppressed,
End of Company rule in India
Control taken by the British Crown

Territorial

changes Indian Empire created out of former-East India Company
territory, some land returned to native rulers, other land confiscated
by the Crown.

Belligerents

Mughal Empire
East India Company Sepoys

7 Indian princely states

Gwalior Factions
Deposed King of Oudh
Deposed ruler of the independent state of Jhansi
Some Indian civilians and converts to Islam.
British Army

East India Company's Sepoys
Native Irregulars

and EIC British regulars British civilian volunteers raised in Bengal
presidency
21 Princely states

Jaipur
Bikaner
Marwar
Rampur
Kapurthala
Nabha
Bhopal
Sirohi
Udaipur
Patiala
Sirmur
Alwar
Bharathpur
Bundi
Jaora
Bijawar
Ajaigarh
Rewa
Kendujhar
Hyderabad
Kashmir
Kingdom of Nepal
Other smaller states in region

Commanders
Bahadur Shah II
Nana Sahib
Mirza Mughal
Bakht Khan
Rani Lakshmi Bai
Tantya Tope
Begum Hazrat Mahal Commander-in-Chief, India:
George Anson (to May 1857)
Sir Patrick Grant
Sir Colin Campbell (from August 1857)
Jang Bahadur[2]

Indian Rebellion of 1857

Badli-ki-Serai – Delhi – Najafgarh – Agra – 1st Cawnpore – Chinhat –
1st Lucknow – 2nd Cawnpore – 2nd Lucknow – Central India

The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the
British East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of
Meerut, and soon erupted into other mutinies and civilian rebellions
largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major
hostilities confined to present-day Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, northern
Madhya Pradesh, and the Delhi region.[3]

The rebellion posed a considerable threat to Company power in that
region,[4]

and it was contained only with the fall of Gwalior on 20 June 1858.
[3]

The rebellion is also known as India's First War of Independence, the
Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Revolt of 1857, the Uprising
of 1857 and the Sepoy Mutiny.

Other regions of Company controlled India—Bengal province, the Bombay
Presidency, and the Madras Presidency—remained largely calm.[3]

In Punjab, the Sikh princes backed the Company by providing both
soldiers and support.[3]

The large princely states, Hyderabad, Mysore, Travancore, and Kashmir,
as well as the states of Rajputana did not join the rebellion.[5]

In some regions, such as Oudh, the rebellion took on the attributes of
a patriotic revolt against European presence.[6]

Rebel leaders, such as the Rani of Jhansi, became folk heroes in the
nationalist movement in India half a century later,[3] however, they
themselves "generated no coherent ideology" for a new order.[7]

The rebellion led to the dissolution of the East India Company in
1858, and forced the British to reorganize the army, the financial
system, and the administration in India.[8] India was thereafter
directly governed by the Crown in the new British Raj.[5]

East India Company expansion in India

India in 1765 and 1805 showing East India Company Territories

India in 1837 and 1857 showing East India Company and other
territoriesMain article: Company rule in India
Although the British East India Company had earlier administered the
factory areas established for trading purposes, its victory in the
Battle of Plassey in 1757 marked the beginning of its rule in India.
The victory was consolidated in 1764 at the Battle of Buxar (in
Bihar), when the defeated Mughal emperor, Shah Alam II, granted
control of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa to the Company. The Company soon
expanded its territories around its bases in Bombay and Madras: the
Anglo-Mysore Wars (1766–1799) and the Anglo-Maratha Wars (1772–1818)
led to control of most of India south of the Narmada River.

After the turn of the 19th century, Governor-General Wellesley began
what became two decades of accelerated expansion of Company
territories.[9]

This was achieved either by subsidiary alliances between the Company
and local rulers or by direct military annexation. The subsidiary
alliances created the Princely States (or Native States) of the Hindu
maharajas and the Muslim nawabs. Punjab, North-West Frontier Province,
and Kashmir were annexed after the Anglo-Sikh Wars in 1849; however,
Kashmir was immediately sold under the Treaty of Amritsar (1850) to
the Dogra Dynasty of Jammu and thereby became a princely state. In
1854, Berar was annexed, and the state of Oudh was added two years
later.

Causes of the rebellion

Main article: Causes of the Indian Rebellion of 1857

The sepoys were a combination of Muslim and Hindu soldiers. Just
before the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857, there were over 200,000 Indians in
the army compared to about 40,000 British. The forces were divided
into three presidency armies: the Bombay; the Madras; and the Bengal.
The Bengal army recruited higher castes, such as "Rajputs and
Brahmins", mostly from the "Avadh(or oudh) and Bihar" region and even
restricted the enlistment of lower castes in 1855; in contrast, the
Madras and Bombay armies were "more localized, caste-neutral armies"
that "did not prefer high-caste men."[10]

The domination of the Bengal high-caste in the army has been blamed in
part for the Sepoy mutiny of 1857.

In 1772, when Warren Hastings was appointed the first Governor-General
of the Company’s Indian territories, one of his first undertakings was
the rapid expansion of the Company’s army. Since the available
soldiers, or sepoys, from Bengal — many of whom had fought against the
Company in the Battle of Plassey — were now suspect in British eyes,
Hastings recruited farther west from the high-caste rural Rajputs and
Brahmins of Oudh and Bihar, a practice that continued for the next 75
years. However, in order to forestall any social friction, the Company
also took pains to adapt its military practices to the requirements of
their religious rituals. Consequently, these soldiers dined in
separate facilities; in addition, overseas service, considered
polluting to their caste, was not required of them, and the army soon
came officially to recognize Hindu festivals. “This encouragement of
high caste ritual status, however, left the government vulnerable to
protest, even mutiny, whenever the sepoys detected infringement of
their prerogatives.”[11]

It has been suggested that after the annexation of Oudh by the East
India Company in 1856, many sepoys were disquieted both from losing
their perquisites, as landed gentry, in the Oudh courts and from the
anticipation of any increased land-revenue payments that the
annexation might augur.[12]

Others have stressed that by 1857, some Indian soldiers, misreading
the presence of missionaries as a sign of official intent, were
persuaded that the East India Company was masterminding mass
conversions of Hindus and Muslims to Christianity.[13] Although
earlier in the 1830s, evangelists such as William Carey and William
Wilberforce had successfully clamored for the passage of social reform
such as the abolition of Sati and allowing the remarriage of Hindu
widows, there is little evidence that the sepoys' allegiance was
affected by this.[12]

However, changes in the terms of their professional service may have
created resentment. With East India Company victories in wars or with
annexation, as the extent of Company jurisdiction expanded, the
soldiers were now not only expected to serve in less familiar regions
(such as in Burma in the Anglo-Burmese Wars in 1856), but also make do
without the "foreign service" remuneration that had previously been
their due.[14]

Another financial grievance stemmed from the general service act,
which denied retired sepoys a pension; whilst this only applied to new
recruits, it was suspected that it would also apply to those already
in service. In addition, the Bengal army was paid less than the Madras
and Bombay armies, which compounded the fears over pensions.[15]

There were also grievances over the issue of promotions, based on
seniority (length of service). This, as well as the increasing number
of European officers in the battalions,[15]

made promotion difficult.

The final spark was provided by the reaction of Company officers to
the controversy over the ammunition for new Pattern 1853 Enfield
Rifle. To load the new rifle, the sepoys had to bite the cartridge
open. It was believed that the paper cartridges that were standard
issue with the rifle were greased with lard (pork fat) which was
regarded as unclean by Muslims, or tallow (beef fat), regarded as
anathema to Hindus.[16]

East India Company officers first became aware of the impending
trouble over the cartridges in January, when they received reports of
an altercation between a high-caste sepoy and a low-caste labourer at
Dum Dum.[17]

The labourer had taunted the sepoy that by biting the cartridge, he
had himself lost caste, although at this time the Dum-Dum Arsenal had
not actually started to produce the new round, nor had a single
practice shot been fired.[18]

On January 27, Colonel Richard Birch, the Military Secretary, ordered
that all cartridges issued from depots were to be free from grease,
and that sepoys could grease them themselves using whatever mixture
"they may prefer".[19]

This however, merely caused many sepoys to be convinced that the
rumours were true and that their fears were justified.

The civilian rebellion was more multifarious in origin. The rebels
consisted of three groups: the feudal nobility, rural landlords called
taluqdars, and the peasants. The nobility, many of whom had lost
titles and domains under the Doctrine of Lapse, which refused to
recognise the adopted children of princes as legal heirs, felt that
the Company had interfered with a traditional system of inheritance.
Rebel leaders such as Nana Sahib and the Rani of Jhansi belonged to
this group; the latter, for example, was prepared to accept East India
Company supremacy if her adopted son was recognized as her late
husband's heir.[20]

In other areas of central India, such as Indore and Saugar, where such
loss of privilege had not occurred, the princes remained loyal to the
Company even in areas where the sepoys had rebelled.[21]

The second group, the taluqdars, had lost half their landed estates to
peasant farmers as a result of the land reforms that came in the wake
of annexation of Oudh. As the rebellion gained ground, the taluqdars
quickly reoccupied the lands they had lost, and paradoxically, in part
due to ties of kinship and feudal loyalty, did not experience
significant opposition from the peasant farmers, many of whom joined
the rebellion, to the great dismay of the British.[22]

It has also been suggested that heavy land-revenue assessment in some
areas by the British resulted in many landowning families either
losing their land or going into great debt with money lenders, and
providing ultimately a reason to rebel; money lenders, in addition to
the East India Company, were particular objects of the rebels'
animosity.[23]

The civilian rebellion was also highly uneven in its geographic
distribution, even in areas of north-central India that were no longer
under British control. For example, the relatively prosperous
Muzaffarnagar district, a beneficiary of a Company irrigation scheme,
and next door to Meerut, where the upheaval began, stayed mostly calm
throughout.[24]

Charles Canning, the Governor-General of India during the rebellion.

Lord Dalhousie, the Governor-General of India from 1848 to 1856, who
devised the Doctrine of Lapse.
Lakshmibai, The Rani of Jhansi, one of the principal leaders of the
rebellion who earlier had lost her kingdom as a result of the Doctrine
of Lapse.

Bahadur Shah Zafar the last Mughal Emperor, crowned Emperor of India,
by the Indian troops, he was deposed by the British, and died in exile
in Burma

Much of the resistance to the Company came from the old aristocracy,
who were seeing their power steadily eroded. The company had annexed
several states under the Doctrine of Lapse, according to which land
belonging to a feudal ruler became the property of the East India
Company if on his death, the ruler did not leave a male heir through
natural process. It had long been the custom for a childless landowner
to adopt an heir, but the East India Company ignored this tradition.
Nobility, feudal landholders, and royal armies found themselves
unemployed and humiliated due to Company expansionism. Even the jewels
of the royal family of Nagpur were publicly auctioned in Calcutta, a
move that was seen as a sign of abject disrespect by the remnants of
the Indian aristocracy. Lord Dalhousie, the Governor-General of India,
had asked the Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar and his successors to
leave the Red Fort, the palace in Delhi. Later, Lord Canning, the next
Governor-General of India, announced in 1856 that Bahadur Shah's
successors would not even be allowed to use the title of 'king'. Such
discourtesies were resented by the deposed Indian rulers.

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan founder of the Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College,
later the Aligarh Muslim University, wrote one of the early critiques,
The Causes of the Indian Mutiny, in 1859.

Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi, one of the principal leaders of the Great
Uprising of 1857, who earlier had lost her kingdom as a result of Lord
Dalhousie's Doctrine of Lapse."Utilitarian and evangelical-inspired
social reform",[25] including the abolition of sati[26][27]

and the legalisation of widow remarriage were considered by many—
especially the British themselves[28]—to have caused suspicion that
Indian religious traditions were being "interfered with", with the
ultimate aim of conversion.[28][29]

Recent historians, including Chris Bayly, have preferred to frame this
as a "clash of knowledges", with proclamations from religious
authorities before the revolt and testimony after it including on such
issues as the "insults to women", the rise of "low persons under
British tutelage", the "pollution" caused by Western medicine and the
persecuting and ignoring of traditional astrological authorities.[30]

European-run schools were also a problem: according to recorded
testimonies, anger had spread because of stories that mathematics was
replacing religious instruction, stories were chosen that would "bring
contempt" upon Indian religions, and because girl children were
exposed to "moral danger" by education[30].

The justice system was considered to be inherently unfair to the
Indians. The official Blue Books, East India (Torture) 1855–1857, laid
before the House of Commons during the sessions of 1856 and 1857
revealed that Company officers were allowed an extended series of
appeals if convicted or accused of brutality or crimes against
Indians.

The economic policies of the East India Company were also resented by
the Indians.[citation needed] Some of the gold, jewels, silver and
silk had been shipped off to Britain as tax and sometimes sold in open
auctions, ridding India of its once abundant wealth in precious stones.
[citation needed] The land was reorganized under the comparatively
harsh Zamindari system to facilitate the collection of taxes. In
certain areas farmers were forced to switch[citation needed] from
subsistence farming to commercial crops such as indigo, jute, coffee
and tea. This resulted in hardship to the farmers and increases in
food prices.[citation needed]

The Bengal Army

Each of the three "Presidencies" into which the East India Company
divided India for administrative purposes maintained their own armies.
Of these, the Army of the Bengal Presidency was the largest. Unlike
the other two, it recruited heavily from among high-caste Hindus (and
comparatively wealthy Muslims). The Muslims formed a larger percentage
of the Irregular units within the Bengal army, whilst Hindus were
mainly to be found in the regular units. The sepoys (the native Indian
soldiers) were therefore affected to a large degree by the concerns of
the landholding and traditional members of Indian society. In the
early years of the Company rule, they tolerated and even encouraged
the caste privileges and customs within the Bengal Army, which
recruited its regular soldiers almost exclusively amongst the
landowning Bhumihar Brahmins and Rajputs of the Ganges Valley. By the
time these customs and privileges came to be threatened by modernizing
regimes in Calcutta from the 1840s onwards, the sepoys had become
accustomed to very high ritual status, and were extremely sensitive to
suggestions that their caste might be polluted.[31]

The sepoys also gradually became dissatisfied with various other
aspects of army life. Their pay was relatively low and after Awadh and
the Punjab were annexed, the soldiers no longer received extra pay
(batta or bhatta) for service there, because they were no longer
considered "foreign missions". The junior European officers were
increasingly estranged from their soldiers, in many cases treating
them as their racial inferiors. Officers of an evangelical persuasion
in the Company's Army (such as Herbert Edwardes and Colonel S.G.
Wheler of the 34th Bengal Infantry) had taken to preaching to their
Sepoys in the hope of converting them to Christianity.[32]

In 1856, a new Enlistment Act was introduced by the Company, which in
theory made every unit in the Bengal Army liable to service overseas.
(Although it was intended to apply to new recruits only, the Sepoys
feared that the Act might be applied retrospectively to them as well.
It was argued that a high-caste Hindu who traveled in the cramped,
squalid conditions of a troop ship would find it impossible to avoid
losing caste through ritual pollution.)

Onset of the Rebellion

Several months of increasing tension and inflammatory incidents
preceded the actual rebellion. Fires, possibly the result of arson,
broke out near Calcutta on 24 January 1857. On February 26, 1857 the
19th Bengal Native Infantry (BNI) regiment came to know about new
cartridges which allegedly had a casing made of cow and pig fat, which
had to be bitten off by mouth. The cow being sacred to Hindus, and pig
haram to Muslims, soldiers refused to use them. Their Colonel
confronted them angrily with artillery and cavalry on the parade
ground, but then accepted their demand to withdraw the artillery, and
cancel the next morning's parade.[33]

Mangal Pandey

Main article: Mangal Pandey

Mangal PandeyOn March 29, 1857 at the Barrackpore (now Barrackpur)
parade ground, near Calcutta (now Kolkata), 29-year-old Mangal Pandey
of the 34th BNI, angered by the recent actions by the East India
Company, declared that he would rebel against his commanders. When his
adjutant Lt. Baugh came out to investigate the unrest, Pandey opened
fire but hit his horse instead.[34]

General John Hearsey came out to see him on the parade ground, and
claimed later that Mangal Pandey was in some kind of "religious
frenzy". He ordered a Jemadar Ishwari Prasad to arrest Mangal Pandey,
but the Jemadar refused. The whole regiment, with the single exception
of a soldier called Shaikh Paltu, drew back from restraining or
arresting Mangal Pandey. Shaikh Paltu restrained Pandey from
continuing his attack.[34]

After failing to incite his comrades into an open and active
rebellion, Mangal Pandey tried to take his own life by placing his
musket to his chest, and pulling the trigger with his toe. He only
managed to wound himself, and was court-martialled on April 6. He was
hanged on April 8.

The Jemadar Ishwari Prasad was sentenced to death and hanged on April
22. The regiment was disbanded and stripped of their uniforms because
it was felt that they harboured ill-feelings towards their superiors,
particularly after this incident. Shaikh Paltu was promoted to the
rank of Jemadar in the Bengal Army.

Sepoys in other regiments thought this a very harsh punishment. The
show of disgrace while disbanding contributed to the extent of the
rebellion in view of some historians, as disgruntled ex-sepoys
returned home to Awadh with a desire to inflict revenge, as and when
the opportunity arose.

April 1857

During April, there was unrest and fires at Agra, Allahabad and
Ambala. At Ambala in particular, which was a large military cantonment
where several units had been collected for their annual musketry
practice, it was clear to General Anson, Commander-in-Chief of the
Bengal Army, that some sort of riot over the cartridges was imminent.
Despite the objections of the civilian Governor-General's staff, he
agreed to postpone the musketry practice, and allow a new drill by
which the soldiers tore the cartridges with their fingers rather than
their teeth. However, he issued no general orders making this standard
practice throughout the Bengal Army and, rather than remain at Ambala
to defuse or overawe potential trouble, he then proceeded to Simla,
the cool "hill station" where many high officials spent the summer.

Although there was no open revolt at Ambala, there was widespread
incendiarism during late April. Barrack buildings (especially those
belonging to soldiers who had used the Enfield cartridges) and
European officers' bungalows were set on fire.[35]

Meerut and Delhi

An 1858 photograph by Felice Beato of a mosque in Meerut where some of
the rebel soldiers may have prayed.At Meerut was another large
military cantonment. Stationed there were 2,357 Indian sepoys and
2,038 British troops with 12 British-manned guns. Although the state
of unrest within the Bengal Army was well known, on April 24, Lt.-
Colonel George Carmichael-Smyth, the unsympathetic commanding officer
of the 3rd Bengal Light Cavalry, ordered 90 of his men to parade and
perform firing drills. All except five of the men on parade refused to
accept their cartridges. On May 9, the remaining 85 men were court
martialled, and most were sentenced to 10 years' imprisonment with
hard labour. Eleven comparatively young soldiers were given five
years' imprisonment. The entire garrison was paraded and watched as
the condemned men were stripped of their uniforms and placed in
shackles. As they were marched off to jail, the condemned soldiers
berated their comrades for failing to support them.

The next day was Sunday, the Christian day of rest and worship. Some
Indian soldiers warned off-duty junior European officers (including
Hugh Gough, then a lieutenant of horse) that plans were afoot to
release the imprisoned soldiers by force, but the senior officers to
whom this was reported took no action. There was also unrest in the
city of Meerut itself, with angry protests in the bazaar and some
buildings being set on fire. In the evening, most European officers
were preparing to attend church, while many of the European soldiers
were off duty and had gone into canteens or into the bazaar in Meerut.
The Indian troops, led by the 3rd Cavalry, broke into revolt. European
junior officers who attempted to quell the first outbreaks were killed
by their own men. European officers' and civilians' quarters were
attacked, and four civilian men, eight women and eight children were
killed.[36] Crowds in the bazaar attacked the off-duty soldiers there.
The sepoys freed their 85 imprisoned comrades from the jail, along
with 800 other prisoners (debtors and criminals).[37]

Some sepoys (especially from the 11th Bengal Native Infantry) escorted
trusted British officers and women and children to safety before
joining the revolt.[38] Some officers and their families escaped to
Rampur, where they found refuge with the Nawab. About 50 Indian
civilians (some of whom were officers' servants who tried to defend or
conceal their employers) were also killed by the sepoys.[36]

Exaggerated tales of the number and manner of death of Europeans who
died during the uprising at Meerut were later to provide a pretext for
Company forces to commit reprisals against Indian civilians and
rebellious sepoys during the later suppression of the Revolt.[citation
needed]

The senior Company officers, in particular Major General Hewitt, the
commander of the division (who was nearly 70 years old and in poor
health), were slow to react. The British troops (mainly the 1st
Battalion of the 60th Rifles and two European-manned batteries of the
Bengal Artillery) rallied, but received no orders to engage the
rebellious sepoys and could only guard their own headquarters and
armouries. When, on the morning of May 11 they prepared to attack,
they found Meerut was quiet and the rebels had marched off to Delhi.

That same morning, the first parties of the 3rd Cavalry reached Delhi.
From beneath the windows of the King's apartments in the palace, they
called on him to acknowledge and lead them. Bahadur Shah did nothing
at this point (apparently treating the sepoys as ordinary
petitioners), but others in the palace were quick to join the revolt.
During the day, the revolt spread. European officials and dependents,
Indian Christians and shop keepers within the city were killed, some
by sepoys and others by crowds of rioters.

The Flagstaff Tower, Delhi, where the European survivors of the
rebellion gathered on May 11, 1857; photographed by Felice BeatoThere
were three battalions of Bengal Native Infantry stationed in or near
the city. Some detachments quickly joined the rebellion, while others
held back but also refused to obey orders to take action against the
rebels. In the afternoon, a violent explosion in the city was heard
for several miles. Fearing that the arsenal, which contained large
stocks of arms and ammunition, would fall intact into rebel hands, the
nine British Ordnance officers there had opened fire on the sepoys,
including the men of their own guard. When resistance appeared
hopeless, they blew up the arsenal. Although six of the nine officers
survived, the blast killed many in the streets and nearby houses and
other buildings.[39]

The news of these events finally tipped the sepoys stationed around
Delhi into open rebellion. The sepoys were later able to salvage at
least some arms from the arsenal, and a magazine two miles (3 km)
outside Delhi, containing up to 3,000 barrels of gunpowder, was
captured without resistance.

Many fugitive European officers and civilians had congregated at the
Flagstaff Tower on the ridge north of Delhi, where telegraph operators
were sending news of the events to other British stations. When it
became clear that no help could arrive, they made their way in
carriages to Karnal. Those who became separated from the main body or
who could not reach the Flagstaff Tower also set out for Karnal on
foot. Some were helped by villagers on the way, others were robbed or
murdered.

The next day, Bahadur Shah held his first formal court for many years.
It was attended by many excited or unruly sepoys. The King was alarmed
by the turn events had taken, but eventually accepted the sepoys'
allegiance and agreed to give his countenance to the rebellion. On 16
May, up to 50 Europeans who had been held prisoner in the palace or
had been discovered hiding in the city were said to have been killed
by some of the King's servants under a peepul tree in a courtyard
outside the palace.[40][41]

[edit] Support and opposition

States during the rebellionThe news of the events at Delhi spread
rapidly, provoking uprisings among sepoys and disturbances in many
districts. In many cases, it was the behaviour of British military and
civilian authorities themselves which precipitated disorder. Learning
of the fall of Delhi by telegraph, many Company administrators
hastened to remove themselves, their families and servants to places
of safety. At Agra, 160 miles (260 km) from Delhi, no less than 6,000
assorted non-combatants converged on the Fort.[42]

The haste with which many civilians left their posts encouraged
rebellions in the areas they left, although others remained at their
posts until it was clearly impossible to maintain any sort of order.
Several were murdered by rebels or lawless gangs.

The military authorities also reacted in disjointed manner. Some
officers trusted their sepoys, but others tried to disarm them to
forestall potential uprisings. At Benares and Allahabad, the
disarmings were bungled, also leading to local revolts.[43]

Although rebellion became widespread, there was little unity among the
rebels. While Bahadur Shah Zafar was restored to the imperial throne
there was a faction that wanted the Maratha rulers to be enthroned
also, and the Awadhis wanted to retain the powers that their Nawab
used to have.

There were calls for jihad[44]

by Muslim leaders like Maulana Fazl-e-Haq Khairabadi including the
millenarian Ahmedullah Shah, taken up by the Muslims, particularly
Muslim artisans, which caused the British to think that the Muslims
were the main force behind this event. In Awadh, Sunni Muslims did not
want to see a return to Shiite rule, so they often refused to join
what they perceived to be a Shia rebellion. However, some Muslims like
the Aga Khan supported the British. The British rewarded him by
formally recognizing his title. The Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah,
resisted these calls because, it has been suggested, he feared
outbreaks of communal violence.

In Thana Bhawan, the Sunnis declared Haji Imdadullah their Ameer. In
May 1857 the Battle of Shamli took place between the forces of Haji
Imdadullah and the British.

The Sikhs and Pathans of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province
supported the British and helped in the recapture of Delhi.[45][46]

Some historians have suggested that the Sikhs wanted to avenge the
annexation of Punjab eight years earlier by the Company with the help
of Purbias (Bengalis and Marathis - Easterner) who helped the British.
It has also been suggested that the Sikhs felt insulted by the
attitude of Sepoys that (in their view) had only beaten the Khalsa
with British help, they resented and despised them far more than the
British.[47]

In 1857, the Bengal Army had 86,000 men of which 12,000 were European,
16,000 Punjabi and 1,500 Gurkha soldiers, out of a total of (for the
three Indian armies) 311,000 native troops, and 40,160 European troops
as well as 5,362 officers.[48]

Fifty-four of the Bengal Army's 75 regular Native Infantry Regiments
rebelled, although some were immediately destroyed or broke up with
their sepoys drifting away to their homes. Almost all the remainder
were disarmed or disbanded to prevent or forestall rebellions. All ten
of the Bengal Light Cavalry regiments rebelled.

The Bengal Army also included 29 Irregular Cavalry and 42 Irregular
Infantry regiments. These included a substantial contingent from the
recently annexed state of Awadh, which rebelled en masse. Another
large contingent from Gwalior also rebelled, even though that state's
ruler remained allied to the British. The remainder of the Irregular
units were raised from a wide variety of sources and were less
affected by the concerns of mainstream Indian society. Three bodies in
particular actively supported the Company; three Gurkha and five of
six Sikh infantry units, and the six infantry and six cavalry units of
the recently-raised Punjab Irregular Force.[49][50]

On April 1, 1858, the number of Indian soldiers in the Bengal army
loyal to the Company was 80,053.[51][52]

This total included a large number of soldiers hastily raised in the
Punjab and North-West Frontier after the outbreak of the Rebellion.

The Bombay army had three mutinies in its 29 regiments whilst the
Madras army had no mutinies, though elements of one of its 52
regiments refused to volunteer for service in Bengal.[53]

Most of southern India remained passive with only sporadic and
haphazard outbreaks of violence. Most of the states did not take part
in the war as many parts of the region were ruled by the Nizams or the
Mysore royalty and were thus not directly under British rule.

The Revolt

Initial stages

Bahadur Shah Zafar proclaimed himself the Emperor of the whole of
India. Most contemporary and modern accounts suggest that he was
coerced by the sepoys and his courtiers to sign the proclamation
against his will.[54] The civilians, nobility and other dignitaries
took the oath of allegiance to the Emperor. The Emperor issued coins
in his name, one of the oldest ways of asserting Imperial status, and
his name was added to the acceptance by Muslims that he is their King.
This proclamation, however, turned the Sikhs of Punjab away from the
rebellion, as they did not want to return to Islamic rule, having
fought many wars against the Mughal rulers.

The province of Bengal was largely quiet throughout the entire period.
Initially, the Indian soldiers were able to significantly push back
Company forces, and captured several important towns in Haryana,
Bihar, Central Provinces and the United Provinces. When the European
troops were reinforced and began to counterattack, the sepoys who
mutinied were especially handicapped by their lack of a centralised
command and control system. Although they produced some natural
leaders such as Bakht Khan (whom the Emperor later nominated as
commander-in-chief after his son Mirza Mughal proved ineffectual), for
the most part they were forced to look for leadership to rajahs and
princes. Some of these were to prove dedicated leaders, but others
were self-interested or inept.

Rao Tularam of Rewari (Haryana) and Pran Sukh Yadav fought with the
British Army at Nasibpur and then went to collect arms from Russia
which had just been in a war with the British in the Crimea. When a
tribal leader from Peshawar sent a letter offering help, the king
replied that he should not come to Delhi because the treasury was
empty and the army had become uncontrollable.[55]

Delhi

Main article: Siege of Delhi

The British were slow to strike back at first. It took time for troops
stationed in Britain to make their way to India by sea, although some
regiments moved overland through Persia from the Crimean War, and some
regiments already en route for China were diverted to India.

It took time to organize the European troops already in India into
field forces, but eventually two columns left Meerut and Simla. They
proceeded slowly towards Delhi and fought, killed, and hung numerous
Indians along the way. Two months after the first outbreak of
rebellion at Meerut, the two forces met near Karnal. The combined
force (which included two Gurkha units serving in the Bengal Army
under contract from the Kingdom of Nepal), fought the main army of the
rebels at Badli-ke-Serai and drove them back to Delhi.

The Company established a base on the Delhi ridge to the north of the
city and the Siege of Delhi began. The siege lasted roughly from July
1 to September 21. However, the encirclement was hardly complete, and
for much of the siege the Company forces were outnumbered and it often
seemed that it was the Company forces and not Delhi that was under
siege, and the rebels could easily receive resources and
reinforcements. For several weeks, it seemed that disease, exhaustion
and continuous sorties by rebels from Delhi would force the Company
forces to withdraw, but the outbreaks of rebellion in the Punjab were
forestalled or suppressed, allowing the Punjab Movable Column of
British, Sikh and Pakhtun soldiers under John Nicholson to reinforce
the besiegers on the Ridge on August 14.[56][57]

On August 30 the rebels offered terms, which were refused.[58]

The Jantar Mantar observatory in Delhi in 1858, damaged in the
fighting
Mortar damage to Kashmiri Gate, Delhi, 1858
Hindu Rao's house in Delhi, now a hospital, was extensively damaged
in the fighting
Bank of Delhi was attacked by mortar and gunfire

An eagerly-awaited heavy siege train joined the besieging force, and
from September 7, the siege guns battered breaches in the walls and
silenced the rebels' artillery. An attempt to storm the city through
the breaches and the Kashmiri Gate was launched on September 14. The
attackers gained a foothold within the city but suffered heavy
casualties, including John Nicholson. The British commander wished to
withdraw, but was persuaded to hold on by his junior officers. After a
week of street fighting, the British reached the Red Fort. Bahadur
Shah Zafar had already fled to Humayun's tomb. The British had retaken
the city.

Capture of Bahadur Shah Zafar and his sons by William Hodson at
Humayun's tomb on 20 September 1857The troops of the besieging force
proceeded to loot and pillage the city. A large number of the citizens
were killed in retaliation for the Europeans and Indian civilians that
had been killed by the rebel sepoys. During the street fighting,
artillery had been set up in the main mosque in the city and the
neighbourhoods within range were bombarded. These included the homes
of the Muslim nobility from all over India, and contained innumerable
cultural, artistic, literary and monetary riches.

The British soon arrested Bahadur Shah, and the next day British
officer William Hodson shot his sons Mirza Mughal, Mirza Khizr Sultan,
and grandson Mirza Abu Bakr under his own authority at the Khooni
Darwaza (the bloody gate) near Delhi Gate. On hearing the news Zafar
reacted with shocked silence while his wife Zinat Mahal was happy as
she believed her son was now Zafar's heir.[59]

Shortly after the fall of Delhi, the victorious attackers organised a
column which relieved another besieged Company force in Agra, and then
pressed on to Cawnpore, which had also recently been recaptured. This
gave the Company forces a continuous, although still tenuous, line of
communication from the east to west of India.

Cawnpore (Kanpur)

Main article: Siege of Cawnpore

Tantia Topee's Soldiery

A memorial erected (circa 1860) by the British after the Mutiny at the
Bibi Ghar Well. After India's Independence the statue was moved to the
Memorial Church, Cawnpore. Albumen silver print by Samuel Bourne,
1860.In June, sepoys under General Wheeler in Cawnpore (present day
Kanpur) rebelled and besieged the European entrenchment. Wheeler was
not only a veteran and respected soldier, but also married to a high-
caste Indian lady. He had relied on his own prestige, and his cordial
relations with the Nana Sahib to thwart rebellion, and took
comparatively few measures to prepare fortifications and lay in
supplies and ammunition.

The besieged endured three weeks of the Siege of Cawnpore with little
water or food, suffering continuous casualties to men, women and
children. On June 25 Nana Sahib made an offer of safe passage to
Allahabad. With barely three days' food rations remaining, the British
agreed provided they could keep their small arms and that the
evacuation should take place in daylight on the morning of the 27th
(the Nana Sahib wanted the evacuation to take place on the night of
the 26th). Early in the morning of June 27, the European party left
their entrenchment and made their way to the river where boats
provided by the Nana Sahib were waiting to take them to Allahabad.[60]
Several sepoys who had stayed loyal to the Company were removed by the
mutineers and killed, either because of their loyalty or because "they
had become Christian." A few injured British officers trailing the
column were also apparently hacked to death by angry sepoys. After the
European party had largely arrived at the dock, which was surrounded
by sepoys positioned on both banks of the Ganges,[61] with clear lines
of fire, firing broke out and the boats were abandoned by their crew,
and caught or were set[62] on fire using pieces of red hot charcoal.
[63]

The British party tried to push the boats off but all except three
remained stuck. One boat with over a dozen wounded men initially
escaped, but later grounded, was caught by mutineers and pushed back
down the river towards the carnage at Cawnpore. Towards the end rebel
cavalry rode into the water to finish off any survivors.[63]

After the firing ceased the survivors were rounded up and the men shot.
[63] By the time the massacre was over, all the male members of the
party were dead while the women and children were removed and held
hostage (and later killed in The Bibigarh massacre).[64]

Only four men eventually escaped alive from Cawnpore on one of the
boats: two private soldiers (both of whom died later during the
Rebellion), a lieutenant, and Captain Mowbray Thomson, who wrote a
first-hand account of his experiences entitled The Story of Cawnpore
(London, 1859).

Whether the firing was planned or accidental remains unresolved. Most
early histories assume it was planned either by the Nana Sahib (Kaye
and Malleson) or that Tantia Tope and Brigadier Jwala Pershad planned
it without the Nana Sahib's knowledge (G W Forrest). The stated
reasons for the planned nature are: the speed with which the Nana
Sahib agreed to the British conditions (Mowbray Thomson); and the
firepower arranged around the ghat which was far in excess of what was
necessary to guard the European troops (most histories agree on this).
During his trial, Tatya Tope denied the existence of any such plan and
described the incident in the following terms: the Europeans had
already boarded the boats and he (Tatya Tope) raised his right hand to
signal their departure. That very moment someone from the crowd blew a
loud bugle which created disorder and in the ongoing bewilderment, the
boatmen jumped off the boats. The rebels started shooting
indiscriminately. Nana Sahib, who was staying in Savada Kothi
(Bungalow) nearby, was informed about what was happening and
immediately came to stop it.[65]

Some British histories allow that it might well have been the result
of accident or error; someone accidentally or maliciously fired a
shot, the panic-stricken British opened fire, and it became impossible
to stop the massacre.[66]

The surviving women and children were taken to the Nana Sahib and then
confined first to the Savada Kothi and then to the home of the local
magistrate's clerk (The Bibigarh)[67]
where they were joined by refugees from Fatehgarh. Overall five men
and two hundred and six women and children were confined in The
Bibigarh for about two weeks. In one week 25 were brought out dead,
due to dysentery and cholera.[62] Meanwhile a Company relief force
that had advanced from Allahabad defeated the Indians and by July 15
it was clear that the Nana Sahib would not be able to hold Cawnpore
and a decision was made by the Nana Sahib and other leading rebels
that the hostages must be killed. After the sepoys refused to carry
out this order, two Muslim butchers, two Hindu peasants and one of
Nana's bodyguards went into The Bibigarh. Armed with knives and
hatchets they murdered the women and children.[68] After the massacre
the walls were covered in bloody hand prints, and the floor littered
with fragments of human limbs.[69] The dead and the dying were thrown
down a nearby well, when the well was full, the 50-foot (15 m) deep
well was filled with remains to within 6 feet (1.8 m) of the top,[70]
the remainder were thrown into the Ganges.[71]

Historians have given many reasons for this act of cruelty. With
Company forces approaching Cawnpore and some believing that they would
not advance if there were no hostages to save, their murders were
ordered. Or perhaps it was to ensure that no information was leaked
after the fall of Cawnpore. Other historians have suggested that the
killings were an attempt to undermine Nana Sahib's relationship with
the British.[72]

Perhaps it was due to fear, the fear of being recognized by some of
the prisoners for having taken part in the earlier firings.[64]

Photograph entitled, "The Hospital in General Wheeler's entrenchment,
Cawnpore." (1858) The hospital was the site of the first major loss of
European lives in Cawnpore (Kanpur)

1858 picture of Sati Chaura Ghat on the banks of the Ganges River,
where on 27 June 1857 many British men lost their lives and the
surviving women and children were taken prisoner by the rebels.

Bibigurh house where European women and children were killed and the
well where their bodies were found, 1858.

The Bibigurh Well site where a memorial had been built. Samuel
Bourne, 1860.


The killing of the women and children proved to be a mistake. The
British public was aghast and the anti Imperial and pro-Indian
proponents lost all their support. Cawnpore became a war cry for the
British and their allies for the rest of the conflict. The Nana Sahib
disappeared near the end of the Rebellion and it is not known what
happened to him.

Other British accounts[73][74][75]

state that indiscriminate punitive measures were taken in early June,
two weeks before the murders at the Bibi-Ghar (but after those at both
Meerut and Delhi), specifically by Lieutenant Colonel James George
Smith Neill of the Madras Fusiliers (a European unit), commanding at
Allahabad while moving towards Cawnpore. At the nearby town of
Fatehpur, a mob had attacked and murdered the local European
population. On this pretext, Neill ordered all villages beside the
Grand Trunk Road to be burned and their inhabitants to be hanged.
Neill's methods were "ruthless and horrible"[76] and far from
intimidating the population, may well have induced previously
undecided sepoys and communities to revolt.

Neill was killed in action at Lucknow on September 26 and was never
called to account for his punitive measures, though contemporary
British sources lionised him and his "gallant blue caps".[77] By
contrast with the actions of soldiers under Neill, the behaviour of
most rebel soldiers was creditable. "Our creed does not permit us to
kill a bound prisoner", one of the matchlockmen explained, "though we
can slay our enemy in battle."[74]

When the British retook Cawnpore, the soldiers took their sepoy
prisoners to The Bibigarh and forced them to lick the bloodstains from
the walls and floor.[78]

They then hanged or "blew from the cannon" (the traditional Mughal
punishment for mutiny) the majority of the sepoy prisoners. Although
some claimed the sepoys took no actual part in the killings
themselves, they did not act to stop it and this was acknowledged by
Captain Thompson after the British departed Cawnpore for a second
time.

Lucknow

Main article: Siege of Lucknow

Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence British Commissioner of Oudh who died
during the siege of Lucknow.
Secundra Bagh after the slaughter of 2,000 Rebels by the 93rd
Highlanders and 4th Punjab Regiment. Albumen silver print by Felice
Beato, 1858.Very soon after the events in Meerut, rebellion erupted in
the state of Awadh (also known as Oudh, in modern-day Uttar Pradesh),
which had been annexed barely a year before. The British Commissioner
resident at Lucknow, Sir Henry Lawrence, had enough time to fortify
his position inside the Residency compound. The Company forces
numbered some 1700 men, including loyal sepoys. The rebels' assaults
were unsuccessful, and so they began a barrage of artillery and musket
fire into the compound. Lawrence was one of the first casualties. The
rebels tried to breach the walls with explosives and bypass them via
underground tunnels that led to underground close combat. After 90
days of siege, numbers of Company forces were reduced to 300 loyal
sepoys, 350 British soldiers and 550 non-combatants.

On September 25 a relief column under the command of Sir Henry
Havelock and accompanied by Sir James Outram (who in theory was his
superior) fought its way from Cawnpore to Lucknow in a brief campaign
in which the numerically small column defeated rebel forces in a
series of increasingly large battles. This became known as 'The First
Relief of Lucknow', as this force was not strong enough to break the
siege or extricate themselves, and so was forced to join the garrison.
In October another, larger, army under the new Commander-in-Chief, Sir
Colin Campbell, was finally able to relieve the garrison and on the
November 18, they evacuated the defended enclave within the city, the
women and children leaving first. They then conducted an orderly
withdrawal to Cawnpore, where they defeated an attempt by Tantya Tope
to recapture the city in the Second Battle of Cawnpore.

Early in 1858, Campbell once again advanced on Lucknow with a large
army, this time seeking to suppress the rebellion in Awadh. He was
aided by a large Nepalese contingent advancing from the north under
Jang Bahadur,[79]

who decided to side with the Company in December 1857[citation
needed]. Campbell's advance was slow and methodical, and drove the
large but disorganised rebel army from Lucknow with few casualties to
his own troops. This nevertheless allowed large numbers of the rebels
to disperse into Awadh, and Campbell was forced to spend the summer
and autumn dealing with scattered pockets of resistance while losing
men to heat, disease and guerilla actions.


Jhansi
Main article: Central India Campaign (1858)

Jhansi was a Maratha-ruled princely state in Bundelkhand. When the
Raja of Jhansi died without a biological male heir in 1853, it was
annexed to the British Raj by the Governor-General of India under the
doctrine of lapse. His widow, Rani Lakshmi Bai, protested against the
denial of rights of their adopted son.


The Jhansi Fort, which was taken over by rebel forces, and
subsequently defended against British recapture by the Rani of
Jhansi.When war broke out, Jhansi quickly became a centre of the
rebellion. A small group of Company officials and their families took
refuge in Jhansi's fort, and the Rani negotiated their evacuation.
However, when they left the fort they were massacred by the rebels
over whom the Rani had no control; the Europeans suspected the Rani of
complicity, despite her repeated denials.

By the end of June 1857, the Company had lost control of much of
Bundelkhand and eastern Rajasthan. The Bengal Army units in the area,
having rebelled, marched to take part in the battles for Delhi and
Cawnpore. The many princely states which made up this area began
warring amongst themselves. In September and October 1857, the Rani
led the successful defence of Jhansi against the invading armies of
the neighbouring rajas of Datia and Orchha.

On 3 February Rose broke the 3-month siege of Saugor. Thousands of
local villagers welcomed him as a liberator, freeing them from rebel
occupation[80]

In March 1858, the Central India Field Force, led by Sir Hugh Rose,
advanced on and laid siege to Jhansi. The Company forces captured the
city, but the Rani fled in disguise.

After being driven from Jhansi and Kalpi, on June 1, 1858 Rani Lakshmi
Bai and a group of Maratha rebels captured the fortress city of
Gwalior from the Scindia rulers, who were British allies. This might
have reinvigorated the rebellion but the Central India Field Force
very quickly advanced against the city. The Rani died on June 17, the
second day of the Battle of Gwalior probably killed by a carbine shot
from the 8th Hussars, according to the account of three independent
Indian representatives. The Company forces recaptured Gwalior within
the next three days. In descriptions of the scene of her last battle,
she was compared to Joan Of Arc by some commentators.[81]

Indore

Colonel Henry Durand, the then Company resident at Indore had brushed
away any possibility of uprising in Indore.[82]

However, on July 1, sepoys in Holkar's army revolted and opened fire
on the pickets of Bhopal Cavalry. When Colonel Travers rode forward to
charge, Bhopal Cavalry refused to follow. The Bhopal Infantry also
refused orders and instead leveled their guns at European sergeants
and officers. Since all possibility of mounting an effective deterrent
was lost, Durand decided to gather up all the European residents and
escape, although 39 European residents of Indore were killed.[83]

Other regions

Punjab

What was then referred to by the British as the Punjab was a very
large administrative division, centred on Lahore. It included not only
the present-day Indian and Pakistani Punjabi regions but also the
North West Frontier districts bordering Afghanistan.

Much of the region had been the Sikh kingdom, ruled by Ranjit Singh
until his death in 1839. The kingdom had then fallen into disorder,
with court factions and the Khalsa (the Sikh army) contending for
power at the Lahore Durbar (court). After two Anglo-Sikh Wars, the
entire region was annexed by the East India Company in 1849. In 1857,
the region still contained the highest numbers of both European and
Indian troops.

The inhabitants of the Punjab were not as sympathetic to the sepoys as
they were elsewhere in India, which limited many of the outbreaks in
the Punjab to disjointed uprisings by regiments of sepoys isolated
from each other. In some garrisons, notably Ferozepore, indecision on
the part of the senior European officers allowed the sepoys to rebel,
but the sepoys then left the area, mostly heading for Delhi.[84]

At the most important garrison, that of Peshawar close to the Afghan
frontier, many comparatively junior officers ignored their nominal
commander (the elderly General Reed) and took decisive action. They
intercepted the sepoys' mail, thus preventing their coordinating an
uprising, and formed a force known as the "Punjab Movable Column" to
move rapidly to suppress any revolts as they occurred. When it became
clear from the intercepted correspondence that some of the sepoys at
Peshawar were on the point of open revolt, the four most disaffected
Bengal Native regiments were disarmed by the two British infantry
regiments in the cantonment, backed by artillery, on May 22. This
decisive act induced many local chieftains to side with the British.
[85]


Marble Lectern in memory of 35 British soldiers in JhelumSome
regiments in frontier garrisons subsequently rebelled, but became
isolated among hostile Pakhtun villages and tribes. There were several
mass executions, amounting to several hundred, of sepoys from units
which rebelled or who deserted in the Punjab and North West Frontier
provinces during June and July[citation needed] . The British had been
recruiting irregular units from Sikh and Pakhtun communities even
before the first unrest among the Bengal units, and the numbers of
these were greatly increased during the Rebellion.

At one stage, faced with the need to send troops to reinforce the
besiegers of Delhi, the Commissioner of the Punjab suggested handing
the coveted prize of Peshawar to Dost Mohammed Khan of Afghanistan in
return for a pledge of friendship. The British Agents in Peshawar and
the adjacent districts were horrified. Referring to the massacre of a
retreating British army in 1840, Herbert Edwardes wrote, "Dost Mahomed
would not be a mortal Afghan ... if he did not assume our day to be
gone in India and follow after us as an enemy. Europeans cannot
retreat - Kabul would come again."[86]

In the event Lord Canning insisted on Peshawar being held, and Dost
Mohammed, whose relations with Britain had been equivocal for over 20
years, remained neutral.

The final large-scale military uprising in the Punjab took place on
July 9, when most of a brigade of sepoys at Sialkot rebelled and began
to move to Delhi. They were intercepted by John Nicholson with an
equal British force as they tried to cross the Ravi River. After
fighting steadily but unsuccessfully for several hours, the sepoys
tried to fall back across the river but became trapped on an island.
Three days later, Nicholson annihilated the 1100 trapped sepoys in the
Battle of Trimmu Ghat.[87]

Jhelum in Punjab was also a centre of resistance against the British.
Here 35 British soldiers of HM XXIV regiment (South Wales Borderers),
died on 7 July 1857. To commemorate this victory St. John's Church
Jhelum was built and the names of those 35 British soldiers are carved
on a marble lectern present in that church.

Jaunpur

Landlords of the Raghuvamsha clan of Rajputs; Taluqa-Dobhi, District -
Jaunpur;[88] played a prominent part in the Rebellion. On hearing of
the uprisings against British rule in the surrounding districts of
Ghazipur, Azamgarh and Banaras, the Rajputs of Dobhi organised
themselves into an armed force and attacked the Company all over the
region. They also cut the Company communications along the Banaras-
Azamgarh road and advanced towards the former Banaras State.

In the first encounter with the British regular troops, the Rajputs
suffered heavy losses, but withdrew in order. Regrouping themselves,
they made a bid to capture Banaras. In the meantime, Azamgarh had been
besieged by another large force of rebels. The Company was unable to
send reinforcement to Azamgarh due to the challenge posed by the Dobhi
Rajputs. A clash became inevitable and the Company attacked the
Rajputs with the help of the Sikhs and the Hindustani cavalry at the
end of June 1857. The Rajputs were handicapped as the torrential
monsoon rains soaked their supplies of gun-powder. The Rajputs,
however, bitterly opposed the Company advance with swords and spears
and the few serviceable guns and muskets that they had. The battle
took place about 5 miles North of Banaras at a place called Pisnaharia-
ka-Inar. The Rajputs were driven back with heavy losses across the
Gomti river. The British army crossed the river and sacked every
Rajput village in the area.

A few months later, Kunwar Singh of Jagdishpur (District Arrah,
Bihar), advanced and occupied Azamgarh. The Banaras Army sent against
him was defeated outside Azamgarh. The Company rushed reinforcements
and there was a furious battle in which the Rajputs of Dobhi helped
Kunwar Singh, their distant relative. Kunwar Singh had to withdraw and
the Rajputs became the subject of cruel reprisals by the Company. The
leaders of the Dobhi Rajputs were invited to a conference and
treacherously arrested by the Company troops which had surrounded the
place in Senapur village in May 1858. All were summarily executed by
hanging from a mango tree, along with nine of their other followers.
The dead bodies were further shot with muskets and left hanging from
the trees. After few days, the bodies were taken down by the villagers
and cremated.

Arrah

Kunwar Singh, the 75 year old Rajput Raja of Jagdishpur, whose estate
was in the process of being sequestrated by the Revenue Board,
instigated and assumed the leadership of revolt in Bihar.[89]

On 25 July, rebellion erupted in the garrisons of Dinapur. The rebels
quickly moved towards the cities of Arrah and were joined by Kunwar
Singh and his men. Mr. Boyle, a British engineer in Arrah, had already
prepared his house for defense against such attacks. As the rebels
approached Arrah, all European residents took refuge at Mr. Boyle's
house. A siege soon ensued and 50 loyal sepoys defended the house
against artillery and musketry fire from the rebels.

On 29 July, 400 men were sent out from Dinapore to relieve Arrah, but
this force was ambushed by the rebels around a mile away from the
siege house, severely defeated, and driven back. On 30 July, Major
Vincent Eyre, who was going up the river with his troops and guns,
reached Buxar and heard about the siege. He immediately disembarked
his guns and troops (the 5th Fusiliers) and started marching towards
Arrah. On August 2, some 16 miles (26 km) short of Arrah, the Major
was ambushed by the rebels. After an intense fight, the 5th Fusiliers
charged and stormed the rebel positions successfully. On 3 August,
Major Eyre and his men reached the siege house and successfully ended
the siege.[90]

Aftermath

Retaliation

"The Relief of Lucknow" by Thomas Jones Barker
British soldiers looting Qaisar Bagh, Lucknow, after its recapture
(steel engraving, late 1850s)From the end of 1857, the British had
begun to gain ground again. Lucknow was retaken in March 1858. On 8
July 1858, a peace treaty was signed and the war ended. The last
rebels were defeated in Gwalior on 20 June 1858. By 1859, rebel
leaders Bakht Khan and Nana Sahib had either been slain or had fled.
As well as hanging mutineers, the British had some "blown from cannon"—
an old Mughal punishment adopted many years before in India. A method
of execution midway between firing squad and hanging but more
demonstrative, sentenced rebels were set before the mouth of cannons
and blown to pieces.[91]

In terms of sheer numbers, the casualties were significantly higher on
the Indian side. A letter published after the fall of Delhi in the
"Bombay Telegraph" and reproduced in the British press testified to
the scale and nature of the retaliation:

.... All the city people found within the walls (of the city of Delhi)
when our troops entered were bayoneted on the spot, and the number was
considerable, as you may suppose, when I tell you that in some houses
forty and fifty people were hiding. These were not mutineers but
residents of the city, who trusted to our well-known mild rule for
pardon. I am glad to say they were disappointed.[92]

Another brief letter from General Montgomery to Captain Hodson, the
conqueror of Delhi exposes how the British military high command
approved of the cold blooded massacre of Delhites: "All honour to you
for catching the king and slaying his sons. I hope you will bag many
more!"

Another comment on the conduct of the British soldiers after the fall
of Delhi is of Captain Hodson himself in his book, Twelve years in
India: "With all my love for the army, I must confess, the conduct of
professed Christians, on this occasion, was one of the most
humiliating facts connected with the siege." (Hodson was killed during
the recapture of Lucknow in early 1858).

Edward Vibart, a 19-year-old officer, also recorded his experience:

It was literally murder... I have seen many bloody and awful sights
lately but such a one as I witnessed yesterday I pray I never see
again. The women were all spared but their screams on seeing their
husbands and sons butchered, were most painful... Heaven knows I feel
no pity, but when some old grey bearded man is brought and shot before
your very eyes, hard must be that man's heart I think who can look on
with indifference...

Depiction of the mass execution of rebels in British India by
cannon.Some British troops adopted a policy of "no prisoners". One
officer, Thomas Lowe, remembered how on one occasion his unit had
taken 76 prisoners - they were just too tired to carry on killing and
needed a rest, he recalled. Later, after a quick trial, the prisoners
were lined up with a British soldier standing a couple of yards in
front of them. On the order "fire", they were all simultaneously shot,
"swept... from their earthly existence". This was not the only mass
execution Lowe participated in: on another occasion his unit took 149
prisoners, and they were lined up and simultaneously shot.

As a result, the end of the war was followed by the execution of a
vast majority of combatants from the Indian side as well as large
numbers of civilians perceived to be sympathetic to the rebel cause.
The British press and government did not advocate clemency of any
kind, though Governor General Canning tried to be sympathetic to
native sensibilities, earning the scornful sobriquet "Clemency
Canning". Soldiers took very few prisoners and often executed them
later. Whole villages were wiped out for apparent pro-rebel
sympathies.


forced disarmament of cavalry of BerhamporeThe aftermath of the
rebellion has been the focus of new work using Indian sources and
population studies. In The Last Mughal, William Dalrymple examines the
effects on the Muslim population of Delhi after the city was retaken
by the British and finds that intellectual and economic control of the
city shifted from Muslim to Hindu hands because the British, at that
time, saw an Islamic hand behind the mutiny.[93]

Amaresh Mishra, a journalist and history student, after examining
labor force records for the period, concludes that almost ten million
Indians lost their lives during the reprisals though his methodology
is disputed because it neither accounts for unrelated causes of deaths
nor for the movement and displacement of the population that likely
followed that period of unrest. It has to be noted that Mishra's
version of events is dramatically different from the traditional view
held by most historians. Accounting for these factors, another
historian, Saul David, estimates the number of deaths to be in the
hundreds of thousands.[94]

Reaction in Britain

Justice, a print by Sir John Tenniel in an September issue of
Punch.The scale and savagery of the punishments handed out by the
British "Army of Retribution" were considered largely appropriate and
justified in a Britain shocked by the barrage of press reports about
atrocities carried out on Europeans and Christians.[95]

Accounts of the time frequently reach the "hyperbolic register",
according to Christopher Herbert, especially in the often-repeated
claim that the "Red Year" of 1857 marked "a terrible break" in British
experience.[92] Such was the atmosphere - a national "mood of
retribution and despair" that led to "almost universal approval" of
the measures taken to pacify the revolt.[96]

The poet Martin Tupper — "in a ferment of indignation" — played a
major part in shaping the public's response. His poems, filled with
calls for the razing of Delhi and the erection of "groves of gibbets"
are telling:

"And England, now avenge their wrongs by vengeance deep and dire,/ Cut
out their canker with the sword, and burn it out with fire;/ Destroy
those traitor regions, hang every pariah hound,/ And hunt them down to
death, in all hills and cities ‘round."[97]

Two of the leading novelists of the period, Charles Dickens and Wilkie
Collins wrote an essay in Dickens' Household Words calling for the
extermination of the 'race upon whom the stain of the late cruelties
rested'.[98]

Punch, normally cynical and dispassionate where other periodicals were
jingoistic, in August published a two-page cartoon depicting the
British Lion attacking a Bengal Tiger that had attacked an English
woman and child; the cartoon received considerable attention at the
time, with the New York Times writing a piece about it in September as
emblematic of a near-universal British desire for revenge.[99]

It was re-issued as a print, and made the career of John Tenniel,
later famous as the illustrator of Alice.


The British Lion's Vengeance on the Bengal Tiger, a print by Sir John
Tenniel in an August issue of Punch.According to Victorianist Patrick
Brantlinger, no event raised national hysteria in Britain to a higher
pitch, and no event in the 19th century took a greater hold on the
British imagination, so much so that "Victorian writing about the
Mutiny expresses in concentrated form the racist ideology that Edward
Said calls Orientalism".[98]. Others note that this was just one of a
number of colonial rebellions which had a cumulative effect on British
public opinion [100]

Rumors

While incidents of rape committed by Indian rebels against European
women and girls were rare during the rebellion, falsified reports were
accepted as fact and often used to justify the British reaction to the
Rebellion. British newspapers printed various "eyewitness" accounts of
the rape of English women and girls that were later found to be, in
general, false. One such account published by The Times, regarding an
incident where 48 English girls as young as 10 had been raped by
Indian rebels in Delhi, was criticized as a false propaganda story by
Karl Marx, who pointed out that the story was written by a clergyman
in Bangalore, far from the events of the rebellion.[101]

These stories were in part an attempt to replace what did happen (for
example, General Wheeler's daughter Margaret being forced to live as
her captor's concubine) with what the Victorian public wanted to have
happened (Margaret killing her rapist then herself).[102]

[edit] Reorganisation

Bahadur Shah Zafar (last mughal emperor) exiled in Rangoon. Photograph
by Robert Tytler and Charles Shepherd, May 1858.Bahadur Shah was tried
for treason by a military commission assembled at Delhi, and exiled to
Rangoon where he died in 1862, bringing the Mughal dynasty to an end.
In 1877 Queen Victoria took the title of Empress of India on the
advice of Prime Minister, Benjamin Disraeli.

The rebellion saw the end of the British East India Company's rule in
India. In August, by the Government of India Act 1858, the company was
formally dissolved and its ruling powers over India were transferred
to the British Crown. A new British government department, the India
Office, was created to handle the governance of India, and its head,
the Secretary of State for India, was entrusted with formulating
Indian policy. The Governor-General of India gained a new title
(Viceroy of India), and implemented the policies devised by the India
Office. The British colonial administration embarked on a program of
reform, trying to integrate Indian higher castes and rulers into the
government and abolishing attempts at Westernization. The Viceroy
stopped land grabs, decreed religious tolerance and admitted Indians
into civil service, albeit mainly as subordinates.

Essentially the old East India Company bureaucracy remained, though
there was a major shift in attitudes. In looking for the causes of the
Mutiny the authorities alighted on two things: religion and the
economy. On religion it was felt that there had been too much
interference with indigenous traditions, both Hindu and Muslim. On the
economy it was now believed that the previous attempts by the Company
to introduce free market competition had undermined traditional power
structures and bonds of loyalty, placing the peasantry at the mercy of
merchants and money-lenders. In consequence the new British Raj was
constructed in part around a conservative agenda, based on a
preservation of tradition and hierarchy.

On a political level it was also felt that the previous lack of
consultation between rulers and ruled had been yet another significant
factor in contributing to the uprising. In consequence, Indians were
drawn into government at a local level. Though this was on a limited
scale a crucial precedent had been set, with the creation of a new
'white collar' Indian elite, further stimulated by the opening of
universities at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras, a result of the Indian
Universities Act. So, alongside the values of traditional and ancient
India, a new professional middle class was starting to arise, in no
way bound by the values of the past. Their ambition can only have been
stimulated by Victoria's Proclamation of November 1858, in which it is
expressly stated that "We hold ourselves bound to the natives of our
Indian territories by the same obligations of duty which bind us to
our other subjects...it is our further will that... our subjects of
whatever race or creed, be freely and impartially admitted to offices
in our service, the duties of which they may be qualified by their
education, ability and integrity, duly to discharge."

Acting on these sentiments, Lord Ripon, viceroy from 1880 to 1885,
extended the powers of local self-government and sought to remove
racial practices in the law courts by the Ilbert Bill. But a policy at
once liberal and progressive at one turn was reactionary and backward
at the next, creating new elites and confirming old attitudes. The
Ilbert Bill only had the effect of causing a White mutiny, and the end
of the prospect of perfect equality before the law. In 1886 measures
were adopted to restrict Indian entry into the civil service.

Military reorganisation

The Bengal army dominated the Indian army before the mutiny in 1857
and a direct result after the mutiny was the scaling back of the size
of the Bengali contingent in the army.[103]

Of the 67,000 Hindus in the Bengal Army in 1842, 28,000 were
identified as Rajputs and 25,000 as Brahmins, a category that included
Bhumihar Brahmins. The Brahmin presence in the Bengal Army was reduced
in the late nineteenth century because of their perceived primary role
as mutineers in the Rebellion. The British looked for increased
recruitment in the Punjab for the Bengal army as a result of the
apparent discontent that resulted in the Sepoy conflict.[104]

The rebellion transformed both the "native" and European armies of
British India. There was a large-scale disbandment of the presidency
armies; the Bengal Army almost completely vanishing from the order of
battle. These troops were replaced by new units recruited from castes
hitherto under-utilised by the British and from the so-called "Martial
Races", which were not part of mainstream Indian culture like the
Sikhs and the Gurkhas. Regiments which had remained loyal were often
retained.

The inefficiencies of the old organisation, which had estranged sepoys
from their British officers, were addressed, and the post-1857 units
were mainly organised on the "irregular" system. (Before the
rebellion, Bengal Infantry units had 26 British officers, who held
every position of authority down to the second-in-command of each
company. In irregular units, there were only six or seven or even
fewer European officers, who associated themselves far more closely
with their soldiers, while more trust and responsibility was given to
the Indian officers.)

The British increased the ratio of British to Indian soldiers within
India. Sepoy artillery was abolished also, leaving all artillery
(except some small detachments of mountain guns) in British hands. The
post-rebellion changes formed the basis of the military organisation
of British India until the early 20th century.

Nomenclature

There is no universally agreed name for the events of this period.

In India and Pakistan it has often been termed as the "War of
Independence of 1857" or "First War of Independence"[105]

but it is not uncommon to use terms such as the "Revolt of 1857". The
concept of the Rebellion being "First War of Independence" is not
without its critics in India.[106][107][108][109]

The use of the term "Indian Mutiny" is considered by some Indian
politicians[110]

as unacceptable and offensive, as it is perceived to belittle what
they see as a "First War of Independence" and therefore reflecting a
biased, imperialistic attitude of the erstwhile colonists. Others
dispute this interpretation.

In the UK and parts of the Commonwealth it is commonly called the
"Indian Mutiny", but terms such as "Great Indian Mutiny", the "Sepoy
Mutiny", the "Sepoy Rebellion", the "Sepoy War", the "Great Mutiny",
the "Rebellion of 1857", "the Uprising", the "Mahomedan Rebellion",and
the "Revolt of 1857" have also been used.

[111][112][113]

"The Indian Revolution of 1857" is a name that has been used by some
scholars.[which?]

"The Indian Insurrection" was a name used in the press of the UK and
British colonies at the time, such as The Empire (Sydney) [114]

and the Taranaki Herald (New Zealand).[115]

See also: First War of Indian Independence (term).

Debate about character

Almost from the moment the first sepoys mutinied in Meerut, the nature
and the scope of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 has been contested and
argued over. Speaking in the House of Commons in July 1857, Benjamin
Disraeli labeled it a 'national revolt' while Lord Palmerston, the
Prime Minister, tried to downplay the scope and the significance of
the event as a 'mere military mutiny'.[116]

Reflecting this debate, the early historian of the rebellion, Charles
Ball, sided with the mutiny in his title (using mutiny and sepoy
insurrection) but labeled it a 'struggle for liberty and independence
as a people' in the text.[117]

Historians remain divided on whether the rebellion can properly be
considered a war of Indian independence or not,[118]

although it is popularly considered to be one in India. Arguments
against include:

A united India did not exist at that time in political, cultural, or
ethnic terms
The rebellion was put down with the help of other Indian soldiers
drawn from the Madras Army, the Bombay Army and the Sikh regiments,
80% of the East India Company forces were Indian;[119]

Many of the local rulers fought amongst themselves rather than uniting
against the British.
Many rebel Sepoy regiments disbanded and went home rather than fight.
Not all of the rebels accepted the return of the Moghuls.
The King of Delhi had no real control over the mutineers.[120]

The revolt was largely limited to north and central India. Whilst
risings occurred elsewhere they had little impact due to their limited
nature.

A number of revolts occurred in areas not under British rule, and
against native rulers, often as a result of local internal politics.

The revolt was fractured along religious, ethnic and regional lines.
[121]

A second school of thought while acknowledging the validity of the
above-mentioned arguments opines that this rebellion may indeed be
called a war of India's independence. The reasons advanced are:

Even though the rebellion had various causes (e.g. Sepoy grievances,
British high-handedness, the Doctrine of Lapse etc.), most of the
rebel sepoys set out to revive the old Mughal empire, that signified a
national symbol for them, instead of heading home or joining services
of their regional principalities, which would not have been
unreasonable if their revolt were only inspired by grievances;

The hanging of two participants in the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
Albumen silver print by Felice Beato, 1858There was a widespread
popular revolt in many areas such as Awadh, Bundelkhand and
Rohilkhand. The rebellion was therefore more than just a military
rebellion, and it spanned more than one region;
The sepoys did not seek to revive small kingdoms in their regions,
instead they repeatedly proclaimed a "country-wide rule" of the
Moghuls and vowed to drive out the British from "India", as they knew
it then. (The sepoys ignored local princes and proclaimed in cities
they took over: Khalq Khuda Ki, Mulk Badshah Ka, Hukm Subahdar Sipahi
Bahadur Ka - i.e. the world belongs to God, the country to the Emperor
and executive powers to the Sepoy Commandant in the city). The
objective of driving out "foreigners" from not only one's own area but
from their conception of the entirety of "India", signifies a
nationalist sentiment;

The troops of the Bengal Army although from across the Indian
subcontinent displayed a common purpose.[122]

The 150th anniversary

The Government of India celebrated the year 2007 as the 150th
anniversary of "India's First War of Independence". Several books
written by Indian authors were released in the anniversary year
including Amresh Mishra's "War of Civilizations" a controversial
history of the Rebellion of 1857, and "Recalcitrance" by Anurag Kumar,
one of the few novels written in English by an Indian based on the
events of 1857.

In 2007, a group of retired British soldiers and civilians, some of
them descendants of British soldiers who died in the conflict,
attempted to visit the site of the Siege of Lucknow. However, fears of
violence by Indian demonstrators, supported by the Hindu nationalist
Bharatiya Janata Party, prevented the British visitors from visiting
the site.[123] Despite the protests, Sir Mark Havelock was able to
sneak past police in order to visit the grave of his ancestor, General
Henry Havelock.[124]

Notes

^ File:Indian revolt of 1857 states map.svg
^ The Gurkhas by W. Brook Northey, John Morris. ISBN 8120615778. Page
58
^ a b c d e Bandyopadhyay 2004, pp. 169-172 Bose & Jalal 2003, pp.
88-103 Quote: "The 1857 rebellion was by and large confined to
northern Indian Gangetic Plain and central India.", Brown 1994, pp.
85-87, and Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, pp. 100-106
^ Bayly 1990, p. 170 Quote: "What distinguished the events of 1857 was
their scale and the fact that for a short time they posed a military
threat to British dominance in the Ganges Plain."
^ a b Spear 1990, pp. 147-148
^ Bandyopadhyay 2004, p. 177, Bayly 2000, p. 357
^ Brown 1994, p. 94
^ Bayly 1990, pp. 194-197
^ Ludden 2002, p. 133
^ Rajit K. Mazumder, The Indian Army and the Making of the Punjab.
(Delhi, Permanent Black, 2003), 7-8.
^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, p. 61
^ a b Brown 1994, p. 88
^ Metcalf 1990, p. 48
^ Bandyopadhyay 2004, p. 171, Bose & Jalal 2003, p. 90
^ a b Essential histories, The Indian Mutiny 1857-1858, Gregory
Fremont-Barnes, Osprey 2007, page25
^ Victorian Web 1857 Indian Rebellion
^ Hibbert 1980, p. 63
^ David 2003, p. 53
^ David 2003, p. 54
^ Bandyopadhyay 2004, p. 172, Bose & Jalal 2003, p. 91, Brown 1994, p.
92
^ Bandyopadhyay 2004, p. 172
^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, p. 102
^ Bose & Jalal 2003, p. 91, Metcalf 1991, Bandyopadhyay 2004, p. 173
^ Brown 1994, p. 92
^ Susanne Hoeber Rudolph, Lloyd I Rudolph. "Living with Difference in
India", The Political Quarterly:71 (s1) (2000), 20–38. doi:
10.1111/1467-923X.71.s1.4
^ Pionke, Albert D. (2004). Plots of opportunity: representing
conspiracy in Victorian England. Columbus: Ohio State University
Press. pp. 82. ISBN 0-8142-0948-3.
^ Rudolph, L.I.; Rudolph, S.H. (1997). "Occidentalism and Orientalism:
Perspectives on Legal Pluralism". Cultures of Scholarship.
^ a b Embree, Ainslee in Helmstadter, Richard J.; Webb, R. K.; Davis,
Richard (eds.) (1992). Religion and irreligion in Victorian society:
essays in honor of R. K. Webb. New York: Routledge. pp. 152. ISBN
0-415-07625-0.
^ Gregory Fremont-Barnes. The Indian Mutiny 1857-58 (Essential
Histories). Reading: Osprey Publishing. pp. 9. ISBN 1-84603-209-1.
^ a b Bayly, C. A. (1996). Empire and information: intelligence
gathering and social communication in India, 1780-1870. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press. pp. 331. ISBN 0-521-66360-1.
^ Seema Alavi The Sepoys and the Company (Delhi: Oxford University
Press) 1998 p5
^ Hibbert 1980, pp. 51-54
^ Memorandum from Lieutenant-Colonel W. St. L. Mitchell (CO of the
19th BNI) to Major A. H. Ross about his troop's refusal to accept the
Enfield cartridges, 27 February 1857, Archives of Project South Asia,
South Dakota State University and Missouri Southern State University
^ a b "The Indian Mutiny of 1857", Col. G. B. Malleson, reprint 2005,
Rupa & Co. Publishers, New Delhi
^ Hibbert 1980, pp. 73-75
^ a b David 2003, p. 93
^ Hibbert 1980, pp. 80-85
^ Sir John Kaye & G.B. Malleson.: The Indian Mutiny of 1857, (Delhi:
Rupa & Co.) reprint 2005 p49
^ Hibbert 1980, pp. 98-101
^ Hibbert 1980, pp. 93-95
^ Dalrymple, The Last Moghul, pp.223-224
^ Hibbert 1980, pp. 152-163
^ Michael Edwardes, Battles of the Indian Mutiny, pp 52-53
^ Indian mutiny was 'war of religion' - BBC
^ The Story of the Storm — 1857
^ Zachary Nunn. The British Raj
^ Harris 2001, p. 57
^ Harris 2001
^ A.H. Amin, Pakistan Army Defence Journal
^ A.H. Amin, Orbat.com
^ Lessons from 1857
^ The Indian Army: 1765 - 1914
^ David 2003, p. 19
^ The Indin Mutiny 1857-58, Gregory Fremont-Barnes, Osprey 2007, page
34
^ Qizilbash, Basharat Hussain (30 June 2006) The tragicomic hero The
Nation. Nawai-e-Waqt Group.
^ God's Acre. The Hindu Metro Plus Delhi. October 28, 2006.
^ 'The Rising: The Ballad of Mangal Pandey'. Daily Mail, August 27,
2005
^ essential histories, the Indian Mutiny 1857-58, Gregory Fremont-
Barnes, Osprey 2007, page 40
^ Dalrymple 2006, p. 400
^ The story of Cawnpore: The Indian Mutiny 1857, Capt. Mowbray
Thomson, Brighton, Tom Donovan, 1859, pp. 148-159.
^ Essential Histories, the Indian Mutiny 1857-58, Gregory Fremont-
Barnes, Osprey 2007, page 49
^ a b S&T magazine No. 121 (September 1998), page 56
^ a b c Hibbert 1980, p. 191
^ a b A History of the Indian Mutiny by G. W. Forrest, London, William
Blackwood, 1904
^ Kaye's and Malleson's History of the Indian Mutiny. Longman's,
London, 1896. Footnote, p. 257.
^ Edwardes, Battles of the Indian Mutiny, p.56
^ David 2003, p. 250
^ Harris 2001, p. 92
^ Harris 2001, p. 95
^ Essential Histories, the Indian Mutiny 1857-58, Gregory Fremont-
Barnes, Osprey 2007, page 53
^ S&T magazine No. 121 (September 1998), page 58
^ John Harris, The Indian mutiny, Wordsworth military library 2001,
page 92,
^ J.W. Sherer, Daily Life during the Indian Mutiny, 1858, p. 56
^ a b Andrew Ward, Our bones are scattered - The Cawnpore massacres
and the Indian Mutiny of 1857, John Murray, 1996
^ Ramson, Martin & Ramson, Edward, The Indian Empire, 1858
^ Michael Edwardes, Battles of the Indian Mutiny, Pan, 1963 ISBN
330-02524-4
^ Units of the Army of the Madras Presidency wore blue rather than
black shakoes or forage caps
^ Raugh, Harold E. (2004). The Victorians at War, 1815-1914: An
Encyclopedia of British Military. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 89. ISBN
978-1576079256. OCLC 54778450.
^ Hibbert 1980, p. 358,428
^ Essential Histories, the Indian Mutiny 1857-58, Gregory Fremont-
Barnes, Osprey 2007, page 79
^ Lachmi Bai Rani of Jhansi, the Jeanne d'Arc of India (1901), White,
Michael (Michael Alfred Edwin), 1866, New York: J.F. Taylor & Company,
1901
^ Biographies
^ [1]
^ Memoirs of Charles John Griffiths
^ Charles Allen, Soldier Sahibs, p.276
^ Charles Allen, Soldier Sahibs, p.283
^ Charles Allen, Soldier Sahibs, pp. 290-293
^ WHO'S WHO of INDIAN MARTYRS, Volume Three. Department of Culture.
Ministry of Education and Social welfare. Government of India, New
Delhi. The National Printing Works, Darya Ganj, Delhi, India
^ [2]
^ [3] [4]
^ Sahib: The British Soldier in India 1750-1914 Richard Holmes
HarperCollins 2005
^ a b Herbert, C. (2008). War of No Pity: The Indian Mutiny and
Victorian Trauma. Princeton University Press.
^ Dalrymple 2006
^ [5]
^ Chakravarty, G. (2004). The Indian Mutiny and the British
Imagination. Cambridge University Press.
^ Judd, D. (2005). The Lion and the Tiger: The Rise and Fall of the
British Raj, 1600-1947. Oxford University Press.
^ Derek Hudson. Martin Tupper: His Rise and Fall, Constable, 1972.
^ a b Brantlinger, Patrick (1990). Rule of darkness: British
literature and imperialism, 1830-1914. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell
University Press. ISBN 0-8014-9767-1.
^ "Wrath of the British Lion", The New York Times: 4, 9 September
1857, http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9C00EFDA163CEE34BC4153DFBF66838C649FDE
^ Hyam, R (2002) Britain’s Imperial Century, 1815-1914 Third Edition,
Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke. P155
^ Beckman, Karen Redrobe (2003), Vanishing Women: Magic, Film, and
Feminism, Duke University Press, pp. 33–4, ISBN 0822330741
^ David 2003, p. 220-222
^ Rajit K. Mazumder, The Indian Army and the Making of the Punjab.
(Delhi, Permanent Black, 2003), 11.
^ Bickers, Robert A.; R. G. Tiedemann (2007). The Boxers, China, and
the World. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 231(at p 63). ISBN
978-0742553958.
^ First Indian War of Independence January 8, 1998
^ A number of dispossessed dynasts, both Hindu and Muslim, exploited
the well-founded caste-suspicions of the sepoys and made these simple
folk their cat's paw in gamble for recovering their thrones. The last
scions of the Delhi Mughals or the Oudh Nawabs and the Peshwa, can by
no ingenuity be called fighters for Indian freedom Hindusthan
Standard, Puja Annual, 195 p. 22 referenced in the Truth about the
Indian mutiny article by Dr Ganda Singh
^ In the light of the available evidence, we are forced to the
conclusion that the uprising of 1857 was not the result of careful
planning, nor were there any master-minds behind it. As I read about
the events of 1857, I am forced to the conclusion that the Indian
national character had sunk very low. The leaders of the revolt could
never agree. They were mutually jealous and continually intrigued
against one another. ... In fact these personal jealousies and
intrigues were largely responsible for the Indian defeat.Maulana Abul
Kalam Azad, Surendranath Sen: Eighteen Fifty-seven (Appx. X & Appx.
XV)
^ >Hasan 1998, p. 149
^ Nanda 1965, p. 701
^ Address at the Function marking the 150th Anniversary of the Revolt
of 1857
^ India's First War of Independence 1857
^ Le Monde article on the revolt
^ German National Geographic article
^ The Empire, Sydney, Australia, 11 July 1857
^ Taranaki Herald, New Zealand, 29 August 1857
^ The Indian Mutiny and Victorian Trauma by Christopher Herbert,
Princeton University Press, Princeton 2007
^ The History of the Indian Mutiny: Giving a detailed account of the
sepoy insurrection in India by Charles Ball, The London Printing and
Publishing Company, London, 1860
^ V.D. Savarkar argues that the rebellion was a war of Indian
independence. The Indian War of Independence: 1857 (Bombay: 1947
[1909]). Most historians have seen his arguments as discredited, with
one venturing so far as to say, 'It was neither first, nor national,
nor a war of independence.' Eric Stokes has argued that the rebellion
was actually a variety of movements, not one movement. The Peasant
Armed (Oxford: 1980). See also S.B. Chaudhuri, Civil Rebellion in the
Indian Mutinies 1857-1859" (Calcutta: 1957)
^ The Indian Mutiny, Spilsbury Julian, Orion, 2007
^ S&T magazine issue 121 (September 1988), page 20
^ The communal hatred led to ugly communal riots in many parts of U.P.
The green flag was hoisted and Muslims in Bareilly, Bijnor, Moradabad,
and other places the Muslims shouted for the revival of Muslim
kingdom." R.C. Majumdar: Sepoy Mutiny and Revolt of 1857 (page
2303-31)
^ Sitaram Yechury. The Empire Strikes Back. Hindustan Times. January
2006.
^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7009742.stm UK Indian Mutiny
ceremony blocked
^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7014281.stm Briton visits
India Mutiny grave
[edit] See also
Category:Places of Indian Rebellion of 1857
Vellore Mutiny
Titumir
British Raj
John Paton (VC)
History of South Asia
List of revolutions and rebellions
Timeline of the Indian Rebellion of 1857
East India Company
Indian Mutiny Medal

References

Text-books and academic monographs